Top PDF Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to laying chickens

Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to laying chickens

Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to laying chickens

The method of feeding laying chickens to increase egg production and/or reduce yolk cholesterol, comprising admixing alpha-ketoisocaproate KIC with the protein-containing feed ration for[r]

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Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to cattle and sheep

Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to cattle and sheep

The method of feeding domestic animals to increase the rate of weight gain for animals being fed for meat production or to increase the amount of wool for sheep being raised for wool pro[r]

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Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to lactating domestic mammals

Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to lactating domestic mammals

Lactating domestic mammals are fed ketoisocaproate (KIC) with a diet containing limited leucine to improve the quantity and quality of the milk produced. This feeding method is particularly applicable to dairy cattle but also can advantageously be used with nursing domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and swine.

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Research Article Metformin Prevents Follicular Atresia in Aging Laying Chickens through Activation of PI3K/AKT and Calcium Signaling Pathways

Research Article Metformin Prevents Follicular Atresia in Aging Laying Chickens through Activation of PI3K/AKT and Calcium Signaling Pathways

anti-GRP78 (1 : 1000, sc-376768), anti-CHOP (1 : 1000, sc- 390960), anti-CAMK II (1 : 500, sc-376828), anti-occludin (1 : 200, sc-133256, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., Santa Cruz, USA), anti-ER-α (1 : 1000, NB300-560, Novus Biologicals, USA), anti-BAX (1 : 200, EM1203) or GRP75 (1 : 1000, M1603-1), rabbit anti-PPAR gamma (1 : 1000, ET170257), anti-caspase3 (1 : 1000, ET1602-39), anti-Akt1/2/3 (1 : 1000, ET1609-51), anti-phospho-Akt (1 : 1000, ET1607-03), anti- GSK3 beta (1 : 1000, ET1607-71), anti-phospho-GSK3 beta (1 : 1000, ET 1607-60, HuaBio, Hangzhou, China), and mouse anti-VLDLR (1 : 1000, MAB2258, Novus Biologicals, USA), followed by incubation with the horseradish peroxidase- conjugated goat anti-rabbit or anti-mouse secondary antibod- ies (sc-2004 or sc-2005, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., Santa Cruz, USA) for 1 h at room temperature. β-Actin (recog- nized by mouse anti-β-actin, 1 : 1000, R1207-1, HuaBio, Hangzhou, China) was used as the internal control. For pro- tein quanti fi cation, images were quanti fi ed and analyzed using the ImageJ software; for the grey analysis of proteins, the normalization method was used, and the control group is specified as “1.”
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LAYING A FOUNDATION FOR THE FUTURE

LAYING A FOUNDATION FOR THE FUTURE

We’re proud to present the third annual ComEd Progress Report, Delivering on the Smart Grid Promise: Laying a Foundation for the Future. It outlines our on-time, ahead-of-schedule efforts to modernize the grid, as well as the resulting benefits to our customers and our economy— while also highlighting our work to build upon the Smart Grid foundation to create the clean- energy future we all want.

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Performance and changes in body composition of broiler chickens depending on feeding regime and sex Czech J. Anim. Sci., 63, 518–525

Performance and changes in body composition of broiler chickens depending on feeding regime and sex Czech J. Anim. Sci., 63, 518–525

The weight of internal organs (Table 3) was not affected by the interaction of sex, group, and age. The heart weight was significantly higher in males, and in both sexes, it increased with age (P ≤ 0.001). Regarding the feeding regime, a significant effect was observed at the end of feed restriction (at 14 days of age), the heart weight was higher in restricted males, but there was no effect on the heart weight of females. A higher intensity of feed restriction in males increased the heart weight as compared to ADL chickens (+2.5 and +5% in the R1 and R2 groups, respectively). A higher heart weight at the end of feed restriction was considered to be explained by the results of a study in sheep con- ducted by Santos et al. (2018), in which the greater weight of the heart in restricted lambs could have been caused by an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism caused by the lack of nutrients during early life. Similarly, different effects of feed restric- tion and its intensity in males and females on heart weight occurred at the end of the fattening period. In restricted males, the heart weight was higher (+8 and +3%), but in R1 group females, with a lower intensity of feed restriction, the measurement was lower by –6%, while in R2 group females, the meas- urement was higher by +12%. Mohammadalipour et al. (2017) suggested that the higher heart mass of restricted chickens increased oxygen supply for a higher metabolic rate, which was assumed to be the case of males. In Table 3, gizzard weight was lower (P ≤ 0.001) in restricted chickens, which is in accord with Wang et al. (2017), who observed a lower gizzard proportion in protein-restricted ducks. The lower gizzard weight of restricted chickens might decrease the FI of these groups; therefore, it
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Plasma corticosterone concentration in laying hens (Gallus Domesticus) during the laying period

