Top PDF Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

Eliminating fertilizer use showed the biggest impact on yields and SOC, simulating over 6 % loss (Fig. 6). Globally, decreases in yields of roughly 60–70 % occurred for maize and wheat, but soybeans, relying less on fertilizer inputs, suffered a 22 % decrease in yields. The different response between plant types was large: individual maize and wheat soil columns lost an average of 63 % SOC, whereas soybean only lost 11 %. Despite low yields, leaving 70 % residue al- lowed carbon inputs to maintain nearly the same SOC level as in the run with low residue return. This indicates a criti- cal role for fertilization in soil carbon storage, without which an additional 5 Pg C might be lost due to cultivation. The ob- served result is not surprising, as fertilizer contributes to the total biomass accumulated during crop development, and in- creased biomass returned as residue will allow the soil to re- tain some of the nutrients taken up during crop growth, im- proving the soil fertility.
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Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

As fertilizers improve and are applied to maximize plant uptake while minimizing loss to leaching and denitrification, fertilizer might provide an important tool for farmers to 20 mitigate the soil carbon loss due to increasing residue harvest for biofuel use. However, care must be taken to ensure that fertilizer inputs do not exceed plant uptake, which could result in increased nitrogen leached into the groundwater. The e ffect of increased decomposition when fertilizer is used also needs to be explored.

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Potential impact of climate and socioeconomic changes on future agricultural land use in West Africa

Potential impact of climate and socioeconomic changes on future agricultural land use in West Africa

Many previous studies with different modeling approaches integrated the climate-induced changes in agricultural pro- ductivity with socioeconomic changes to project future land use scenarios. However, most of them assessed the land use change at national/sub-national levels, and therefore did not provide gridded land use maps as needed by climate projec- tion models (Schmitz et al., 2014). Two partial equilibrium models, the Model of Agricultural Production and its Impact on the Environment (MAgPIE) (Lotze-Campen et al., 2008) and the Global Biosphere Management Model (GLOBIOM) (Havlik et al., 2011), are applicable for modeling LULCC in a spatially explicit scheme. MAgPIE simulates land use patterns at a spatial resolution of 0.5 ◦ based on an objec- tive function to minimize the production cost for specific de- mand values. GLOBIOM simulates land use change scenar- ios accounting for competition among agriculture, forestry, and bioenergy in a spatially explicit scheme. These two mod- els provide land use information regarding individual crops in addition to aggregated crop area.
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Impact of agricultural land use in Central Asia: a review

Impact of agricultural land use in Central Asia: a review

Science-based peer-reviewed international journals covering the 2008–2013 period. All findings and conclusions were therefore restricted to this recent period of time and to inter- nationally accessible publications. It is possible that earlier studies and/or domestic, non-internationally quality-validated publications contain information with the potential to fill some of the knowledge gaps identified here. However, the availabil- ity of and access to those studies represent a substantial barrier because of language concerns and non-standardized archiving methods. Given this limitation, the findings indicate that a comprehensive knowledge base is available concerning the impacts of agricultural land use on environmental issues, par- ticularly those related to soil and water issues and to the main- tenance of ecosystem processes. Little information was avail- able about the relationships between agricultural land use and biotic resources, such as habitats for fauna and flora and other organisms. With respect to the economic aspects of agricul- tural land use, the research was focused on the direct econom- ic return of biomass production and on infrastructure issues related to constructing and maintaining irrigation and drainage systems. Given that water scarcity is a key factor affecting agriculture in Central Asia, the economic returns on agricul- tural water use compared with those of other water uses should be emphasized in the future. The most striking finding was that very few papers addressed the impacts of agricultural land use on the societal dimension of sustainable develop- ment. This finding is in contrast to the abundant knowledge of human health concerns related to salinized water and the aspiration of dust-contaminated air. Clearly, the disciplinary research has somehow ignored the causal chain of events re- lating inappropriate irrigation management and water salini- zation to land degradation and dust storms through wind ero- sion. A more systemic, interdisciplinary approach to the anal- ysis of agricultural land use impacts may help to overcome this limitation in the future.
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Is there a link between agricultural land use management and flooding?

Is there a link between agricultural land use management and flooding?

