Consequently, the inhibition of the anaerobic digestion may be explained by an additional potential toxic effect of dissolved oxygen in the influent, exceeding tolerance limits of methanogens. In contrast, the aerobic digestion of the influent was as expected, with high efficiencies of almost 99% considering soluble total COD, without accumulation of TSS and VS in the aerobic sludge, leading to the conclusion that the TSS were not accumulated in the reactor. Hydrolysis of TSS is highly improved with oxygen supply in the reactor. The combination of all our results, could lead to the conclusion that oxygen has an important impact in biogas generation which can either be positive or negative based on several parameters, including the appropriate redox potential for the acclimatized microbial population, TSS hydrolysis rate, biomass concentration in the sludge, hydraulic retention time and the organic loading rate.
The test of desulfurization in biogas was conducted in a hog farm with feeding 700 pigs. Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion processes of the three-stage waste-water of pig’s manure. The energy source of lamp using biogas-combustion was used to keep warm of weaned pigs. A desulfurization equipment of water scrubbing with a transparent acrylic cylinder column (diameter as 0.248 m and height as 1.2 m) was designed to observe the situation of desulfurization in biogas. The water were transported into transparent acrylic cylinder column at the upper inlet, the water level could be measured. The water drained away at the bottom outlet and accom- plished circulating water system. The aeration plate was placed in the bottom of the column and the biogas will be pressurized into the column as small bubbles to sufficient contact with water to remove the hydrogen sulfide in biogas by positive way with pressure machine. The biogas flow rate could be measured by flow meter before biogas into the aeration plate.
Research Centre, there are two canteens, and both having their own individual mess, where daily a large amount of kitchen waste is obtained which can be utilized for better purposes. Biogas production requires anaerobic digestion. This project is to create an Organic Processing Facility to create biogas which will be more cost effective, eco-friendly, cut down on landfill waste, generate a high quality renewable fuel, and reduce carbon dioxide and methane emissions. Overall by creating a biogas reactor on campus in the backyard of canteens will be beneficial. Kitchen (food) waste will be collected from two canteens of NCERC as feedstock for the reactor which works as anaerobic digester system to produce biogas energy. The anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste produces biogas, a valuable energy resource. Anaerobic digestion is a microbial process for production of biogas, which consists of primarily methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).
The purpose of this paper is to study the operation of a porous diffuser in an installation for experimental researches on water aeration. The porous diffuser has an elastic membrane of Etilen-Propilen-Dien-Monmer (E.P.D.M) with orifices with Ø <1 mm.
Effluents from 4 STPs and bench scale UASB reactors were aerated using sintered disc in batch reactors. Description of samples and STPs location are shown in Table 1a. Table 1b gives details of synthetic wastewater used in a 56 L UASBR housed in a temperature controlled chamber maintained at 30±2 o C. The bench scale reactor charged with the sludge from 38 ML/d STP at Saharanpur was operated to get the effluent under controlled conditions. During first 30 days of study, the reactor was fed with sucrose based soluble synthetic wastewater (SW1). HRT was reduced stepwise from 12 hour to 6 hour. Later the reactor was fed with the sucrose based synthetic wastewater mixed with cellulose (SW2). Effluents from UASBR treating SW1 and SW2 were also aerated and analyzed in a manner similar to effluents from UASB units of STPs. Schematic presentation of batch reactor is shown in Fig.1. Air at a rate of 0.75 L/min was diffused through 0.5 L of effluent contained in a 1L reactor for 2 h. Experiments were conducted at room temperature (15-22 o C). After every 5 min ORP and pH were recorded. Samples were drawn at regular intervals and analyzed for COD, TOC, BOD and NH3 as per Standard Method (APHA, 1995). ORP was measured by Toshicon ORP meter. The electrode was standardized daily by Zobell’s solution and the reading was converted to standard hydrogen electrode. TOC concentration was determined with a total organic carbon analyzer (Shimadzu TOC-5000A). DO was analyzed with Aqualytic OX 24 DO meter. Measurements were done in duplicate or triplicate. Data is presented as the average value or the range of observations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Throughout this project, there are several aspects and factor that need to be considered. First of all is to design a suitable aeration system included the blower, automatic switch which suitable on decreasing biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and increasing the dissolve oxygen. However, some precaution need to be done on the model so that it is durable and not having any pressure loss in order to provide the oxygenation need for Tasik UTeM