Plasma corticosterone concentration in laying hens (Gallus Domesticus) during the laying period

The aim of this work was to study corticosterone concentration in the plasma of laying hens (gallus domesticus) during the laying period. The experiment included 12 ISA Brown laying hens, which were caged in enriched cage system according to EU directive 1999/74. They were fed by complete diet for laying hens. Blood samples were taken between 15th and 75th week of age. Mean corticosterone concentration during the whole period was 2,86 ± 0,086 nmol.l -1 and ranged from 1,76 ± 0,135 to 3,98 ±

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Myopathy of slaughter chickens

Myopathy of slaughter chickens

Electric conductivity values and pH values were measuring during 60 till 330 minutes post mortem in breast muscles. Aproximately 9 millions chicken was annually slaughtered and 13 thousands of them was confiscated out of the slaughter line by reason of myopathy. It amounts to 0.14 per cent of annually count of processed chickens. Myopatical chickens had significantly higher muscle pH values as com- pared with healthy ones. Healthy chicken muscles decreased on ultimative pH values aproximately past 3 hours post mortem. It means pH 6.03, and after 300 minutes decreased to pH 5.82. However, myopa- tical chickens values varied from pH 6.46 to pH 6.30.
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Evaluation the effect of feeding method (dry-wet) on Japanese quail performance

Evaluation the effect of feeding method (dry-wet) on Japanese quail performance

Than that of birds fed on the dry diets. The FCR of birds that were receiving wet diets had been significantly decreased compared to the dry diets during the 0-21 and 0-35-day periods. According to our results, Yasar and Forbes (1999), concluded that the effect of wet feeding based on wheat, has been considerably significant on feed intake and final live weight gain of broiler chicks. Scott (2002) suggested that adding water to the diet before feeding the hydrated diet allowed digestion to begin immediately and the bird to eat more and grow more quickly. This and previous studies (Scott, 2002; Afsharmanesh et al., 2006) indicated that wet feeding wheat-based diets increases growth rateof broilers. These studies indicate that broilers cannot eat enough dry feed to attain their genetic potential for growth. One aim of the current study was to determine if variation in the feed intake of dry wheat-based diets could be related to differences in the time it takes for the diets to absorb water and be digested in the gut. Scott (2002) suggested that adding water to the diet before feeding the hydrated diet allowed digestion to begin immediately and the bird to eat more and grow more quickly.
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Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period

Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period

A direct action of estrogen on shell gland function in adult laying hens has not yet been demonstrated. Age re- lated eggshell thinning has been associated with de- creases in shell gland ERα [22] or possibly an imbalance between the two receptors. Both ERs were localized in the shell gland in the present experiment, with some dif- ferences between hybrids and how they reacted to the estrogen treatment. In both hybrids nuclear ERα was prominent in tubular gland cells, while the surface epithelium was negative except for slight granular cyto- solic staining. ERβ, on the other hand, was intensely expressed in nuclei of surface epithelial cells and in tubular glands, both nuclear and cytosolic staining for ERβ was found of equal intensity in both hybrids. Espe- cially cytosolic ERβ was more prominent in the shell gland surface epithelium of the brown hybrids, which also produced eggs with the largest improvement in shell quality after estrogen treatment. In addition, estrogen treatment decreased ERα in the white but not the brown hybrids. According to a recent review of physiological actions mediated via ERs in various tissues, the ratio of ERα and β within a cell may well determine its sensitiv- ity to estrogens and consequently the biological response to the hormone [23]. An altered balance between the two receptors may therefore explain the different re- sponse after estrogen treatment seen in this study.
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Comparative Study of Feeding Aloe Vera, Amla and Antibiotic (Amoxicillin) On Live Weight, Fcr and Economics of Cobb-500 Broiler Chickens