Over the past fifty years, significant changes in UK land use and management practices have occurred, driven by UK and EU agricultural policies. There is substantial evidence that modern land-use management practices have enhanced surface runoff generation at the local scale, frequently creating impacts through ‘muddy floods’. Such local impacts can be avoided or mitigated through the adoption of better land management practices and/or small scale surface runoff control measures. There is little evidence that local scale changes in runoff generation propagate downstream to create impacts at the larger catchment scale. This does not imply that impacts do not exist, but the very few studies in which evidence has been sought have not produced any conclusive findings. Multiscale catchment experimentation, linked to new developments in modelling, is needed which can lead to a better understanding of how small scale changes to runoff generation propagate to larger catchment scales. To facilitate the tracking of changes from the local to the catchment scale, a new modelling approach is demonstrated which allows a downstream flood hydrograph to be mapped back onto its source areas, thus presenting impact information to users in a useful and comprehensible form.
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Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: Evaluating a geospatial
agricultural modeling system using inventory data

Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: Evaluating a geospatial agricultural modeling system using inventory data

Geospatial modeling Parallel computing a b s t r a c t Accurate quantification and clear understanding of regional scale cropland carbon (C) cycling is critical for designing effective policies and management practices that can contribute toward stabilizing at- mospheric CO 2 concentrations. However, extrapolating site-scale observations to regional scales repre- sents a major challenge confronting the agricultural modeling community. This study introduces a novel geospatial agricultural modeling system (GAMS) exploring the integration of the mechanistic Environ- mental Policy Integrated Climate model, spatially-resolved data, surveyed management data, and supercomputing functions for cropland C budgets estimates. This modeling system creates spatially- explicit modeling units at a spatial resolution consistent with remotely-sensed crop identi fication and assigns cropping systems to each of them by geo-referencing surveyed crop management information at the county or state level. A parallel computing algorithm was also developed to facilitate the compu- tationally intensive model runs and output post-processing and visualization. We evaluated GAMS against National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported crop yields and inventory estimated county-scale cropland C budgets averaged over 2000e2008. We observed good overall agreement, with spatial correlation of 0.89, 0.90, 0.41, and 0.87, for crop yields, Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Organic C (SOC) change, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), respectively. However, we also detected notable differences in the magnitude of NPP and NEE, as well as in the spatial pattern of SOC change. By per- forming crop-specific annual comparisons, we discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies be- tween GAMS and the inventory method, such as data requirements, representation of agroecosystem processes, completeness and accuracy of crop management data, and accuracy of crop area represen- tation. Based on these analyses, we further discuss strategies to improve GAMS by updating input data and by designing more efficient parallel computing capability to quantitatively assess errors associated with the simulation of C budget components. The modularized design of the GAMS makes it flexible to be updated and adapted for different agricultural models so long as they require similar input data, and to be linked with socio-economic models to understand the effectiveness and implications of diverse C management practices and policies.
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Land use change, agricultural intensification and low-carbon agricultural practices in Mato Grosso, Brazil

Land use change, agricultural intensification and low-carbon agricultural practices in Mato Grosso, Brazil

Nevertheless, these results should be interpreted carefully. First, the small number of current iCL adopters poses an obstacle to the detailed examination of adoption determinants between different types of iCL. For example, one might expect distance to roads or access to credit to influence the adoption of more complex iCL systems differently given their unique implementation and maintenance requirements, yields, and management operations. Second, our data clearly captures early adopters who do not always follow a pattern representative of broader adoption (Rogers, 2003). The monitoring of the iCL dissemination process over a longer period of time would allow us to check whether the factors associated to iCL occurrence change and what influence county development has on innovation adoption decisions. That is also relevant for making inferences about the likelihood of innovation adoption based on farmers’ profiles. Additional research avenues include the investigation of labor requirements of specialized versus integrated systems as practiced in Mato Grosso, as well as the effect of the distance to supply chain infrastructure elements on the costs and benefits of iCL.
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Impact of land use change on organic carbon sequestration in  Arenosol

Impact of land use change on organic carbon sequestration in Arenosol

2012), who were exploring the SOC accumulation in forest and grassland soils, indicated that higher carbon accu- mulation occurs in grassland soil because of a strong and well developed root system. It is indicated that carbon accumulation is higher in grassland soil as some part of the aboveground biomass dies each year and becomes a part of SOC, whereas in forests a certain share of biomass does not enter soil but is accumulated in plant peren- nial parts. This data support the universally growing interest related with the effects of climate change and the increase in SOC pool in grasslands. A change in land use and management can be a strategic commitment to in- crease SOC sequestration with the help of managed grasslands (Lal 2013).
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Constraints in household relocation: Modeling land-use/transport interactions that respect time and monetary budgets

