The control module determines all available flight routes based on the air space resource information from the air space resource module. Pilots can review flight routes and make a final decision. After they choose a certain flight route, the control module will pre-occupy certain air space for a selected flight route and update the air space status in ADS-B database at the same time. The air space resource is operated on the first-come, first-serve (FCFS) policy. In that case, if certain air space has been occupied by an airplane, it shows “occupied” or “unavailable” in the control units on any other airplanes that request for the same air space resource. Moreover, the control unit monitors the whole process when that flight route is in use, and updates the air space information when the occupied air space is released as an airplane flies out of it. Transactions t 0, t 1, t 2, t 3, t 4,
Abstract. In the modeling of equipment virtual training process, the basic Petrinet is improved according to multiple operators’ state judgment, operation logic relationship and order co-operation feature. Since the basic Petrinet was unable to describe multiple operators’ state problems simultaneously, we adopted the place coloring method. According to the problem that the basic Petrinet can not describe the action time limitation, we employed the interval of input and output arc to figure out the problem. On the basis of the cooperative operation features of multiple operators, Petrinet is extended through macro transition, and then we proposed an improved Petrinet model of equipment virtual training process. Taking the leveling operation of a missile launch vehicle as an example, we established an improved Petrinet model, which verify the feasibility and superiority of the improved Petri model.
information systems and their relationship. It was proposed by C.A Petri in his doctoral dissertation "Kommunikation mit Automaten" in 1962. Petrinet describe the dynamics of systems by using token flow, which is an integrated graphical and mathematical modeling tool, not only characterize structures of systems with intuitive graphs, but also analyze properties of structures of systems by introduction of mathematical methods, which provides an effective means for charactering and researching information systems with distributed, concurrent, and asynchronous properties.
Abstract—This paper investigates the use of Petri nets for mod- eling coordinated cyber-physical attacks on the smart grid. Petri nets offer more flexibility and expressiveness than traditional attack trees to represent the actions of simultaneous attackers. However, Petrinet models for attacks on very large critical infrastructures such as the smart grid require a great amount of manual effort and detailed expertise in cyber-physical threats. To overcome these obstacles, we propose a novel hierarchical method to construct large Petri nets from a number of smaller Petri nets that can be created separately by different domain experts. The construction method is facilitated by a model description language that enables identical places in different Petri nets to be matched. The new modeling approach is described for an example attack on smart meters, and its efficacy is demonstrated by a proof-of-concept Python program.
Our basic motivation is the observation that formal languages which enable graphic animation and the use of approved analysis techniques as well as the description of non-determinism and concurrency are sought in various projects aiming at the development of software process modeling languages. While these key requirements lead to Petri nets in general our work revealed that none of the standard high level Petrinet types measures up to the more detailed requirements such as tight but still comprehensible representations of software process models. Experiments [Jeg91] have shown that process models dened in terms of Predicate/Transition
Abstract: PetriNet is an imperative and handy language used for modeling and analysis of discrete event system (DES) i.e. a dynamic system that progress according to unexpected occurrence of events at probably unknown, asymmetrical interval of time. This concept provides an interface for analysis of behavioral and structural properties like liveness, boundedness and cover-ability tree of discrete event systems. These properties are not only necessary for proving the correctness of system model but also helpful in checking the deadlock conditions in a system. As a graph PetriNet is used for modeling and mathematically, it can be used for analysis of the system. In this paper, we have first modeled various DES like computation model and communication model using Petri Nets and then analyzed their properties using MATLAB. These DES models have applications in almost every domain of science and engineering.
The methodology by Bourbakis-Manaris, based on SPNs Modeling of the NL text sentences for Document Understanding, (1998). They describe four levels of processing: lexical to enforce case (subject- verb) agreement, syntactic to combine words into sentences, semantic to assign meaning to words and sentences, and pragmatic to form context from relations to previous sentences, paragraphs, topics, and information from related data. This paper focuses on the more difficult syntactic and pragmatic process. Multiple modalities or external forms of information such as speech, images, text, video, gestures, facial expressions, hand signs, and handwriting are proposed to add to the context formed by the pragmatic process . Summary: The combination of ASGs and SPNs in this methodology provides significant capability in not only capturing semantic meaning from text but extracting contextual and other available information to resolve ambiguities. The methodology suggested in this paper shows how SPNs, used with ASGs, can model a tremendous amount of interrelationships that exist in both text and imagery. It provides significant potential for extended areas such as knowledge abstraction and representation and adding to their capabilities. The methodology presented in this paper also illustrates the potential for SPNs to model technologies in ways that significantly enhance their modeling capabilities compared to conventional (main line) approaches in using SPNs. The computational complexity, however, is high.
