About 600 A.D., Prashastapada, another Vaisheshika scholar of repute, wrote the
Padarthadharma-sangraha (literally „collection of properties of matter‟) and commentary on
the Vaisheshika Darshana, the Prashashtapada Bhashya. These texts are comprehensive books in physics. A wide field ranging from general physics up to quantum physics has been covered. Prashastapada discusses properties of motion in these. The peculiarity of a single motion affecting a single body at a time, instantaneous velocity, velocity due to gravity, addition of two velocities in opposing direction, vectorial (digvishishta) (17) representation of velocity etc. have been analyzed at least a thousand years before these concepts were thought of in the West. (18) Samskara (previous actions or work done on an object) result in a persistent tendency to move, which is called vega (momentum, Newton‟s First Law). (19) Uddyotakara of about the same time, in his Nyayavartika states that a heavier body falls to ground with greater vega than a lighter body (falling from the same height). That means vega is a combined function of velocity and mass.
More recently there has been a lot of empirical research and descriptive writing about specific ancient bureaucracies and some comparative studies too. Of these we need to discuss briefly S.N. Eisenstadt’s comprehensive attempt at comparative analysis. His major contribution was to identify centralized bureaucratic empires as a distinct developed political system out of seven major systems, to be distinguished from the prebendal and patrimonial.
Yuan Chawang, a Chinese student at Nalanda, wrote: "In the establishment were some thousand brethren, all men of great learning and ability, several hundreds being highly esteemed and famous; the brethren were very strict in observing the precepts and regulations of their order; learning and discussing, they found the day too short. Day and night they admonished each other, juniors and seniors mutually helping to perfection. Hence foreign students came to the institution to put an end to their rounds and then become celebrated and those who shared the name of Nalanda, were all treated with respect, wherever they went." At Nalanda, studies included the Vedas, the Upanishads, cosmology (Sankhya), realist or scientific philosophy (Vaisheshika), logic (Nyaya), to which great importance was attached, and also Jain and Buddhist philosophy. Studies also included grammar, mechanics, medicine, and physics. Medicine was highly effective and surgery was quite developed. The pharmacopoeia was enormous, and astronomy was very advanced. The earth's diameter had been calculated very precisely. In physics, Brahmagupta had discovered the law of gravity. Vallabi
into anarchy and lawlessness. Ranjit Singh appointed chaudhries (police officers) to main- tain law and order, with each chaudhry supervising over a group of villages (Oberoi 1994: 73).
A final example of concessionary regimes, albeit much smaller demographically than the other cases, are the Himalayan mountain kingdoms of Bhutan, Tibet, Sikkim and Ladakh. Though only Sikkim and Ladakh were formally incorporated into British India, all of these states exhibit important similarities, notably in the domination of animist hill and mountain tribes by a proselytizing Buddhist core state, which granted concessions to monasteries and lamas. Despite the religious difference (being Buddhist, rather than Hindu) these states presented a great deal of similarities with Travancore, namely in the existence of a mutual compact between the sovereign and the priesthood: the granting of exemptions and privileges to the latter in exchange for the conduct of administrative roles, and the resultant use of political authority to enforce a disciplinary regime of behavioral control. Following the Tibetan model, the Buddhist ministry was accorded a primary role in the organization of the state, under a doctrine known as the “dual system of government” (in Tibetan, Cho-sid-nyi). There was no possible separation between temple and state, and the king, as Chogyal (literally, “religious king”) was obliged to act as head of the clergy, just as Lamas were required to act as agents of state. It is on this basis that Sinha (1966: 330) describes precolonial Sikkim as a “Lamaist theocracy” with the Buddhist Lamas op- erating as ministers and civil service, recruitment and providing a religious esprit de corps. So powerful was the dominance of this monastic bureaucracy that when the king of Bhutan died in 1651, his death was kept a secret for 54 years, and civil servants continued to issue orders in his name (Worden 1991).