Constraints in household relocation: Modeling land-use/transport interactions that respect time and monetary budgets

α, β, γ Parameters, estimated to α = -2E-6, β = 0.8229 and γ = 10,794 [note that parameter names α, β and γ are reused in several equations even though they relate to different parameter sets] Due to the parameter γ, the available money for expenditures can never drop below $10,794, even if the household income is reported as 0. According to the Consumer Expenditure Survey, expenses for gasoline and motor oil make up between 2.6 percent (for high income) and 3.9 percent (for low income) of all household expenses. Though this may not seem high, an increase of travel costs may be- come a serious burden for low-income households. Litman (2013) suggested that fuel price elasticity is between -0.1 and -0.2 for short-run and between -0.2 and -0.3 for medium-run adjustments. Short-run adjustments include choosing different trip destinations and switching the mode, while long-run adjust- ments (which typically apply after one to two years) include the purchase of more fuel-efficient vehicles and selecting more accessible home and job locations. Because a household move is part of a medium- to long-run adjustment, the higher elasticity with an average of -0.25 was chosen in SILO; should gas prices increase by 10 percent, travel demand is expected to decline by 2.5 percent. Transportation costs tc are calculated based on auto-operating costs (set to 8.1 cents per mile in the base scenario), the dis- tance to work, and transportation required for other purposes such as shopping, dropping off children at childcare, doctor visits, etc. For a scenario that analyzes the impact of higher fuel costs, the adjusted transportation expenditures are calculated by:
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Agricultural Costs of Carbon Dioxide Abatement via Land-use Adaptation on organic soils

Agricultural Costs of Carbon Dioxide Abatement via Land-use Adaptation on organic soils

table, while aerobic conditions are limited to a shallow upper layer. If the water table drops down (eg. through drought or drainage), the aerobic zone in the profile extends, resulting in rising soil respiration and mineralisation. The degradation of the carbon [C] and nitrogen [N] stocks in the peat transforms the peatland from a strong C and N sink to a potentially very strong C and N source in terms of CO 2 and N 2 O emissions. Even if emissions of CH 4 are usually discontinued or are even changed to small CH 4 uptake after draining, this effect is outweighed by the pronounced increases in the other two gases. Therefore the thickness of the upper aerobic zone is of major importance for the gas fluxes. In their results Drösler et al. (in prep.) prove that the land-use types necessitating the lowest water tables, namely arable land and high-intensive grassland, are accompanied by the highest GWPs. As regards climate footprint, arable land and intensive grassland are almost comparable: the difference in GWP stands at a maximum of about 5 to 10 t CO 2 -C equiv. ha -1 a -1 . Significantly lower GWPs occur on grassland sites which hold higher water tables and are either managed with low agricultural intensity (1 to 2 cuts, low fertilisation, low stocking rate) or kept under maintenance. Here GWPs stand at about 50 % below the GWPs of intensive land-use types. Quasi zero emission occurs on sites which have been restored by withdrawing any land use and enhancing the water table to an annual average of about 10cm below ground surface. These results apply to bogs as well as to fen sites, while generally emissions on fen sites exceed emissions on bog sites. With regard to recommendations of land-use changes which imply the highest mitigation potentials, the results of Drösler et al. reveal three major “mitigation steps”, as shown in Table 1. First of all, even if mitigation potentials are limited, arable land use should be abandoned and changed into grassland use, as aeration resulting from ploughing strongly accelerates soil degradation. Secondly, implying high mitigation potential, arable land as well as intensive grassland should be changed into grassland with low-intensive agricultural management respectively into grassland maintained under nature conservation programmes. Thirdly, as the most drastic though the most climate-effective step, a change from arable- respectively intensive grassland to complete and adapted restoration is recommended - resulting in complete abandonment of agriculture.
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Agricultural land use and soil carbon in sloping lands in Mid-Hill region, Nepal

Agricultural land use and soil carbon in sloping lands in Mid-Hill region, Nepal

The effects of the farming practices classified as continuous variables were measured with the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results showed that the soil C content was significantly higher in the upland system compared with lowlands. Vegetation cover, agroforestry, and the weed management with weed residues left to the fields were associated with higher soil C stocks. Negative relationship between the chemical fertilizer use and soil C sequestration was found. The use of organic fertilizers, tillage method, tilling intensity, crop residue management and irrigation did not show significant effect on soil C. This study suggests that the aboveground vegetation cover is an integral part of the soil C sequestration in the sloping agricultural lands in the Mid-Hill region of Nepal. Nonetheless, further research with replication and a larger sample size is needed in order to fully investigate the farming practices contributing to the greater soil C contents in the region.
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Modeling stormwater management at the city district level in response to changes in land use and low impact development