Measurement of fluorescence emission intensity For toxin dose–response measurements using JC-1 and TMRM fluorescence emission intensity, erythrocytes that were pre-loaded with dye and had already been exposed to the toxin of interest were placed in a multi-well chamber having a #1 glass coverslip bottom (this chamber was custom- manufactured, but suitable plates are also available from Greiner Bio-One, Inc., Longwood, FL, USA). The chamber was then placed on the stage of an inverted, reflected fluorescence microscope (Olympus IX-70) and the erythrocytes were excited with light from a 100·W mercury bulb that had passed through a 90% or 99% neutral density filter (Thorlabs, Inc., Newton, NJ, USA) and a 484/15·nm (JC-1) or 555/15·nm (TMRM) excitation filter (Chroma Technology Corp, Rockingham, VT, USA). The excitation filters were positioned and shuttered using a computer- controlled filter wheel (TOFRA Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA). Emitted light from the erythrocytes was filtered with a triple bandpass polychroic filter set (DAPI/FITC/TRITC; Chroma Technology Corp.) mounted in the standard microscope filter carousel. For quantitation of emission intensity, light from the microscope side-port was passed through a collimating lens (Thorlabs, Inc.) coupled with an SMA connector (ThorLabs, Inc.) to a 600· m diameter fiber optic cable, and then to a linear diode-array fluorometer (SF2000, Ocean Optics Inc., Dunedin, FL, USA). Each excitation typically lasted 1·s or less. JC-1 fluorescence was quantified ratiometrically by simultaneously measuring emission intensity at 590/20·nm and 530/20·nm (i.e. red:green emission ratio), whereas TMRM fluorescence emission was measured only at 590/20·nm (i.e. red emission intensity). All fluorescence measurements were performed at 18–20°C. Digital images were acquired with a monochrome, cooled CCD camera equipped with a color LCD filter system (Retiga 2000R, QImaging Corp., Burnaby, BC, Canada).
The results showed that all three ionic liquids were chosen correctly, because all of them are suitable for H 2 S removalfrom crude oil. The investigation of chemical and physical properties of ionic liquids that all results were presented in our previous work, were indicated that some properties such as high thermal stability, pH, solubility, and wide electrochemical windows, defined them as a suitable scavenger to H 2 S removal. Using ionic liquids in the limited situation, and at low concentrations of H 2 S, is effective for crude oil sweetening. In comparison between commercial scavengers and ionic liquids and according to the obtained results from dynamic method and design of experiments, it is found by us that ILs is more effective than commercial scavengers because the volume consumption of ILs is less than the scavengers. Also, ILs could reduce H 2 S concentration to less than 1 ppm. In design of experiments, three parameters (dosage, time and temperature) were investigated which all of them are effective in H 2 S removal, and time is the most effective parameter. In addition, the results of dynamic method and design of experiment show that [EMIM][NTf 2 ] has better performance; in addition, the lower dosage of it has been spent.
However, the application of these strategies may be not effective under microaerobic conditions, because ordi- nary probes are not accurate at low dissolved oxygen ten- sion . Under oxygen-limited conditions, DOC < 1.5% , the control strategies previously mentioned may become unstable. Nevertheless, micro-aerobic condi- tions are required to produce many biotechnological products, including vaccines used against H. influenzae, S. pnemoniae, and N. meningitidis [7–9], and bioethanol production by S. cerevisiae , by E. coli , and by P. stipitis . The production of advanced biofuels and bio-based chemical intermediates, including n-butanol , 2,3-butanediol  and acetone , important in the context of the emerging low carbon economy also relies on micro-aerobic cultivations. Bio-based processes can be used to convert agricultural residues’ biomass into industrially valuable products such as lactic acid  and bioethanol , serving as alternative routes to petro- chemical products. Thus, the need for updated, robust, and low-cost control strategies for microaerobic fermen- tations in industrial bioreactors is likely to increase soon.