Comparative Study of Feeding Aloe Vera, Amla and Antibiotic (Amoxicillin) On Live Weight, Fcr and Economics of Cobb-500 Broiler Chickens

An experiment was conducted at Tulsipur, Dang from August to October with the main objective to determine cumulative final live weight and FCR including the economics of broiler chickens. Diets were iso-caloric and iso-proteinous and adequately supplemented with required vitamins and minerals. All birds were supplemented with the added proportion of Aloe vera, Amla and Antibiotics. A total of 200 Cobb-500 broiler chicks of similar body weight were procured from Chitwan and divided into four treatments (50 birds/treatment). There were a total of four treatments,eachreplicated five times. All twenty experimental units were distributed with 10 birds per unit by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments were; Basal diet only (T1); Basal diet + 0.1% AloeVera juice (T2); Basal diet + 0.1% Amla juice (T3); and Basal diet + 0.05% Amoxicillin for 13 days (T4). Average cumulative weekly live weight, feed efficiency (FCR) and economics broiler were observed, recorded and analyzed. The results showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect of supplementation of Aloe vera, Amla and Antibiotic to average cumulative weekly live weight. However, the higher tendency of live weight (2495.42±54.94 g) was recorded in broiler fed with basal diet + 0.1% Aloe Vera juice (T2).Effects of Aloe vera, Amla and Antibiotic (Amoxicillin) didn’t have a
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Effect of feeding various probiotics on performance, blood properties, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition of laying hens

Effect of feeding various probiotics on performance, blood properties, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition of laying hens

application may depend on factors such as microbial species composition (e.g., single or multi-strain), livability, supplemental administration dose, method and frequency of application, diet composition, bird age, and environmental stress factors. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different kinds of probiotics on the performance, blood properties, and egg quality and yolk fatty acid composition of laying hens.

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Safety of fluralaner oral solution, a novel systemic antiparasitic treatment for chickens, in laying hens after oral administration via drinking water

Safety of fluralaner oral solution, a novel systemic antiparasitic treatment for chickens, in laying hens after oral administration via drinking water

Laying hens were enrolled in the study at 24 weeks of age (start of acclimation) and were confirmed as healthy based on clinical health observations, egg laying record and body weight record. Hens were housed in climate monitored rooms (12–24 °C) with a day length of 16 h light and 8 h darkness suitable for egg production. Hens were fed a standard commercial diet meeting the recom- mendations of the National Research Council [8] at rec- ommended rates, and had access to drinking water ad libitum. Hens were housed in individual pens from day -21/-22 to the end of the study. No treatment other than the experimental one was administered to hens during the entire study.
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Method and means for quasi ad libitum feeding for gestation sows in loose housing

Method and means for quasi ad libitum feeding for gestation sows in loose housing

A gestation sow feeding system has a sow bedding enclosure, a gated scale weighing station, an alley connecting the scale weighing station with two separate feeding pens having entry and exist gates, and a bypass gate connecting the alley and the bedding enclosure. The traffic of sows through the system is monitored and controlled by a computer which controls the gates of the system, measures the weight and average daily gain of each sow weighed, and directs the weighed sow to the feeding pen for a ration of feed to permit the sow to adjust to a targeted average daily weight stored in the computer.
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Effect of Feeding Oak Acorn on Expression of IL-2, IL-13 and IFN-γ Genes in Bursa Fabricius Tissue of Broiler Chickens (Short Communication)

Effect of Feeding Oak Acorn on Expression of IL-2, IL-13 and IFN-γ Genes in Bursa Fabricius Tissue of Broiler Chickens (Short Communication)

Nowadays, it is clear that there is apparent relationship between components of diet and functions of immune system (Ramiro et al., 2005). In the current researches on this topic, the major focus is to modulate the immune system of healthy people by nutrition to improve general health. For example, there are some reports that adding certain nutrients, especially those have antioxidant properties, may lead to improve immune function (Kelly and Bendich, 1996; Meydani et al., 1998). Considering the antioxidant effects of tannins, it can be expected that oak acorn can affect the immune system of broiler chickens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of oak acorn on expression of IL-2, IL-13 and IFN- genes in bursa Fabricius tissue of broiler chickens.
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The Ethics of Laying Hen Genetics