Modeling stormwater management at the city district level in response to changes in land use and low impact development

affects the stormwater surface flow routing, and in the study area most of the planned. 235[r]

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Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

The total SOC stock for the long term (46 years) was re- duced for the LUC (AC1 to V and OG) and tillage (AC1 to AC2) (Table 4). The stored SOC varies within the soil pro- file, with higher values in Bt horizons for AC1, AC2 and OG, however, in V we found higher SOC in the topsoil. In this line, Novara et al. (2012) for LUC from AC to V obtained similar results and explained that this trend may be due to the mixing of the upper soil layers during soil tillage. SOC stock in the surface horizon in AC1 and AC2 varied from 39.7 Mg ha −1 to 48.9 Mg ha −1 , respectively. Gonz´alez and Cand´as (2004) in clayey soils found values near 54 Mg ha −1 in AC. This difference of SOC stock is caused by the tex- ture because soils included in this research were less clayey and sandier (Table 2). According to Burke et al. (1989) and Leifeld et al. (2005), high values of SOC stock in clayey soils are caused by the stabilization mechanisms of the clays in the soil. This effect can be observed in AC1 and OG, which increased the clay content with respect to AC2 and V. By contrast, stored SOC was higher in the subsoil (Bt and Bt/C horizons) in AC1 and AC2, which may be due to the translo- cation of C in the form of dissolved organic C, soil fauna activity, and/or the effects of deep-rooting crops (Shrestha et al., 2004). On the other hand, Mu˜noz-Rojas et al. (2012a) found an increase of SOC for LV (14 %) after conversion from arable land to permanent crops in Andalusia (south- ern Spain) between 1956 and 2007, caused by the limited effect that agricultural management in permanent crops has on SOC sequestration (Smith, 2004). Moreover, Vallejo et al. (2003) indicates that the SOC stock is greater in crop pas- tures, which is an effect that has also been shown by Nair et al. (2009). Both authors also indicate that the potential for C sequestration in grass systems increases because the roots transfer large amounts of C into the soil slowly and contribute to the increase in the underground C content, which accumu- lates over time, thus indicating that these systems are more effective in C sequestration than other land uses.
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Impact of Cyclone Aila on Land Use and Its Management in Haripur

Impact of Cyclone Aila on Land Use and Its Management in Haripur

Primarily land use categories were plotted on cadastral map and since that final land use map has been prepared by author. After all author is belongs to the study area. So his observation and knowledge about the study area Percentage analysis has been used through MS Excel for analysis of changing land use. The result shows that almost 2200 people were affected by Aila. Both natural and cultural recourses have been affected. Some drastic phenomenon like salinization, embankment breaching and land use change have been raised. The major changed land use categories are agricultural land, fisheries, settlement, water bodies and wasteland. Percentage analysis shows that agricultural land decreased but finally it has been almost recovered and going back to its previous place. Fisheries, settlement, water bodies and wasteland have been increased in post Aila situation with respect to pre Aila situation. People started to manage the problems related to land use change.
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Impact of Cyclone Aila on Land Use and Its Management in Haripur

Impact of Cyclone Aila on Land Use and Its Management in Haripur

Primarily land use categories were plotted on cadastral map and since that final land use map has been prepared by author. After all author is belongs to the study area. So his observation and knowledge about the study area Percentage analysis has been used through MS Excel for analysis of changing land use. The result shows that almost 2200 people were affected by Aila. Both natural and cultural recourses have been affected. Some drastic phenomenon like salinization, embankment breaching and land use change have been raised. The major changed land use categories are agricultural land, fisheries, settlement, water bodies and wasteland. Percentage analysis shows that agricultural land decreased but finally it has been almost recovered and going back to its previous place. Fisheries, settlement, water bodies and wasteland have been increased in post Aila situation with respect to pre Aila situation. People started to manage the problems related to land use change.
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Impact of land management and fertiliser use on soil microbial function

