presented a group of factors in recent studies, relating needs and gratifications obtained through music listening. This 8-factor model is useful to identify needs sought through music and determining the extent to which such needs are being fulfilled.
Certain music genres are directly or indirectly linked to distinctive youth subcultures such as goths, ravers, punks, emos, and ghettos, among others. This phenomenon is evident for the association of music genres, behaviors, and clothing styles that constitute the symbolism of youth subcultures. Interestingly, music genres seem to be associated with levels of intellectuality, morality, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and academic status, among other factors that have a great impact on youth subcultures (Brake, 1985). Symbols and elements of this nature bring youth subculture members together. An important issue to consider is the relationship between music genres and satisfaction of certain needs among young people, since music is the essence of many youth subcultures.
Previous studies have focused on news usage among inter ethnic groups with limited attention on intra ethnic groups. Furthermore, these previous studies have not attempted to correlate the news gratifications sought with the news gratifications obtained. These studies have not also attempted to examine a possible moderating role of ethnic migration on the news usage of ethnic groups. The study aims at exploring the relationship between news and ethnicity as important social phenomena. This is against the backdrop of the strong influence that ethnicity has on the personality of Nigerians. Mixed method approach was used. Survey questionnaires were administered on sampled undergraduates in Nigeria. In-depth interviews were also conducted among members of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC), Nigeria. Partial Least Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the quantitative data while qualitative data were analyzed on NVivo software. Findings show a significant difference among the ethnic groups in their news gratifications. Ethnic migration significantly moderates the relationship between news gratifications sought and news gratifications obtained. Our qualitative data show that the ethnic groups differ in several ways on how they use media for news gratifications. Through this study, ethnicity as a predictor of news usage has been further explored from a peculiar context of intra ethnic diversity. Coupled with the novel exploration of ethnic migration as a moderator in the news usage process, this study has expanded the horizon of Uses and Gratifications Theory. Practically, the Federal Government of Nigeria can use the findings of this study to evolve more realistic strategies for effective mobilization of Nigerian youth.
Beauty is not easy to define as it is subjective and it concerns matters of taste (Scruton, 2008), but many say, “we know it when we see it” (Brody, 2015, p. S17). Lately, it looks like most people, generally women, old or young, have a fascination with physical beauty and youth.
Older people want to look younger and younger people want to fight aging at all cost before it even arrives. Some individuals have the blessing of retaining young-looking skin even with the passing of the years without much effort, while others have to use products and do procedures to help maintain or bring back some of the youthfulness to the skin (Brody, 2015). One thing beauty vloggers do is helping their audience to stay beautiful and youthful by trying out products themselves and recommending things that are aimed to make you look good. Because of the trust the followers have in the beauty vloggers, they do follow the vloggers’ advice and a lot of times buy the product they recommend or do whatever they suggest.
Like many 21st-century youth, students of Kuwaiti high schools use social networking sites such as Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr, and Instagram which have become the lived environments where young people display information and ideas, establish camaraderie or feuds, and share conversations and perspectives from the imaginative to the mundane. These sites are increasingly becoming the (cyber) spaces that serve and reflect youth constructing, articulating, and participating in the formation of their social realities for and with other individuals. In essence, young people using social networking sites are involved in fundamental acts of teaching and learning .
Drawing on in-depth interviews conducted with residents at an old-aged home in Cape Town, South Africa, this study examines the main uses and gratifications elderly people get from computers. While the research focus in Africa has been on the health of elderly people, particularly with respect to HIV/AIDS, there is little research into their adoption of new technologies, as the re - search focus with respect to that topic has been primarily on youth. This studyfound that the participants use email and social media to maintain contact with family and friends outside of, and sometimes even within the neighborhood. Furthermore, keeping in contact involved not only communication, but also observation of activities – like news, photographs and discussions. Using a uses and gratifications framework, this study found that participants felt connected with society both through their communication with and observation of people, and through keeping themselves informed about news and current interest topics. By using the Internet the elderly people communicated with more people than they had before. Some of the participants felt less isolated and lonely because of their computer use. Nevertheless, use of computers did not weaken their interpersonal contact outside of com- puter use.
