Created in 1994 at the hands of Rasmus Lerdorf, PHP began as a set of CGI scripts developed to track views of his resume online. Rasmus continued adding scripts to his collection so he could do more with his websites. Over time, some friends began to use it as well. By June of 1995, enough of a framework was in place that Rasmus decided to make PHP public. As others embraced it, and began to submit their own work, PHP grew. By version 3 it was decided that the time had come for a more professional name. In homage to its original name of Personal Home Page, the PHP acronym was kept, but was changed to a recursive representation of “hypertext preprocessor.” PHP was now an independent language, with object-oriented capabilities, high extensibility, and had a growing following. As the community grew, the core team of Rasmus, Andi Gutmans and Zeev Suraski continued their work. Gutmans and Suraski rewrote the core of the engine, and dubbed version 4 Zend, a blend of Gutmans and Suraski’s first names. Now with dozens of devel- opers and even more contributors, PHP has grown to version 5, and is installed on tens of millions of servers around the world. It continues to rank as one of the top ten webdevelopment languages.
Not only does your code have full access to all objects in the .NET Framework, but you can also exploit all the conventions of OOP (object-oriented programming) environment, such as encapsulation and inheritance. For example, you can create reusable classes, standardize code with interfaces and bundle useful functionality in a distributable, compiled component.
radio projects across nations, including India (Pavrala & Malik, 2007). Scholars, in recent times, are also drawn towards the emerging forms of citizens’ participation and alternative media that are based on new technology like Web 2.0 (Mudliar & Donner, 2015; Castels, 2011; Atton, 2002) and IVR (Interactive Voice Response) technology as in the case of India’s CGNet Swara (Mudliar & Donner, 2015). These studies and accounts panning across both the paradigms are however essentially media-centric and even as they are highly instructive, they emulate a trend akin to what scholars argue about growth of communication discipline in India as historically rooted in a ‘medium and sectoral’ development (Das, 2013). Taking a different trajectory, the current study looks at communication from a ritual perspective (Carrey, 1989) in India’s development sector, not restricted to just few communication or media projects but across initiatives in the third sector in general. The study examines how much space and priority is given to communication by the sector and the reasons thereof. This becomes all the more relevant given that development communication since the last six decades, and particularly Communication for Development (C4D) since the last one decade, has emerged as a rather well-developed area of scholarship globally, including India, and scholars persistently insist on the strategic use of communication in community development projects.
Although, early computer applications runs on mainframe computers, and application development were mainly on a low level languages accessed through a low technology terminal device. However, the popularity of computer applications started when the Personal Computers (PC) were invented. This technological advancement made computers more affordable and accessible. Also software developers started developing standalone applications that run locally on the PC. PC networking technology was subsequently discovered and client-server applications were created, which allowed PCs to remotely connect to servers and share information. Create a link between PC networking and the internet. With the constant decrease in prices of microcontroller; high speed of internet connectivity and increase user participation on Web platforms, the Web became a dominant platform for applications development.
education to become agents of development. Human capital is viewed as the collective wealth of knowledge, talents, training, skills, judgment and accumulated experiences for a population (Adewumi & Adu, 2012). In order to protect human capital, experts’ advice that it is better to stay current and follow with the trend. Also, it is necessary to acquire new skills concomitant on new technology. It is against the backdrop of these emerging global trends and Nigeria’s quest for urgent national development, that this paper seeks to examine the missinglink between the training given to the science and mathematics teachers and their inability and reluctance to utilize such acquired knowledge and skills in more financially rewarding ways than looking for white collar jobs as is the present practice. It is the opinion of these authors that the missinglink lies in the lack of entrepreneurship knowledge and skill of these teachers. Nwachukwu (2009) observed that so many graduates of the nation’s education system (SM teachers inclusive) are roaming the streets as unemployed and job seekers contrary to the aims and objectives of education in Nigeria as expressed in the National Policy on Education ( Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN, 2004). This is indicative of the gap between policy and practice in our schools.