Impact of land management and fertiliser use on soil microbial function

Therefore, MicroResp TM , a method of substrate-induced respiration, was used to assess microbial function for this study. Samples were taken from a long-term fertiliser (superphosphate) trial at Winchmore and theLong-Term Ecology Trial (LTET, biomass retetion or removal) at Lincoln University, together with a short-term dairy shed effluent trial (DSE applications) carried out at LTET. The results of this experiment showed season had a significant impact on soil microbial function, primarily due to changes in soil temperature, and to a lesser extent, soil moisture. Treatment effects of the long-term application of superphosphate and the DSE applications on microbial function were not signifcant, however, the effect of biomass retention or removal on the LTET were significant. This is primarily due to changes in soil organic carbon levels and pH which occurred under the contrasting treatments of the LTET, but not for the Winchmore and DSE treatments.
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Carbon emissions from land use and land-cover change

Carbon emissions from land use and land-cover change

To separate the effects of environmental change, several process-based modeling analyses have carried out runs with and without fixed climate, CO 2 , and land use. For exam- ple, Pongratz et al. (2009) carried out runs with and with- out changing CO 2 concentrations. While some model results shown in Table 1 include climate and CO 2 effects on areas subject to LULCC (Piao et al., 2009; Van Minnen et al., 2009), most process-based models were run with and without LULCC, and the difference between the two runs was taken to yield the net effects of LULCC. The exercise is not per- fect, because the effects of CO 2 fertilization on undisturbed forests may differ, for example, from the effects on crop- lands or on secondary forests recovering from agricultural abandonment. Furthermore, the woody biomass of forests has a greater capacity than the herbaceous biomass of crops and grasslands to store carbon, and this capacity is reduced as forests are converted to non-forest lands. In models, the
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Agricultural and Forest Land Use Impact on Soil Properties in Zagreb Periurban Area (Croatia)

Agricultural and Forest Land Use Impact on Soil Properties in Zagreb Periurban Area (Croatia)

ORCH is situated on terraces and is traditionally managed. The soil is grass‐covered and has different types of fruits. Also, the soil is mulched with residues from the grass cuts. No tillage practices or insecticides were used here at least 20 years. Cropland is intensively managed with annual plowing followed by two diskings and roto‐harrowing before sowing. Herbicides and insecticides are commonly used annually. Primary tillage for summer crops was implemented in the previous autumn (October or November), and supplementary tillage was applied in the following spring, prior to planting. Tillage practices for winter crops (primary and secondary) were carried out in September or October. The crops are grown following a typical rotation that included maize, soybean, winter wheat, oilseed rape, and alfalfa. The vineyard is managed with tillage based on an annual ripping and rotation digging in spring, followed by harrowing during the growing season. During the vegetation season and in the next one, natural vegetation‐covered soil and mulching was performed with the residues left on the soil surface. Within the vines, the weeds were suppressed using herbicides. Chemical protection is commonly used. Such annual management has occurred here for more than 40 years.
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Agricultural land use changes – a scenario-based sustainability impact assessment for Brandenburg, Germany

Agricultural land use changes – a scenario-based sustainability impact assessment for Brandenburg, Germany

Social and environmental indicators A B S T R A C T Decisions for agricultural management are taken at farm scale. However, such decisions may well impact upon regional sustainability. Two of the likely agricultural management responses to future challenges are extended use of irrigation and increased production of energy crops. The drivers for these are high commodity prices and subsidy policies for renewable energy. However, the impacts of these responses upon regional sustainability are unknown. Thus, we conducted integrated impact assessments for agricultural intensi fication scenarios in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany, for 2025. One Irrigation scenario and one Energy scenario were contrasted with the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario. We applied nine indicators to analyze the economic, social and environmental effects at the regional, in this case district scale, which is the smallest administrative unit in Brandenburg. Assessment results were discussed in a stakeholder workshop involving 16 experts from the state government.
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The Impact of First and Second Generation Biofuels on Global Agricultural Production, Trade and Land Use

The Impact of First and Second Generation Biofuels on Global Agricultural Production, Trade and Land Use

Figure 2: Nesting structure in energy modeling The implementation of biofuels builds on a modified version of the GTAP multi-sector multi- region CGE model (Hertel, 1997). This multi-region model allows the capture of inter-country effects, since the enhanced biofuel use influences demand and supply, and therefore prices on world markets and hence will affect trade flows, production, and GDP. The multi-sector dimension enables to study the link between energy, transport, and agricultural markets. The model is extended through the introduction of energy substitution into production by allowing energy and capital to be either substitutes or complements (GTAP-E; Burniaux and Truong,
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