The demand for electric power production and use the others energetic to heating and air-conditioning are sources of high consumption in agricultural zones of any country. These services are essential to the operation of any kind of activity. In the agricultural sector large amounts of organic waste is generated, which in many cases represent a health problem and the accumulation of waste. All organic wastes undergo a process of decomposition, which can be from a few days to a few months; it depends on the type of organic substance. In the case of cow manure, this process can take up to a year. A pollutant gas is produced by the decomposition the cow manure, and is primarily a mixture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and
Recently, studies on using environmental materials, which widely exist in nature, as adsorbents to remove pollutants from water have drawn great attention. Among these studies, progress has been made in applying manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) as environmental materials [5,6]. The natural forms of MnO 2 include δ-MnO 2 , γ-MnO 2 , etc, and the properties of different forms of MnO 2 are also different. Researches on using MnO 2 for removing pollutants from water have mainly focused on oxidation and adsorption. Stone reported the redox reaction between a small molecular organic compound and MnO 2 . The organic compound was adsorbed on the surface of MnO 2 to form a complex, and the chemical reaction process on the surface of MnO 2 was the rate-controlling step. Liu and Tang studied the effect of mineral MnO 2 on the removal of a dye (F 3 B) . Their results showed that both illumination and a low pH could promote the degradation of the dye. Other researchers have also publicized the synergistic effect of MnO 2 on the oxidation and adsorption for heavy metal ions in water, such as chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) [9,10].
Abstract: In India food waste produced as much as the whole of United Kingdom consumes, in an around 40% of food produced in India is wasted. According to the agriculture ministry, INR 50,000 Cr worth of food produced is wasted per year. Solid waste management is major issues in these areas and Present study is to convert this waste into useful burning gas. Kitchen waste is highly neglected area of the environment management in most developing countries. Kitchen waste produced largely weddings and banquets, Mess, Hotels etc. In our institute we have hostel mess with daily a large amount of kitchen waste is generated. In an around 200 liters waste produced per week, in that majorly Chapati, rice, meat, vegetable wastes. Organic processing facilities to create biogas which will be more cost effective and eco-friendly, cut down on landfill waste generated a high quality renewable fuel and reduce carbon dioxide &methane emission. The Biogas digester requires maintaining the alkalinity pH 7 to 8; in this digester of previous cow dung slurry is fed kept for 15 days, after generating biogas we feed cocked and grinded kitchen waste. Maximum enhancement of biogas maintains the digester temperature in-between range of 37 to 45 0 C. Generated biogas used as burning gas.
In our institute we have two hostels and all having their own individual mess, where daily a large amount of kitchen waste is obtained which can be utilized for better purposes. Biogas production requires anaerobic digestion. Project was to create an Organic Processing Facility to create biogas which will be more cost effective, eco-friendly, cut down on landfill waste, generate a high-quality renewable fuel, and reduce carbon dioxide & methane emissions. Overall by creating biogas reactors on campus in the backyard of our hostels will be beneficial. Kitchen (food waste) was collected as feedstock for our reactor which works as anaerobic digester system to produce biogas energy. The anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste produces biogas, a valuable energy resource. Anaerobic digestion is a microbial process for production of biogas, which consists of primarily methane (CH4) & carbon dioxide (CO2).
20 types of grab sample from Euphorbia tirucalli were collected randomly from Tachgayint. The matured shoot part of Euphorbia tirucalli was collected, chopped, grinding and stored in safe place. After mixing these grab samples and homogenized, a composite samples from the material was taken to laboratory for analysis. After that, the quantitative data obtained from experiment was measured using water displacement method in which the amount of tap water displaced was proportional to the volume of biogas produced. Finally, the average three replicate results of these samples were calculated and used for the statistical analysis.