The Higher-Order PetriNet is a new class of Petri Nets that exploit the properties of higher-order neural networks. Adding time to HOPN produces a new class called Higher-Order Time PetriNet, this is the subject of our study .In this paper, a method to model the internet host reliability with Higher-Order Time PetriNet is proposed. Analysis of HOTPN model is presented. A reachability graph is defined in a discrete way by using an enumeration procedure and the reachable states of the Time PetriNet and HOTPN. Finally, we compare between TPN and HOTPN by using the behavior properties and reachability graph.
R egulation of matrix volume is important for the mitochondria functioning and maintai ning of their integrity. The mitochondrial volume affects the respiration rate and the level of ATP production. There is a correlation between changes in the geometry of these organelles and such events as the generation of reactive oxygen species, the polarization of the inner mitochondrial mem brane, the ability to apoptosis. Mitochondrial swel ling is not only the final stage of their dysfunction, but also a key feature in the biochemical mecha nisms of cell damage. It leads to the straightening of the cristae, disruption of the outer membrane integ rity and release of apoptogenic factors such as cy tochrome c and apoptosisinducing factor, etc. into cytosol .
The experimental environment consists of two hosts (client and server) remotely located from each other in a LAN environment. The host server on which JBoss is running is excluded from running other tasks to ensure the consistency of data sets collected. The Duke’s Bank application  is transformed into a web service and deployed on JBoss. JBoss uses the Apache Tomcat as its default web server. The client host generates service requests to JBoss. The bandwidth of the LAN is shared with other users not relevant to this experiment. Tools like Wireshark  and Ping are used to measure the round trip delay (RTD), excluding the time spent in the hosts. In comparison to the time spent in the server, the RTD is observed to be so negligible that it is ignored in the experimental analyses. The system structure is illustrated in Fig. 1.
Line three to ten mark the Petrinet. There are several possibilities for marking this particular net, and the current example uses one of them. It is possible therefore, to com- pare line three to ten to a function call, for instance func- tion Mark_Petri_net(), in a computer programme where parameters are passed to the function. Line four is a simple comment. A double slash (//) always indicates a comment in the algorithm. Anyhow, line five adds strand s 1 into tube
Abstract: The development of intrigue and research on versatile specially appointed systems is exponentially lately. In a Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET), remote transmission happens where one versatile hub can send messages specifically to other portable hub. One of the responsive convention (the convention which makes course in an on-request premise) characterized for MANETs is AODV (Ad hoc On-request Distance Vector) directing convention. The hub development in the dynamic condition causes visit topology changes in the system. Along these lines it is especially vital for each hub in the system to monitor change so that an eﬃcient parcel transmission should be possible. In this proposition, the deferral related with a parcel is computed utilizing planned petrinet by giving the sources of info physically. The same steering convention is again approved using understood NS2 instrument. Execution in CPN instruments requires time esteems to be fused among the states (i.e. places and advances) which shows the defer taken by a switch or postponement related over a connection or it might be delay because of lining of parcel. This esteem can be separated for a specific course and defer esteem related with it can be gotten. We have expected that every one of the hubs have suﬃcient vitality while taking an interest in the steering procedure.
mary categories (Javed, Gouriveau, & Zerhouni, 2017; Kho- rasgani et al., 2016): (1) data driven techniques, (2) model based, and (3) hybrid approaches, depending on how the fault propagation process is modeled. Irrespective of the type of modeling approach chosen for prognostics, two main distinct research problems can be devised: (i) the estimation prob- lem, which determines the current state of health of the sys- tem, and (ii) the failure prediction problem, by which the EOL and RUL can be obtained from predictions of the future state of the system `-steps forward in time in absence of new observations. For the estimation problem, the component, sub-system, or system state of health or degradation is typ- ically assumed to be represented using a stochastic variable x k . This state variable evolves over time k following a spe-
In recent years, process configuration acquires an importance in business industry and enterprise systems (dreiling et el., 2005), furthermore in construction industry. Main process configuration methodologies in construction industry, which are based on knowledge based environment (fischer and aalami, 1995), graph theory (Huhnt, 2005), constraint/strategy- based methods (beißert et al., 2007), ontology-based process modeling (benevolenskiy et al., 2012), etc., are mostly focused on planning and scheduling activities. even though the general objective of these researches is developing formal high level models for construction processes, verification and validation of the process models are not well examined.