The Ethics of Laying Hen Genetics

Despite societal concerns about the welfare of commercial laying hens, little atten- tion has been paid to the welfare implications of the choices made by the genetics companies involved with their breeding. These choices regarding trait selection and other aspects of breeding significantly affect living conditions for the more than 7 billion laying hens in the world. However, these companies must consider a number of different commercial and societal interests, beyond animal welfare concerns. In this article we map some of the relevant dilemmas faced by genetics companies in order to outline the scope of opportunities to improve welfare under current market conditions. This includes identifying cases where different animal welfare concerns conflict. We discuss the moral responsibility of laying hen genetics companies and the welfare implications that derive from the choices they make and the policies they follow. In addition to evaluating a selection of predominant current practices and breeding goals, we outline different angles from where to assess the moral legitimacy of various industry practices and policies. We discuss specific issues such as injuri- ous pecking, bone health, induced moulting, chick culling and the circumstances of breeding stock.
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Laying Down the Law to Robots

Laying Down the Law to Robots

The Random House Dictionary defines a robot as "a machine that resembles a human and does mechanical, routine tasks on com- mand." 1 It is questionable how fa[r]

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Laying hens for soil fertilization

Laying hens for soil fertilization

Material from killed, chopped hens is very rich in nutrients. Such material is degraded in soil over time, and mechanical treatment of the soil seems to increase the rate of decomposition. Soil seems to be an effective agent to reduce odors from chopped hens during putrefaction. Further studies in larger scale are required. The current disposal of 3.5 millions of laying hens annually is a big waste of resources, and initiates significant costs for the farmers. If each hen costs about 7 NOK in destruction costs and transport, about 20 million NOK could be used annually to support farmers in developing a system for converting the hens into a valuable fertilizer product, possibly combined with soil sludge from potato package plants or other available sources of soil, e.g. derived from maintenance of drainage systems.
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Protective Effects of Bacillus sp. MBIA2.40 and Gallipro on Growth Performance, Immune Status, Gut Morphology and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chickens Feeding by Aflatoxin B1

Protective Effects of Bacillus sp. MBIA2.40 and Gallipro on Growth Performance, Immune Status, Gut Morphology and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chickens Feeding by Aflatoxin B1

lab screened probiotic bacteria Bacillus sp. MBIA2.40 (92.98% identification) from gut broilers which exhibited antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Salmonella entritidis, provided resistance to the simulated gut condition, produced strong biofilm, showed properties of hydrophobicity, aggregation and coaggregation and produced extracellular enzymes digestive. In addition, it had a strong ability to detoxify AFB1 (up to 75%) rather than Galiipro (up to 34%) in vitro condition (Data are not published). Current research was conducted to evaluating the ability of bacillus sp. MBIA2.40 and Galiipro on performance, immune status ability, gut morphology and biochemical chemistry in diets contaminated with AFB1 in broiler chickens.
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Nitrogen sparing induced by leucine compared with that induced by its keto analogue, alpha ketoisocaproate, in fasting obese man

Nitrogen sparing induced by leucine compared with that induced by its keto analogue, alpha ketoisocaproate, in fasting obese man

We measured the effects of seven consecutive daily infusions of alpha-ketoisocaproate (the alpha-keto analogue of leucine) or leucine itself on urinary urea and total nitrogen excretion during fasting. Two study protocols were undertaken. In protocol I, subjects underwent three separate 14-d fasts: one during which 34 mmol/d of leucine were infused on days 1--7; a second during which 34 mmol/d of alpha-ketoisocaproate were infused on days 1--7; and a third control fast during which no infusions were given. Infusions of alpha-ketoisocaproate significantly reduced daily urine urea nitrogen excretion compared with both the control fasts and the fasts in which leucine was infused (P less than 0.001). This nitrogen-sparing effect of alpha-ketoisocaproate persisted during days 8--14 even though no further infusions were given. Daily urinary urea nitrogen excretion during fasts when leucine was
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