The findings for the second research question reflect that young people usually use Snapchat to fulfill their gratifications of convenience (e.g. easy to access, portable, enjoy the pleasure of talking to people), attention seeking (e.g. get appreciation by others, get attention from others, create a sense of importance), escape (e.g. get away from pressure and responsibilities temporarily, help to deal with daily trouble, feel anxious if do not use it), information seeking (e.g. learn about on-campus events, get information about off- campus events, get useful information about product or services) and socialization (e.g. connect with people who share some of their values, connect with people who are similar to them, get news about family members or friends).
Master of Science degree in Communication & Media Technologies Degree Awarded: Spring Semester 2019 (2185)
Music consumption has been transformed by technological changes during the last three decades; the introduction of streaming technologies and the expansion of the global music market have changed the way people in various countries engage with music in daily life. Previous research on music consumption points to the uses and gratifications often sought by audiences, as well as the motives that drive their consumption habits. While most studies have centered on audiences from the developing world, this study focuses particularly on music consumption in the Dominican Republic. The data was collected through an online survey that inquired about the platforms used by people in the Dominican Republic to consume music, the gratifications sought when engaging with various music genres, and the
There were a few limitations in this study. The sample size is relatively low.
This is important because fewer people in a survey make it harder to interpret data and generalize among the entire population. It means that even though a difference was found in parts of the data in the study and those differences were significant, it is not as powerful as if hundreds or thousands of people would have participated. Also, the participants were college students, likely to be in the bottom of the population in income and therefore might be more willing to forego a cable subscription in favor of solely an Internet provider. This would mean they might be more likely to watch video content online than the general population. All these could skew results. Younger people also tend to adopt new technology more than older people. So technological barriers that exist among some might not exist among college students, making watching online video an easier choice for them.
This study examined the Uses and Gratifications of Social Networking Websites among Youths in Uyo, the capital of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The population of the study was 86,662 with a sample of 381 respondents derived from the multi-stage sampling procedure. The study used the survey method as the research technique while the measuring instrument was the questionnaire which contained 13 items – eight close-ended and five open-ended questions. The data for the study were analysed through the use of tables and were expressed in simple percentages. The study found out that youths in Uyo registered in at least 46 social networking websites which indicates that they are internet-savvy and is part of the global social networking. It also found that the youths were active users of social networking websites and accessed the websites for various purposes and gratifications. It also established that the youths were not always fulfilled in their expectations of social networking sites, although they made use of these websites daily. The study recommended that service providers should, as their contribution to national development, reduce the cost of access to enable more youths in Uyo metropolis to register with and use social networking websites.
powerful forms of communication that can influence masses and connect groups of people in a common experience. Examining music consumption, therefore, can be helpful in understanding the motivations of groups of people behind their music choices.
General music consumption is rising across the United States. According to the Nielsen Music’s 2019 Mid-Year Report, total album equivalent consumption rose almost 16% in the first six months of 2019 alone (Nielsen Music, 2019). More and more people are consuming music, especially as smart phones and other mobile technologies have allowed music to become an almost constant part of people’s daily lives. As well, people have more options in how they consume music than ever before. Digital music consumption has become dominant. However, the number of music platforms available is larger than ever before, due to the fact that old music platform technologies did not become fully obsolete as digital music platforms gained
With respect to the influence of culture, the literature on cultural studies reveals that cultural researchers have specified several frameworks that can be used to explicate behavioral differences across cultures. Hofstede (1997) specifies 5 dimensions as:
individualism/collectivism, power distance, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation. Schwartz (1994) suggests 7 dimensions: conservatism, intellectual autonomy, affective autonomy, hierarchy, egalitarianism, mastery, and harmony. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1998) also proposed 7 dimensions: universalism/particularism, individualism and communitarianism, neutral/emotional, specific/diffuse, achievement/ascription, time orientation (, and attitudes to environment. Hall (1989), and Hall and Hall (1987) suggest 3 dimensions as communication context, perception of space, and monochromic vs. polychronic time. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) employed nature of people, person’s relationship to nature, person’s relationship to other people, primary mode of activity, conception of space, and person’s temporal orientation as dimensions of culture. These cultural values influence consumption related behaviors (Wang 1999). This study delineates 5 cultural variables, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance (Hofstede, 1997), time orientation (Hall, 1989; Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1998), and communication context (Hall, 1989) that seem to suggest significant moderation toward attitude formulation toward online shopping among Anglo-Americans and Hispanics. Besides most often used, these dimensions appear to me common across the most of the cultural frameworks cited above.
