Top PDF Modelling, Simulation And Control Of A Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Modelling, Simulation And Control Of A Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Modelling, Simulation And Control Of A Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

I declare that this thesis entitled “Modelling, Simulation and Control of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. This thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

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Development of a Series Hybrid Electric Aircraft Pushback Vehicle: A Case Study

Development of a Series Hybrid Electric Aircraft Pushback Vehicle: A Case Study

The work presented in this paper is a progression to previous research which developed an overcurrent-tolerant prediction model. This paper presents some of the modelling and development techniques used for the previous re- search, but more emphasis is placed on the requirements of the case study; whereby an aeroplane pushback tug is converted into a series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). An iterative design process enabled the traction motor, transmission, generator and battery pack parameters to be tailored for this vehicle’s unique duty cycle. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to simulate the existing internal combustion engine powertrain as well as the se- ries HEV equivalent for comparative analysis and validation purposes. The HEV design was validated by comparing the simulation results to recorded real-world data collected from the existing vehicle (torque, speeds etc.). The HEV simulations provided greater fuel savings and reduced emissions over the daily duty cycle in comparison to the existing vehicle.
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Generic model control design for hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicle

Generic model control design for hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicle

This project is divided into nine chapters, where each chapter is entitled with a heading of the overview discussion that a chapter is trying to deliver. This report starts with some background information of the proposed system design in the first chapter, while the second chapter goes through literature review research that was conducted at an early stage of this project. The literal review also goes through some specific details about electronics and electrical components that are proposed to be used in the project, the overall process and some relevant case studies. Chapter 3 investigates the electric circuit structure and the components that were selected on the design, while chapter 4 outlines the modelling steps that were followed to derive the required binary equations in order to design the control system. Chapter 5 shows the design of the control system using those equations and the implementation of the derived equations into the control system. The 6 th chapter explains the simulation of the overall electrical and control system in Simulink and the way that the proposed design was implemented in the software. The illustration of the results of the simulation are shown in chapter 7 and compared with hypothetic results. Lastly, the report is concluded in the 8 th chapter and some
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Emissions predictive modelling and simulation for a plug in hybrid electric scooter

Emissions predictive modelling and simulation for a plug in hybrid electric scooter

This thesis presents a comprehensive study on emissions predictive control modelling for hybrid electric scooters. Two approaches were investigated on a constructed hybrid electric scooter. The first approach involves developing a hybrid electric scooter dynamic model using MATLAB-Simulink and the second involves the development of an Emissions Predictive Model using artificial neural network.

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Modelling, simulation and optimization of discharge 
		ultra capacitor for 
		plug in hybrid electric recreational boat

Modelling, simulation and optimization of discharge ultra capacitor for plug in hybrid electric recreational boat

Hybrid vehicles are one such alternative and an important part of them is the energy storage system. A series- parallel plug-in hybrid electric recreational boat (PHERB) is a new model for recreation boat innovation was introduced in this work. In PHERB power train, the main power source to drive the boat is electric machine and the primary energy source is an energy storage system (ESS). The ESS was consisted of ultracapacitor and battery. This paper presents modelling of ultra capacitor in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment based on mathematic equation, the design of a closed- loop feedback control system used proportional-integral controller and optimization. The control system is optimised by using genetic algorithm to provide the desired power with respect to the power reference curve. The optimal parameters obtained further improved the performance of PHERB powertrain control compared to non-optimal one.
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Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation Model Using  Energetic Macroscopic Representation Method

Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation Model Using Energetic Macroscopic Representation Method

The Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) can be defined as a synthetic graphical tool which is based on the action and reaction between connected elements, and the present components can be internally described by causal ordering graphs or other descriptions as transfer functions [8]. EMR uses the causality principle where only the integral causality is considered. It designates the accumulation elements using time-dependent relationships between their variables, where outputs are integral function of inputs [9]. EMR intends to combine the needs of causality and energetic aspect for inversion based control progress [10]. EMR recognize integral causality to
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Digital Simulation of Series Parallel Resonant Converter for Electric Vehicle Applications

Digital Simulation of Series Parallel Resonant Converter for Electric Vehicle Applications

Power electronic systems are widely used today to supply power for various applications like transportation, computers biomedical electronics, home appliance operation and DC power transmission. The operating power level varies from mill watts to megawatts. These systems typically involve switching devices like thyristors, MOSFETs, and diodes, along with passive elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors and IC’s for control.

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A Review on Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A Review on Hybrid Electric Vehicle

ABSTRACT: With growing oil prices and escalating environment worries, cleaner and supportable energy solutions are demanded. Present transportation contributes large amount of energy consumption and emission of pollutants. In this paper, hybrid vehicle technology has been analyzed, with Power split configuration having internal combustion engine and battery as the power source. Initially the analysis of hybrid electric vehicle performance is done with battery of higher amp-hr capacity .In advanced state the converter circuit is implemented to reduce the battery rating. Different cases have been observed with different charging and discharging circuitry of battery. Hybrid electric vehicles are admired because of their ability to achieve related performance to a standard automobile while prominently improving fuel efficiency and tailpipe emissions. Having a great control of ANFIS controller in power system and machine rather than other controller, motivate us to interface this controller in hybrid electric vehicle. An improving effect can be visualized from the simulation results.
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ELECTRIC MOTOR-GENERATOR FOR A HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

ELECTRIC MOTOR-GENERATOR FOR A HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

Fuel savings and reduction of emissions, are the main parameters which need to be accomplished in HEV. Both combustion engine and electrical machine must operate for that reason in zones of torque-vs-speed characteristics with maximum efficiency. A way of representing electrical machines performance in HEV simulation can be achieved by means of a look-up table, which may be graphically interpreted as an efficiency map [11]. Figure 7 shows efficiency maps generated by the electrical machines under investigation using control strategies described in sections 4.1 and 4.2. The constraining factors are maximum winding temperature and minimum DC bus voltage. Efficiency maps were reduced into 1 st quadrant showing motoring mode only. However, 2D efficiency map does not have ability to consider variation of input parameters having impact on efficiency of electrical machine. Namely, variation of temperature influences winding resistance and flux due to PMs. The other variable affecting efficiency is floating DC-bus voltage, especially in field weakening mode, when DC-bus voltage influences d-axis current.
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A Genetic-Fuzzy Control Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A Genetic-Fuzzy Control Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Advanced vehicle simulator called ADVISOR, which is one of the most popular HEV simulators, is used as the simulation tool in this paper. ADVISOR is Matlab/Simulink based software [10] which has been developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and uses the data processing elements, such as math function blocks, switches and lookup tables to simulate the HEV. There are two approaches for simulating a HEV, consisting of backward facing approach and forward facing approach [10 and 11]. In backward facing approach, the simulator assumes that powertrain components meet the required speed trace and analyzes how much each component must perform. The driver model is not required in such a model. In this approach the vehicle required force is computed in every time step to meet the speed trace. The vehicle required force passes backward trough transmission components and is translated into torque and speed of the IC engine and/or EM.
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Design of an anti-lock regenerative braking system for a series hybrid electric vehicle

Design of an anti-lock regenerative braking system for a series hybrid electric vehicle

The prediction of wheel lock up is of great importance in the design of ABS. In industrial ABSs, the angular velocities of the wheels are measured with sensors and are directly utilized to determine the risk and prevent the wheel locked-up before it happens [12]. In some recent studies, the slip ratios of the wheels have been estimated from the data from wheel angular velocity sensor and utilized in ABS controller [13-14]. In these systems, ABS is aimed to control the wheel slip at an optimum value that can provide maximum traction force during heavy braking [15]. The proposed controller utilizes wheels slip ratios for predicting the wheel lock up situation. In order to calculate the wheel slip ratio, the absolute velocity of the vehicle other than the linear speeds of wheels during braking, is needed. The absolute vehicle speed during braking is estimated from the angular speed of the wheels and the amount of braking torque.
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Optimized control of Hybrid Electric Vehicle using intelligent technique

Optimized control of Hybrid Electric Vehicle using intelligent technique

This paper shows a multi-domain simulation of a HEV power train based on SimPowerSystems and SimDriveline. The HEV power train is of the series-parallel type, such as the one found in the Toyota Prius car [18]. This HEV has two kinds of motive power sources: an electric motor and an internal combustion engine (ICE), in order to increase the drive train efficiency and reduce air pollution. It combines the advantages of the electric motor drive (no pollution and high available power at low speed) and the advantages of an internal combustion engine (high dynamic performance and low pollution at high speeds). The Electrical Subsystem is composed of four parts: The electrical motor, the generator, the battery, and the DC/DC converter.
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Peace of Mind Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drivetrain : Transfer Thesis (MPhil/PhD)