With the advent of the information age, it has brought a good opportunity for the integration of information and industrialization. As China's pillar industry, the devel- opment of agriculture is also inseparable from the support of informationization. How- ever, there are still many problems in the agricultural supply model in most of our coun- try. Traditional management ideas and conservative business models have been diffi- cult to maintain the long-term development of our country's agriculture. With the rise of the information industry and increasingly fierce market competition, the traditional agricultural model of decentralized and independent management is bound to be elim- inated. The future competition between industries will no longer be the competition among individual enterprises but will fall on the competition among supply chains. Therefore, in order to change China's current agricultural product supply model, a series of studies have been carried out based on Petrinetmodeling method and Markov chain theory. It hopes to improve China's current agricultural supply model through the com- bination of supply chain ideas and modern information technology, solve the current problems in China's agricultural supply model, and thus promote the long-term devel- opment of China's future agriculturalization.
Petri Nets and Color Petri Nets are system study tools that provide appropriate mathematical formalism for modeling distributed systems, also allowing analysis of the states of the system. Petri Nets have been widely used to describe the Multi Agent Systems for a long time. Color Petri Nets have been used in  to achieve agent scheduling in open dynamic environments.  uses Color Petri Nets to model an agent based interactive system. The representation of composite behaviors through Color Petri Nets has been done in . The fundamentals of an agent‟s social behavior in a Multi Agent System have been modeled with the help of Color Petri Nets taking the packet world scenario as a case study in .  uses Petri Nets to model the abstract architecture for intelligent agents and structural analysis of the net provides an assessment of the interaction properties of Multi Agent Systems. Deadlock Avoidance in Multi Agent System is considered and is evaluated using the liveness and boundedness property of the PetriNet Model.  introduce a Color PetriNet model to represent flexible agent interactions.
Fuzzy logic is derived from fuzzy set theory. Fuzzy logic deals with approximate rather than precise reasoning. However, rough practical answers can result to be more effective in other cases than complex precision. Fuzzy logic was developed for control operations to develop knowledge-based systems and allows val- ues to be defined like true/false and yes/no. It is simple to im- plement and hence it is becoming more favorite for knowledge- based system implementations. It can be used where the tradi- tional controllers like proportional integration (PI) controllers are in use. These controllers use linear control action while fuzzy logic provides controlling action with fuzzy set and rules. Con- ventional controllers depend on mathematical modeling while fuzzy controller depends on information provided by member- ship functions from domain experts. Fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) are rule-based systems which are applicable to poorly understood nonlinear systems, occasionally controlled by hu-
“Gen-X,” “Gen-Y,” “Baby Boomer,” “Millennial,” “The Greatest Generation”: Labels and descriptions of different generations abound in the popular press and the human resources management (HRM) trade press. Values, working styles, preferences, expectations, aspira- tions, and experience are assigned to each generation such that the label becomes a short-hand description. The descriptions of these “generations” vary considerably by source. In some cases, values, expectations, and preferences are associated with generations, based on anecdotes and opinions. In other cases, values, preferences, and expecta- tions are associated with a given generation on the basis of empirical surveys and polls. But even empirical studies of “generations” are suspect for at least two reasons. First, while the labels seem definitive, the generations overlap. As shown in Table 1, various authors assign differing birth years, not to mention values, to different generations (e.g., Kimberly, 2008; Kupperschmidt, 2000; Lancaster & Stillman, 2002; Lyons, Duxbury, & Higgins, 2005; Mackey, Gardner & Forsyth, 2008; McGuigan, 2010, Smola & Sutton, 2002; Strauss & Howe, 1991; Zempke, Raines & Filipczack, 2000). Baby Boomers, for example, are identified as those born starting anywhere from 1940 to 1946 through 1960 to 1964. The same inconsistencies are found for birth years for other generations. Second, most generational studies are based on cross-sectional surveys and confound generational effects with factors such as age and career progression (McGuigan, 2010).