While HappyTree offers a workshop on Hindu mythology in its teacher training program, it otherwise remains silent on the presence of these objects; though studio owner Richards describes at length that the ensembles of objects, particularly at the altar, are assembled in reaction to the pervasive secularization of yogic spaces. In deciding to devote a space to an altar in the practice room, Richards emphasizes the desire to give practitioners a “focal point” during practice, and that it is a matter of being “less afraid of bringing spirituality into the studio”. 180 When students are not facing the mirrors for practice, they face the altar, and in doing so the altar becomes both a locus of sacrality within the room as well as a point of control, from which the teacher’s authority issues, symbolically both receiver and transmitter of yoga’s authenticity. This authenticity is relayed verbally and physically as the teachers positions themselves at the point of authority through instruction and through their physical positioning the room, standing in front of and silhouetted by the alter space itself. The initiation, or “opening” ceremonies of the training program (Fig. 26) at HappyTree revolve around the altar as a sacred focal point, wherein newly initiated students place an object of personal value at the altar “so they’re each giving a part of themselves to the studio” 181 . This entire ceremony is a highly performative ritual in which trainees are initiated through various actions not unlike Catholic sacraments: clothed in white “for purity” and scattered with rose petals “recalling India”, they are cleansed in “a cleansing ritual and cleared all around their body with incense. Then they go to the altar, they light a tealight, put their
Modern history of India normally refers to the period of colonial rule and domination on India. The advent of the British on the Indian soil at around 17th century can roughly be delineated as the beginning of the modern age in Indian history. For two centuries, the British exercised complete subordination over the Indian landmass till the blazing inferno of the freedom fighters forced their departure. Those two hundred A long time for their tenet not best required an effect in the circle from claiming governmental issues Furthermore economy, as well as might have been instrumental molding done bringing something like significant progressions in the domain of education, culture What's more society.The early period of ModernIndia witnessed the growth of Company Rule in India. The organization manage in the Indian sub-continent is Likewise alluded should as agency raj. It might have been those principle of the British east India organization that broadened on a number parts from claiming India. It is accepted to need started in the quite a while 1757 following those limit from claiming clash
We anticipate the further development of methods that explicitly account for differential drift times in ancient and modern samples will become important as aDNA research becomes even more integrated into population genomics. This is because many common summary methods, such as the use of Structure (Pritchard et al. 2000) and Admixture (Alexander et al. 2009), are sensitive to differential amounts of drift between populations (Falush et al. 2016). As we have shown in ancient Europeans, ancient samples tend to come from isolated subpopulations with a large amount of drift, thus confounding such summary approaches. Moreover, stan- dard population genetics theory shows that allele frequencies are expected to be deterministically lower in ancient samples, even if they are direct ancestors of a modern population. In- tuitively, this arises because the alleles must have arisen at some point from new mutations, and thus were at lower frequencies in the past. A potentially fruitful avenue to com- bine these approaches moving forward may be to separate regions of the genome based on ancestry components, and assess the ancestry of ancient samples relative to speciﬁc ancestry components, rather than to genomes as a whole.
While facing a restoration of an ancient building, sometimes a reconstruction is needed. The decision to use modern materials could be quite conflictive, especially when the building is to be in use once again and the visitors see the outcome. This was the case of the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, Orihuela (Alicante). It was built as a satellite cult place from the abbey of San Francisco, and it was placed as a Calvary at the top of a hill close to the main building. Over the years, this building became part of the neighbourhood’s identity and one of the most important anchor points for the inhabitants of the area.