During the growth cycle a portion of the macroalgae and the associated biota from the culture lines will be lost to the benthos either through erosion of the blade tips or shearing of cultured material creating an organic- ally enriched zone . In ‘fed’ aquaculture, that of fin- fish for example, where high energy feeds are supplied to the system, measurement of the extent of the zone of deposition is required  and has in turn led to the de- velopment of regulatory tools . Although the macro- algal cultures are not ‘fed’ i.e. artificially supplied with additional nutrients or fertilised, the extent and effect of the zone of organic enrichment should be described. In enclosed water bodies, there may be competition for dis- solved nutrients with phytoplankton but, in more open shelf systems, nutrient supply is likely to be sufficient pro- vided that farms are spatially arranged for optimal nutrient exchange. In any event, nutrients taken up by macroalgal culture, on the scale required for biofuel production, would be far less than that produced by agricultural, urban sources and fin-fish aquaculture. If macroalgae is subjected to the AD process then a proportion of the nitrogen may be lost through denitrification depending on the conditions in the reactor. Digestates are typically higher in ammonia and lower in organic nitrogen than ingestates . The digestate will most likely be used in fertilisers and so find its way back into the hydrological cycle.
The expected methane and carbon dioxide percentages within the biogas produced were simulated, obtained and discussed for each anaerobic pond for the wastewater treatment system at the Churchill Abattoir. Also, the effluent quality was analysed from the results and discussed. It was found that one of the most dependant parameters for the production and quality of the biogas was the temperature change in the middle of the year from March to July. This was seen through the decrease in the BOD removal rate of the effluent, which affected the production rate of the biogas. The other dependant parameter was that the Hydraulic Retention Time was too short for all ponds and the appropriate microbial activity was unable to reach its full potential until the wastewater had been in the system for at least 20 days. Since the ponds are configured in series to each other, after the 5.7 days that the wastewater remains in the first pond, it is then fed to the consecutive pond (i.e. Pond 2), and so on. This design enhances mixing of the activated wastewater which increases the production and quality of the biogas. This also validates why Pond 4 shows the finest results in the system.
The advances of anaerobic digestion (AD) technology have been supported by legislation. Most European countries are aiming to limit MSW disposal to landfills to no more than 5% of the collected material and have increased taxes on landfilling. This will ensure that waste is properly treated for combustibles and organics rather than being buried in the ground. The use of bioreactors with improved mixing and fouling is one way of achieving this. The 15% renewable energy utilization target as well as schemes such as "green pricing" in The Netherlands and some other European countries allow AD facilities to sell biogas for electricity generation at a premium. Similarly, in the United Kingdom, under the Non- Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) act, electricity is sold at a premium from AD system. Another factor that has triggered opting for energy recovery from waste is international agreements with respect to greenhouse gas emissions.
As the first step of this study, 10 L of wastewater were obtained from the municipal wastewater collection system of Fooladshahr, Iran. Collected wastewater was carried in a cool box to maintain the temperature at 4°C and was transferred to the chemistry laboratory of Jami Institute of Technology, Isfahan, Iran as soon as possible. Thereafter, the collected wastewater’s hydrogen sulfide and COD concentration were measured. Subsequently, 8 Erlenmeyer flasks, each containing 40 mL of collected wastewater, were prepared. Thereafter, certain amounts of the ferrate (VI) solution were added to each Erlenmeyer flask to prepare ferrate (VI) concentrations of 0.56, 0.7, 0.84, 0.98, 1.26, 1.4, 1.54 and 1.68 mg/L. Given that ferrate (VI) oxidizing ability is significantly increased for pH of less than 2, the pH of all solutions in the flasks was adjusted to 2 by the addition of a suitable amount of hydrochloric acid. After stirring for 30 minutes, the hydrogen sulfide and COD concentrations of all solutions in the Erlenmeyer flasks were determined. Finally, hydrogen sulfide and COD removal efficiencies were calculated using Eq. 1, as follows: