Top PDF Music: Its Language, History, and Culture

Music: Its Language, History, and Culture

Music: Its Language, History, and Culture

The details of Haydn’s early life are sketchy. He was born in an Austrian village and came from a humble background. At about the age of eight he was chosen to join the choir of one of Vienna’s most important cathedrals. After his voice changed, he supported himself by teaching and working as a freelance performer, then at the age of 29, entered the service of a wealthy and powerful Hungarian aristocratic family, the Esterhazys. Music was a central component of life at the Esterhazy estate in the Hungarian countryside and the household staff included orchestral musicians, opera singers, and a chapel choir. Haydn’s contract specified that he was responsible to provide music as required by the prince, care for the musicians and instruments, and conduct himself “as befits an honest house officer in a princely court.” For 30 years Haydn lived and worked at the Esterhazy palace, largely isolated from what was happening elsewhere. As he himself recalled, “My prince was content with all my works, I received approval, I could, as head of an orchestra, make experiments, observe what created an impression, and what weakened it, thus improving, adding to, cutting away, and running risks. I was set apart from the world, there was nobody in my vicinity to confuse and annoy me in my course, and so I had to become original.” With the succession of a new Esterhazy prince in 1790, Haydn’s life took a new direction. Although he continued to earn a salary, he was no longer required to live at the Esterhazy estate. He moved back to Vienna, one of the musical capitals of the time, where he met and befriended Mozart and for several years was the teacher of the young Beethoven. He also accepted invitations for two lengthy trips to London, for which he composed a number of important new works. In London, performances devoted to his music, including 12 brilliant new symphonies, were highlights of the concert season. He appeared before the royal family, was sought after as a guest at social occasions, and was awarded an honorary doctorate from Oxford University. In Vienna, where his monumental oratorios The Creation and The Seasons were enthusiastically received, he was named an honorary citizen. At his death at the age of 77, Haydn had become one of Europe’s most celebrated figures.
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Her People and Her History: How Camille Lucie Nickerson Inspired the Preservation of Creole Folk Music and Culture, 1888-1982

Her People and Her History: How Camille Lucie Nickerson Inspired the Preservation of Creole Folk Music and Culture, 1888-1982

Following her graduation from Oberlin College, Camille returned to her home in New Orleans to teach alongside her father at the Nickerson School of Music located in their home at 120 North Galvez Street. In its fourth year as an institution, the school offered vocal and instrumental music to its pupils with Camille heading the piano department and her father heading the violin and orchestra departments. Their school taught a wide variety of skills, advertising “piano, organ, theory, history of music, accompanying, and choral work” in addition to instrumental classes in violin, mandolin, cello, bass, cornet, clarinet, flute, trombone, drums, sight singing, and voice culture. 64 In February 1917, Camille drafted a letter to her Oberlin classmates in which she told of her aspirations with her father to create a nationally recognized School of Music in New Orleans. Camille related that their grand idea was “not only because of much talent which we find, but also because there is a great deal of ambition among music lovers and the field here is a splendid one.” Nickerson also wrote of her fondness for teaching her
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Optional Program Course: History of Mayan Culture and Civilization Language and Cultural Studies in the Yucatán

Optional Program Course: History of Mayan Culture and Civilization Language and Cultural Studies in the Yucatán

This unit is dedicated to the major and best known "classic" features of the ancient Maya culture. The contents of this unit are divided in a discussion about the apogee of Maya culture in the central lowlands (where we will discuss the most important cities), the political

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Polynesian language and culture history

Polynesian language and culture history

Results of the cosmogony work are based upon a distributional method (explained in Chapter 7) and indicate what might have been where the linguistic and kin term results are based upon the comparative method of linguistics and indicate more strongly what must have been. Still, the cultures of the linguistic subgroups tend to have exclusively shared features in cosmogonic notions and the distributional method is taken to be highly indicative. There are also substantial sharings of cosmogonic traditions through most of the cultures which seem to be shared retentions from Proto Polynesian times (Marck 1996b, 1996c and Chapter 7 below). The central finding of the kin terms study is that the ancestral system was similar to modern East Polynesian and Tongan in which more relationships were named than in Samoan and many of the Outliers today (Marck 1996d and Chapter 8 below). Chapter 9 relates the results of the previous chapters to current issues in archaeology and makes a few observations on how Polynesian language historians might benefit by turning their eye towards the demographics of ancient Polynesian linguistic communities.
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An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music

An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music

If importation of folk music does not explain the differences between English and French musical rhythms, what does? It is known from studies of language acquisition that the perceptual system is sensitive to the rhythmic patterns of language from a very early age (Nazzi et al., 1998; Ramus, 2002a). Composers, like other members of their culture, internalize these patterns as part of learning to speak their native language. One explanation suggests that when composers write music, linguistic rhythms are “in their ears”, and they can consciously or unconsciously draw on these patterns in weaving the sonic fabric of their music. A second explanation proposes that developing composers are influenced by the music of their compatriots. This music, in turn, is influenced by the music these composers hear as children, such as popular and folk songs whose rhythms bear the imprint of their associated linguistic texts. It is important to note that neither explanation suggests that the connection between linguistic and musical rhythm is obli- gatory: rather, this link is likely to be greater in historical epochs where composers seek a national character for their music.
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Culture in Foreign Language Teaching

Culture in Foreign Language Teaching

gardens. Seeing the two cultures echoing each other across time and space might foster in students a post-modern subjectivity, that applied linguists, following Bhabha (1994), have located in the third place of discourse (Kramsch, 2009a) - a symbolic competence that focuses on the process of meaning making itself (Kramsch, 2009b). In online or face-to-face interactions, students are seen as constructing their own and others’ subject positions through the questions they ask and the topics they choose to talk about or to avoid. These subject positions constitute over time a discursive practice that we call ‘culture’. They are acted out on a much larger scale in national debates like, for example, the one surrounding the wearing of the Islamic veil in French public schools. This cultural debate cannot be taught in a French classroom in Iran through mere explanations of cultural difference. It has to be constructed with the students by making explicit the presuppositions behind their own religious beliefs; how educational history is constructed differently in the two countries; how French secularism is constructed in the foreign press, how freedom of religion is constructed in France; and how the separation of Church and State is talked and written about in different countries. The subject positions that emerge from this intercultural encounter are multiple, conflictual and they are likely to change as things are talked about differently in different times and places (Weedon, 1997).
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A City for Music Lovers: Creating a classical music culture in Sydney 1889 1939

A City for Music Lovers: Creating a classical music culture in Sydney 1889 1939

In Sydney during the 1880s and 1890s those who took the cause of classical music particularly seriously began to self-identify as “music lovers”. This group was often separately identified in newspapers, with the most passionate writing letters to the editor signing themselves “music lover”. In his study of concert diaries in the United States, cultural historian, David Cavicchi documented a similar group of self-identifying music lovers. He defined this group as young, middle-class, white men and women, often newly arrived in the cities, who were, for the first time in history, focused more on hearing music in public concerts than on making music themselves at home. 76 They may have had a musical education and played a musical
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Community music: history and current practice, its constructions of ‘community’, digital turns and future soundings

Community music: history and current practice, its constructions of ‘community’, digital turns and future soundings

economic constraint. In the 1980s community music was a beneficiary of just such an initiative (Higham 1990, Price 2002), alongside an Arts Council music animateur programme (Price 2010). In the later 1990s culture-led regeneration policies and social inclusion projects (Matarasso 1997, Social Exclusion Unit 2000, Jermyn 2001 and 2004) under New Labour contributed what Everitt (1997) has called the ‘subsidy revolution’ facilitated by lottery funding. The establishment in 1998 of Youth Music saw aesthetic excellence and social benefit targets sit somewhat uncomfortably alongside one another (Rimmer 2009). The Music Manifestos (Rogers 2005 and 2006) put forward a case for community music-type involvement in mainstream education, and have also influenced the recent government-commissioned report on Music Education in England (Henley 2011). It remains to be seen what impact, if any, the Big Society will have on community music practice as a viable professional (rather than volunteering) activity.
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Music, Eurocentrism and Identity: The Myth of the Discovery of America in Chilean Music History

Music, Eurocentrism and Identity: The Myth of the Discovery of America in Chilean Music History

In the strict sense, just to speak of the discovery of America implies mythologizing history. The term reminds us of the planetary discoveries; Pluto was effectively discovered in 1930 in that it was not known by humans before that. Consequently, its use and acceptance supposed forgetting the fact that people previously lived in America. In this way, aboriginal societies were relegated to an undefined space, while Europe was universalized and stood as the representative culture of the West, incarnating the only valid model of civilization by the time (cf. Castillo, 1998: p. 18). The city, the literacy, the divine cult and political religious institutions represented then civility by excellence, while the other (disperse indigenous people on the plains, other religious beliefs…) were qualified with terms such as chaos or barbarism (Waisman, 2005: pp. 160-163), and better understood by negation, that is, as uncivilized and cultureless manifestations (Castillo, 1998: p. 20). Thus, there are a significant number of co- lonial testimonies that characterize indigenous music, so to speak, as non-music. I limit myself to the following example of 1658, which comes from the other side of the Andes, in which it is affirmed that the natives re- sponded to the shots fired by the Spaniards “with shouting and with flutes and horns, as they are accustomed to do” (Gesualdo, 1978: p. 3). As Salinas states, the conquest of America was thus transformed into “the articulat- ing event of historical ordering”, the moment in which history itself began. In fact, Eugenio Pereira Salas, not- withstanding the valuable information that he provides about indigenous music in Chile, names the chapter ded- icated to this theme in his book Los orígenes del arte musical… (1941) as “Music before the conquest” (Salinas, 2000: p. 46).
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A general overview of the history of music education in turks

A general overview of the history of music education in turks

development, change and transformation process, with the social adoption of Islam and the state becoming official religion. The rooted "modal" Turkish music was opened to the makam music scene and started to become e Tuğ team turned into a table, and a tradition of singing on the tanbur accompanied by "Do not sing folk songs in the kopuz mate" started to occur. The first Turkish music theory books were written. Kitab-ul Mudhal fiild Musiki (Musikiye Giriş Kitap) and Kitap-ül Musiki-ül Kebir (Great Musical Book) written by Mehmet Farabi (874- 950) are not only the Turkish and Islamic world but also the most important two of the age The basic theory was the book. During the period of Turkish Seljuks, Turkish music culture development phase in "art music" and genres. Especially "tekke music" in the field of faith music showed a very rapid development. Mevlânâ and his son Sultan Veled in urban tekke music and Taptuk Emre, Şeyyad Hamza in rural tekke music were decisive. In the institutions that the Seljuks called Tabılhâne or Nevbethâne, students were educated with the military band logic. The military band is at the forefront of the war, leaving a of the enemy with an alien tangible voice similar to a thunderous sound that is heard from far away and gradually approaching, ending the war in the shortest time by taking over the enemy and thus preventing human beings
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The Acquisition of Popular Music in Popular Culture Archives

The Acquisition of Popular Music in Popular Culture Archives

The final question produced the most thought-provoking answers. Participant 1: “you know I read this article about Ray Charles where he was talking about music and his place in music and people were saying, “Oh you were a genius…” and he was saying ‘no, I’m not a genius.’ If you look at music and you only look at people like [Ray Charles] or you look at people like Charlie Parker then you’re really looking at the corners of a frame. You’re not really looking at the full picture. You’re not really looking at all the little guys who are doing exactly what the other people were doing but didn’t get to be famous. And there are a lot of people in [our] 78s collection that are like that. And I thought that was a really fascinating way to think about popular music. But, I don’t know, I get the impression that, 100 years from now, people are gonna be looking at the corners. They’re gonna be studying Motown, they’re gonna be studying The Beatles, they’re gonna be studying the things that made a huge impact, you know, in life culture, and Ray Charles, too. And rightly so, and, I don’t know, I guess that’s the way that history gets shaped. We talk about Bach, we don’t talk about Bach’s good friend, who also played the organ.” Participant 2: “what’s an archive? Are we preserving what a Columbia Label looks like, what an RCA label looks like? It’s nice to have a lot of these, but…I remember [here Participant 2 describes a meeting of collectors where one
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The Relationship between Language and Culture

The Relationship between Language and Culture

Goodenough (1981) asserts that culture in a society is whatever a person has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptance to its members, and to do so in any role that they accept for any one of themselves. Fuller and Wardhaugh (2014) note that culture is socially acquired. It is the “know-how” that a person must possess to get through the task of daily living; only for a few does it requires a knowledge of some, or much, music, literature and the arts (Fuller & Wardhaugh (2014).