39. An alternative derivation of the mass-energy formula E O = mc 2 , also given by Einstein, is based on the principle that the location of the center of mass (CM) of an isolated system cannot be changed by any process that occurs inside the system. Figure 1.27 shows a rigid box of length L that rests on a frictionless surface; the mass M of the box is equally divided between its two ends. A burst of electromagnetic radiation of energy E o is emitted by one end of the box. According to classical physics, the radiation has the momentum p = E o /c, and when it is emitted, the box recoils with the speed v E 0 1Mc so that the total
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Think of the methods used in physics are often based on scattering Rutherford’s contribution was important in the study of the atom
Also think of the neutron beeing difficult to detect, one had first postulated its existence Make some thoughts over the nuclear decay. It was at first not easy to understand since there were several mechanisms
From optics, the new experimental standards gradually spread to other parts of experimental physics, albeit very slowly. The investigation of refractive indices by Biot and Arago also involved an accurate determination of the density of several gases, which to this end were carefully weighed in glass globes. 18 The values they obtained were later used by Gay-Lussac as part of the data on which he based his law of the combining volume of gases. Other French polytechnicians, among whom were Petit and Dulong, would later work on accurate determinations of the heat capacity of several substances. To facilitate such work, considered rele- vant for improving the efficiency of heat engines, the French government would eventually equip the physicist Regnault with a physical laboratory, one of the first of its kind in Europe. 19 It was here that young William Thomson, Britain’s leading natural philosopher in the late-Victorian period, would acquire his taste for pre- cise measurement. In Glasgow he would apply these skills to both thermal and electrical measurements and pass them on to his students through a new regime of laboratory training. 20
Based on the information, it is concluded that Flaxseeds are the richest source of α- linolenic acid, lignin, soluble fibers, anti- oxidants and high quality proteins. Flax was used as medicinal plant in ancient times and it has changed from medicinal plant to functional food. Flaxseeds having high level of ω-3 fatty acids, lignin and other bioactive compounds could revolutionize the innovative food industries. These ingredients are helpful for healthy life as it prevents heart diseases
ABSTRACT. Swaddling, ie, wrapping the child to re- strict movement, is an ancient practice. In the Nether- lands, it is becoming increasingly popular as an interven- tion for excessive crying in infants. However, one must be well aware of the potential risks. We present the case reports of a twin boy and girl who had been swaddled and kept in a heated room for several days. On admission to the hospital, both infants suffered from severe hypo- volemic shock, hyperthermia, and secondary respiratory insufficiency. The girl developed multiple organ dys- function syndrome and died, whereas the boy had an uneventful recovery. When swaddling is being consid- ered as an intervention for excessive crying in infants, parents have to be well-informed about the possible side effects and about additional measures that they may have to take to make it a safe intervention. Pediatrics 2002; 110(6). URL: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/ 110/6/e78; swaddling, hyperthermia, complication, risk, excessive crying.
The Indian economy has been an economy of primary sector in relation to production and distribution since long times. By the survey of literature we do not find any major industrial or secondary pursuits of the people. The agrarian sector and related occupations remained a major concern. Even the Vedic and non-Brahmanical sources have so many references to agrarian production and operations in them. The earlier settlements of chalcolithic and post- chalcolithic periods have shown considerable advancement in the production and distribution over an ever growing area. The Harappa civilization too had a apparent development of the agrarian structure to a considerable extent. In the Vedic literature we find numerous terms related to the agrarian structure and practices of the Aryan speaking people in the North-Western India. They conquered, traversed and colonized the area and started a settled agrarian life after a period of pastoralist culture. These new settlers can be gauged from their intensity of agrarian production and animal husbandry. Many prayers are offered to gods for the advancement and protection of agriculture and beasts. 'The fertile land yielding abundance' 1 . 'Land rich with milk and wet with ghee 2 . 'The Sindhu is rich in horses, chariots, cloths, gold ornaments, rich food,
Abstract AncientIndia thus remains a flexible and still fully unexplored terrain that cannot be simplistically branded as rigid and casteist or apathetic to women when it comes to equality in education and inclusion in society. Again various evidence shows that it would be wrong to assume that ancient Indic traditions were outright supporter of women’s education and holistic inclusion. The culture in ancientIndia and the evolving trends were volatile and chequered and calls for more intensive and extensive studies. This paper aims at exploring the ambiguous developments related to the education of the so called lower castes and how the age old theory of a rigid caste system and rigid norms against inclusion of women in India, that gave rise to social exclusion is practically not absolute and remains a grey zone to be brought under the scanner. In fact this paper attempts to bring to the forefront the instances that reveal that ancientIndia was more inclusive in philosophy and practice than its western counterparts.
II. Historical Review.
A. Period of Suryashidhanta (1000 BC).
In India people had started the use of the astronomical instruments before 1000 BC. During this period one of the prominent books 'Suryasidhanta' was written for astronomical calculations. The content of this book is available but its author is not known. The title 'Suryasidhanta' means sun theory and it highlights the calculations of positions of stars and planets.