Our data provide evidence that OCT and CHG are effective components for disinfection of MRSA biofilms in vitro and that exposure to MUP at the standard concentrations in topical preparations up to 2% does not effectively inhibit the metabolic activity of MRSA bio- films, even after the prolonged exposure of 3.5 h. The limited efficacy of MUP against the bacteria in biofilms has previously been described . The biofilm probably provides a physical barrier for MUP so that only insuffi- cient concentrations are reached in the bacteria them- selves. Therefore, biofilm formation could influence development of resistance since bacteria in biofilms sim- ply might have more time to adapt to low concentrations of MUP. However, further studies are needed to evaluate actual interactions of MUP with bacterial biofilms.
A programming language is a set of commands, instructions, and other syntax use to create a software program. Languages that programmers use to write code are called "high-level languages." This code can be compiled into a "low-level language," which is recognized directly by the computer hardware.
The tantalizing promise of cloud computing is carefree IT—honed to enterprise needs and quick to react to changing business circumstances. One of the key attributes of cloud computing is the usage model; customers consume resources as a service and pay only for what they use, rather than buying a license and annual maintenance. Regardless of whether the provider focuses on Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) or Software as a Service (SaaS), billing is the missinglink, yet it’s key to the provider’s ability to monetize cloud offerings.
3 - Between the years 1989 and 2000 Giulio Tononi and Gerald Edelman proposed the Dynamic Core and the Information Integration Theory. In a book - A Universe of consciousness, These authors proposed a theory which combined the independent views of Edelman and that of Tononi. Edelman earlier on had proposed that during brain development, experience and behavior fostered causes to have some groups of neurons dominate others. These stimulated the formation of groups among some distant neurons. These physiological conditions which involved, depending on sensory conditions, different groups of neurons in the brain, such as the thalamus and the cortex: these would be coordinated and thus form consciousness. Tononi on the other hand expanded on the field of information. He based his theory on the assumption that consciousness represented an integration of many fields of experiences and sets of mental states. Moreover, he suggested that a system which can experience, should be able to integrate information. Feelings of any form are reactions to sets of information. Thus consciousness can be quantified by quantifying the amount of information sets which are being integrated. For Tononi the key element of consciousness is information and its integration.
designed a timing attack to recover secret keys used for RSA decryption. In addition, Brumley and Boneh presented a timing attack on unprotected OpenSSL implementations and showed that such attack was practical, that is, an attacker could measure the response-time variances of a secure Web server and could derive that servers RSA private key . With a similar approach, since in diﬀerent steps of the RFID protocols, tags, and the server execute diﬀerent processes, if time taken to execute these steps diﬀers based on the input of tags’ state or responses, an attacker can attempt to mount a timing attack to distinguish the tags by analyzing the time variances corresponding to their input. So, with precise measurements of the time di ﬀ erence, an attacker can easily trace the tags and break the untraceability property of the protocol.
Note: The system’s programmed database is changed using Three Programming Sections with 99 two- digit MODE numbers per section. Each MODE number represents a changeable feature or function parameter. The Section and Mode numbers are referenced throughout the descriptions in this document (e.g. PROG.1-37 = Section 1, Mode 37) to allow quick access to programming information when required for clarity. Instructions for using Mode numbers to change the database are contained in the Series 500 Programming Guide.
Acknowledgements. We thank Barrie Clarke (Halifax) for samples from the Lake Lewis leucogranite, Nova Scotia, Canada and the late Vyacheslav Ivanovich Kovalenko (1936–2010) who promoted our work on the apogranites and related pegmatites in eastern Transbaikalia together with Elena Badanina from St. Petersburg. Thanks go es- pecially to Dieter Rhede and Oona Appelt from the GFZ Potsdam for the help with microprobe analyses over many years. For clarifying discussion about the Altenberg de- posit the authors thank Günter Weinhold (Freiberg). Otto Leeder (Freiberg) is also thanked for his contributions to the significance of liquation for our “missinglink” prob- lem, which goes back to the mid-eighties. The studies of Anastassia Borisova have been very instructive in the origin of differences in the trace-element characteristics of the inclusion inventory of granites and their pegmatites.
Finding the potential source of manipulation factors is equally important. Genomic analysis may allow re- searchers to identify simple manipulation factor sources such as enzymes. However, if the source is a complex structure (i.e. tissue, membrane, organelle) the number of genes involved in its development may make it difficult to identify it from genomic analysis alone, especially if that development is drawn out over the parasite’s life-cycle. Detailed histological analysis (or in-situ hybridization) of manipulative parasites, coinciding with adaptive behav- ioural changes in their host could serve to localise com- plex sources. The internal anatomy of parasites changes as they progress through their life-cycle (e.g. [15–18]). Therefore, it is not unlikely that a manipulation factor source may be absent early in a parasite’s life but present later on when manipulation occurs.
Insulin resistance, FoxO1 regulation of MTP, apoB, and lipogenesis Kamagate et al. demonstrate in CA-FoxO1 transgenic mice that increased VLDL-TG production and plasma apoB concentra- tions correlate with increases in the level of hepatic Mttp mRNA and MTP protein (7). Using ChIP, they observed that CA-FoxO1 occupied the Mttp IRE in transgenic mouse livers. Parallel studies using adenoviral infection of HepG2 cells produced marked increases in apoB synthesis and enhanced TG secretion. In contrast, wild-type mice made deficient in FoxO1 by RNAi-medi- ated knockdown had reduced liver MTP levels, decreased VLDL production, and hepatic accumulation of TG. Knockdown of FoxO1 in db/db mice and in FoxO1 transgenic mice significantly reverted the elevated hepatic VLDL-TG and apoB pro- duction rates to control levels in these ani- mals. These data support the conclusion that resistance to insulin-regulated MTP expression is important in the development of subsequent hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrate a key role for FoxO1 under these conditions.
As Glaeser et al. (2004) note, when countries become richer, they are likely to improve their institutions. We therefore control for the log of GDP per capita in all regressions. In addition, countries with less developed financial systems tend to have larger market-wide fluctuations. Higher stock market synchronicity is a possible reason for these fluctuations (Morck et al., 2000). Weak financial development can also represent a barrier to market integration and explain cross- sectional variations in tail risk. Consequently, we use market capitalization as a percentage of GDP and stocks traded as a percentage of GDP to capture the degree of stock market development. Infrequent trading and insufficient liquidity are other sources of possible wide fluctuations. Stocks traded as a percentage of market capitalization (stock turnover ratio) control for the activity and liquidity of the market. These three variables provide information about the maturity of the financial system. All else being equal, we expect that more mature markets function more smoothly and have a lower tail risk. Finally, we take the log of number of stocks to control for the higher diversification of larger markets due to the law of large numbers.
necessary to elaborate the difference between social marketing and marketing for social enterprises. Social marketing is a process that applies marketing principles and tech- niques to create, communicate, and deliver value in order to influence target audiences ’ behaviors which benefit the society as well as the target audience (Kotler & Lee, 2008) for example social marketing may be used to promote vaccination against diseases in societies, but marketing for social enterprises, according to Doherty et al. (2009) “… can offer opportunities for managers of SEs to fashion unique marketing strategies to support the growth and development of their organizations ” and also “ [help them] to co-create sustainable product/service offers via reputation, trust, brand identity, rela- tionships and social capital” (Doherty et al., 2009).
• Eclipse is a multi-language software development environment comprising an integrated development environment (IDE) and an extensible plug-in system. It is written mostly in Java and can be used to develop applications in Java and, by means of various plug-ins, other programming languages including Ada, C, C++, COBOL, Perl, PHP, Python, R. Ruby (including Ruby on Rails framework), Scala, Clojure, and Scheme. It can also be used to develop packages for the software Mathematica. The IDE is often called Eclipse ADT (Ada Development Toolkit) for Ada, Eclipse CDT for C/C++, Eclipse JDT for Java, and Eclipse PDT for PHP.