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CHRISTIAN MUSIC AND CULTURE IN INDIA

CHRISTIAN MUSIC AND CULTURE IN INDIA

After four decades of prosperous trading, the missionaries started the proselytisation around 1540 and during this period, foreign missionaries also made many new converts to Christianity. Early Roman Catholic missionaries, particularly the Portuguese, led by the Jesuit St Francis Xavier (1506–1552), expanded from their bases on the west coast making many converts. The Portuguese colonial government supported the mission and the baptised Christians were given incentives like rice donations, good positions in their colonies. Hence, these Christians were dubbed Rice Christians who even practised their old religion. At the same time many New Christians from Portugal migrated to India as a result of the inquisition in Portugal. Many of them were suspected of being Crypto-Jews, converted Jews who were secretly practising their old religion. Both were considered a threat to the solidarity of Christian belief. Saint Francis Xavier, in a 1545 letter to John III of Portugal, requested the Goan Inquisition, which is considered a blot on the history of Roman Catholic Christianity in India, both by Christians and
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Bika Ambon of Indonesia: history, culture, and its contribution to tourism sector

Bika Ambon of Indonesia: history, culture, and its contribution to tourism sector

Indonesia is an archipelago with more than 17,000 islands and more than 300 ethnic groups. Today, the country has 35 provinces, and each province has its own local culture, language, and ethnic food. One of the most populated provinces in Indonesia is North Sumatra province with Medan as the capital. As a regional gov- ernment center of North Sumatra, Medan grew into a metropolitan city with a population of more than two million people (Fig. 4). Now the city of Medan is the third largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta and Surabaya. As one of the largest cities in Indonesia, Medan has a high cultural tourism potential to be developed; the city is rich in historical heritage of the past that still exists in the form of historic buildings with customs that are still preserved [12].
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Special issue: Language and Culture

Special issue: Language and Culture

mutual interpenetration of Ancient Egyptian and sub-Sahara-African themes, in the way of concepts and structures of thought, myths, symbolism, the kingship, state formation, and productive practices. One absolutely surprising outcome of the book (when I started out I sincerely thought I could prove the opposite to be true!) is my confirmation, without the slightest reservation, of one of the most ridiculed ideas of early twentieth century anthropological diffusionism: Egyptocentrism as a possible model for African cultural history. By the end of the fourth millennium before the common era, Ancient Egypt owed its emergence as a civilisation (contrary to what Bernal thinks to be the case) to the interaction between Black African and Eastern Mediterranean / West Asian cultural orientations. But in the next step my analyses demonstrates that Ancient Egypt, in its turn, did have a decisive fertilising effect not only (as stressed in the %ODFN $WKHQD thesis) on the eastern Mediterranean basin and hence on Europe, but also, in a most significant feed-back process, on Black Africa, right into the nooks and crannies of many aspects of life, including the kingship, law, ritual and mythology. Instead of the patchwork-quilt blanket of mutually absolutely distinct ‘cultures’, as in the dominant view both among scholars and in the modern world at large, what thus emerges in the image of Africa that displays a very remarkable cultural unity. And such unity springs, not from any timeless and somatically-based Black mystique of Africanity, but from clearly detectable historical processes: having first served as D (not: WKH ) major source and subsequently as principal recipient of Ancient Egyptian civilisation, and finally as the recipient of converging Arabian/ Islamic as well as — in the most recent centuries — North Atlantic colonial influences. The general conclusion of *OREDO %HH )OLJKW is a radical, positive and (coming from what looks like a White establishment scholar) unexpected revision of our conception of the place of Africa in global cultural history. Meanwhile there is little reason why the same model of qualified continuity over large distances in space and time would not also apply to other continents including Europe, and to the historical connections between various continents.
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The Music Between Us: Is Music a Universal Language?

The Music Between Us: Is Music a Universal Language?

Nussbaum ’ s theory is not uncontroversial and I would have liked to see Higgins engage more critically with it. One concern is that while many cultures speak of pitches in spatial terms, some do not, and apparently some cultures even reverse the high-low pitch associations that we find in Anglophone culture (p.199 ft.85). Similarly, Higgins observes that all cultures seem to make synaesthetic associations with music (perhaps encouraged by the restriction of music to the auditory channel p.113) but these associations can differ quite a lot. As such, it may be that we have a universal tendency to make some kind of connection between music and spatial layout or movement, but this is done in heterogeneous ways. If more complex properties of the music rely on us making such associations, I worry that these different associations may be a source of further divisions between musical cultures.
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Language culture of a city in cyberspace

Language culture of a city in cyberspace

The website of Chelyabinsk [13] and its central news column (headings and corresponding leads-in, webpage updated on April 1, 2019) includes the following place names (italicized examples), city space verbal markers including general names of the city objects and representatives of the city population. These are South Ural (5) inhabitant, Minsots (abbreviation for the Ministry of Social Security); hospital, queue, registration desk; new building, Chelyabinsk (8); region (regional); Chelyabinsk suburbs; clinic “Medeor”;; Zlatoust; city hall; land; Churilovo; RC “Zarya” (Residential Complex “Dawn”);; city; City water supply system company; “Intersviaz’”;; Chelyabinsk citizen (6); S7 (airlines). This also includes all the world; Ukraine; KVN (abbreviation for Club for the Lightheaded and Quick-witted); daycare queue; MMK (abbreviation for Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works); TV tower; half a km radius; metals, STSI (abbreviation for State Traffic Safety Inspectorate); Chelyabinsk frontier guard, police;
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An RNN-based Music Language Model for Improving Automatic Music Transcription

An RNN-based Music Language Model for Improving Automatic Music Transcription

In this paper, we investigate the use of Music Language Models (MLMs) for improving Automatic Music Transcrip- tion performance. The MLMs are trained on sequences of symbolic polyphonic music from the Nottingham dataset. We train Recurrent Neural Network (RNN)-based models, as they are capable of capturing complex temporal struc- ture present in symbolic music data. Similar to the func- tion of language models in automatic speech recognition, we use the MLMs to generate a prior probability for the oc- currence of a sequence. The acoustic AMT model is based on probabilistic latent component analysis, and prior infor- mation from the MLM is incorporated into the transcrip- tion framework using Dirichlet priors. We test our hybrid models on a dataset of multiple-instrument polyphonic mu- sic and report a significant 3% improvement in terms of F- measure, when compared to using an acoustic-only model.
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Caliban's Meaning: The Culture of Language

Caliban's Meaning: The Culture of Language

inherent, relationship I claim to find between language and culture. In the book Translating Lives, a number of non-native speakers of English discuss their frustrations with the use of English because they are detached from the Anglo-culture. For example, Wierzbicka (2007), a Pole living in Australia, narrates an experience in which she received a CD from a friend as a gift. After listening to the songs on it, she decided to email her friend to thank her. This seemingly essay task proved to be difficult for her as the Polish thoughts she wanted to convey in the email were obstructed by the language in which she had to communicate, English. The thoughts she formed in Polish to begin her email translates into English as “I was moved…” However, she knew that, in English “to be moved” is a momentary emotional reaction to something. It hence did not fit what she was thinking in Polish. She was looking for an English expression which will communicate the idea of being moved but in an extended, and not momentary time. The closest expression she could fine was “I listened with emotion…” but then she felt that it was too archaic and literary for an informal email. She decided to use “I really enjoyed listening…” even though she felt that the element of fun implied was not natural to the way she would describe her emotion. To find a way out of this dilemma, she concluded that what she was originally seeking to say was “inconsistent with the Anglo cultural script” (Wierzbicka, 2007, p. 97) of emotional expression—it was only possible in Polish.
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Aural image and the language of electroacoustic music

Aural image and the language of electroacoustic music

Permanent repository link: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/8271/ Link to published version: Copyright and reuse: City Research Online aims to make research outputs of City, University of Lo[r]

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