Peace of Mind Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drivetrain : Transfer Thesis (MPhil/PhD)

20 Internal combustion engines (ICE) can be powered on conventional fuels like diesel or gasoline. This is not sustainable and engines produce local and global exhaust emissions. By 2010, the quality of tail pipe emissions for new vehicles will be such that any further regulated reduction will have a minimal environmental impact. [1] Following to the suggested scenarios in subsection 2.1.2, the ICE could be run on renewable fuels or on hydrogen. Running it on renewable fuels will not overcome the problem of local emissions. Both scenarios would suffer from poor drive train efficiency. Amount of renewable fuel production is limited due to land use or high investment cost. The storage of sufficient hydrogen on board is an issue, because the tank needs to be bigger and heavier for the same amount of stored energy if compared with renewable fuels. This can only be offset by lower energy consumption of the drive train. Future developments will make the following technological improvements a standard: direct fuel injection, variable valve timing, electrically engaged valves, electrically powered auxiliaries like power steering and climate control, start-stop automatic, cooling management including preheating and preheated catalysts. All these achievements focus on the main problem of ICE: the poor efficiency and poor emissions in urban traffic situations and cold engine runs. The peak efficiency will not be affected remarkably. Small high tech cars have been reviewed in order to estimate future improvements.
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NI Labview based Monitoring and Control of Charging Unit for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

NI Labview based Monitoring and Control of Charging Unit for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A Battery is a device that can create electricity from the chemical reaction. It converts the MOLECULES inside the battery into electricity. They produce DC supply from the battery. Electricity (electricity that flows of electrons in one direction, and does not switch back). Using the electricity from the battery can provide electricity in areas that do not have electric power distribution. It can be one cell or a group of cells is connected in parallel to reach the required voltage for user application. Each cell has an anode is a positive terminal, a cathode is negative terminal and electrolyte is a substance produce an electrically conducting solution. The electrolyte can be liquid or solid. It is a type of lead-acid and can be dangerous to touch. The chemical reaction of anode reacts with the electrolyte to produce electrons. The cathode reacts with the electrolyte creates the holes and wants electrons. An electric current transferred from happens when a wire connects the anode to the cathode, and the electrons move from one end to the other end. Depending on the type of electrolyte a battery is called a wet cell or dry cell battery. The battery cells can be connected to make a large battery. Connecting the positive terminal of one cell to the negative terminal of the next cell is called connecting them in series. Each battery is connected together are the voltages added together. Four 12 volt batteries connected in series will make 48 volts. Connecting the positive of one cell to the positive terminal of the other, and the negative terminal to the negative is called connecting them in parallel. The voltages are the same cannot be changed, but the current is added together. Voltage is the potential difference to the electrons through the wires, it is measured in volts. Current is a number of electrons are flowing through the wire, it is measured in amps. The multiple of current and voltage is the power (P=VI) of the battery. It is measured in watts.
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A game theoretic approach to control of a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain.

A game theoretic approach to control of a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain.

Hybrid vehicles are inherently more complicated and expensive than conventional vehicles. The reason for developing them is that it is possible to make them, in some aspect, better than conventional vehicles. Other considerations are that the vehicles should be as easy to handle as conventional vehicles and that they don't require a whole new infrastructure for fuel distribution. The series hybrid is easiest described as a pure electric vehicle fitted with onboard electricity generation. Merits of this configuration are that placement of the components might be easier as there are no mechanical couplings. This allows the system to be operated at maximum efficiency at all powers. Drawbacks are that they need several electric machines and becomes heavier vehicles. The machine connected to the wheels must also be able to deliver the maximal power that is needed. Series hybrids are considered most suitable for heavier vehicles like city busses or small cargo trucks.
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Operation Simulation and Control of a Hybrid Vehicle Based on a Dual Clutch Configuration

Operation Simulation and Control of a Hybrid Vehicle Based on a Dual Clutch Configuration

Another popular HEV simulation model is the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) which was developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The experimental data is applied to validate and improve the simulation model [18]. In contrast to ADVISOR, PSAT is a forward- looking model that calculates the powertrain states, based on driver input. It is suitable for investigating the dynamic response of individual components, as well as designing the control strategy for hybrid vehicles, although forward models are computationally more intensive than backward models. Besides these two simulators, Matlab/Simulink can also be used for developing a vehicle simulation model. It was applied by many researchers and used to prove various unified power flow concepts and to define general structures for a vehicle sub-system. Building HEVs models and the study of their powertrain systems have attracted industry wide interest. Control of a hybrid vehicle based on a dual clutch configuration is a new idea and the topic has garnered a lot of attention in past few years. The current research on hybrid electric vehicles with dual clutch transmissions is focused on two parts:
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Total effect on the environment of electric/hybrid electric vehicle batteries

Total effect on the environment of electric/hybrid electric vehicle batteries

Lithium is the lightest metal element known and is under full consideration for high energy batteries. Several secondary battery technologies using lithium have been developed.Lithium-ion batteries work through the migration of lithium ions between a carbon anode and a lithium metal oxide alloy cathode. The electrolyte is an organic solution; no metallic lithium is used. Lithium-ion batteries have been proposed for both battery-electric vehicles, where they benefit of their excellent specific energy of up to 200 Wh/kg, and hybrid vehicles, making use of cells specifically designed for high power, where values up to 2000 W/kg can be reached. In the lithium-polymer technology, the electrolyte is a solid conductive polymer, the batteries are completely dry and do not contain liquid electrolytes. Several chemistries are being proposed: the lithium-ion-polymer battery, which does not contain metallic lithium and has a chemistry comparable to the lithium-ion battery;the lithium-metal-polymer battery, where the negative electrode consists of metallic lithium foil. This battery is now be- ing commercially manufactured for stationary purposes, but has also been considered for traction. One main issue to be considered somewhat more acutely with lithium batteries compared to other battery technologies is safety. Lithium is very reactive, and abuse conditions such as crashes, fires and excessive temperature rises may cause uncontrolled energy releases which create hazardous situations. The implementation of cell-level management and control systems is thus a dire necessity for any lithium-based system. Although lithium batteries have taken a considerable share of the portable bat- tery market, one has to recognize that high-power applications such as traction present different challenges. Lithium batteries for traction are now available as prototypes and are on the brink of series production; further optimisation as to life, system safety and stability and production cost is still being performed however, and the lithium systems can today not be considered yet as a fully commercially available product.
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Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery and Stability for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on CarSim Simulink

Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery and Stability for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on CarSim Simulink

motor, the engine and motor are connected in parallel, which can provide the power separately or together. The integrated started generator (ISG), as electric motor, can be used as the output power of the motor and also can be converted into electric energy and stored in the battery. Engine and motor are controlled by controlling two clutchs, respectively. The torque coupler will control torque transmission, which can be used to drive the vehicle through transmission, or transferred to ISG motor for energy recovery in different operating conditions[9, 10]. The SAS system consists of four damping adjustable suspensions, including throttle valve dampers which are controlled by the stepper motor, then the vehicle's ride comfort can be improved by controlling the stepper motor [7]. The brake system consists of the brake pedal, stroke simulator and electronic control brake, and equipped with ABS system to control four-wheel braking, respectively. The brake pedal stroke simulator receives signals from the brake pedal, and converted electrical signals to electronic control brake, then jointly controlled the four wheel braking force with ABS system according to the wheel speed sensor signals, brake hydraulic signal, etc, thus make the vehicle more stable and safe when braking [11].
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Modeling and 
		simulation of split plug in hybrid electric vehicle using advisor

Modeling and simulation of split plug in hybrid electric vehicle using advisor

With increasing concern over the environment and ever stringent emissions regulations, the electric vehicle has been investigated as an alternative form of transportation. However, the electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refueling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the modeling and simulation of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Modeling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modeling examples. The modeling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.
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Lap Time Optimization of a Sports Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Lap Time Optimization of a Sports Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

This paper illustrates a methodology for the lap time optimization of a race series hybrid electric vehicle based on the indirect optimal control approach. This method is very powerful because it does not require the definition of a specific control architecture or strategy in advance, while system inputs are given as a result of the optimization process. Second, the optimization is performed globally, i.e along the whole track. This is essential in this kind of problem, where the battery introduces a strong coupling among the different sections of the circuit: battery boost may be used while exiting from a curve only if the battery
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