Past research also suggests that SNS users seek social influence gratification to follow a societal trend or be part of a peer group (Papacharissi & Mendelson, 2010; Quan-Haase & Young, 2010). Likewise, online photo sharing activity also helps the users in fulfilling the social influence gratification (Oeldorf-Hirsch & Sundar, 2010). Results from our study endorse that people also engage in photo sharing activity on Facebook to be an active part of the peer group. As photo sharing activity on Facebook is one of the popular activities on the platform (M Duggan & Brenner, 2012; Joinson, 2008; Madden et al., 2013; Pai & Arnott, 2013), it is highly likely that the activity might also be popular among the respondents’ peer groups. Photo sharing on Facebook can be strongly linked to peer communication (Lucero et al., 2011; N. A. Van House, 2009; Vartiainen & Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, 2010) and sense of belonging, as being part of the friends’ network is considered highly significant among Facebook users. The high rate of acceptance and adoption among peers enforces the users to follow the current societal trend, as well as their peers. Hence, the people not actively involved in sharing photos on Facebook might be left out of discussions among peers around certain topics or trends. In some instances, it might become challenging to stick to the peer group if one is not posting photos or engaging in concurrent discussion on posted photos.
Connection Gratification: For the subgroup representing young, low socio- economic status respondents, both consumptive ( β = .18, p < .001) and interaction uses of the Internet ( β = .15, p < .001) were positive predictors of connection gratification among all Internet users. In this subgroup, the two types of Internet use uniquely explained 6 percent of total variance in connection gratification. For the older, low socio-economic status respondents, connection gratification was associated with only social interaction over the Internet ( β = .21, p < .001), with 4 percent of total variance explained after taking controls into account. For the subgroup of young, high socio-economic status respondents, interaction use of the Internet is a single factor to explain connection gratification ( β = .18, p < .001). In this model, 3 percent of variance in connection gratification was uniquely explained by the single factor. For the older, high socio-economic status respondents, connection gratification was also associated with interaction over the Internet ( β = .20, p < .001). A total of 4 percent of variance in connection gratification was explained. To summarize, findings indicate that social interaction over the Internet was a main factor explaining connection gratification across all subgroups. It is worth highlighting that consumptive use of the Internet was also strongly associated with connection gratification particularly in a subgroup representing young, low socio-economic status individuals. Thus, the significant relationship between consumptive use and connection gratification ( β = .06, p < .001) in the initial analysis is driven by this particular subgroup.
News organizations are nowadays under increased pressure to make a profit (O’Sullivan & Heinonen, 2008) which has implications on journalism practices and the public. In the world of digital communications, where every click counts, a journalist cannot be indifferent toward the users’ news consumption preferences. He or she needs to pay close attention to the audience’s wants and needs. Understanding readers is critical for the success of news organizations, and the live blog as a journalistic format appears to serve as an example of good practice on how to connect with the audience. As an innovative form of storytelling, the live blog is greatly appreciated by the audiences due to its potential to respond to users’ needs that emerged in tandem with new technologies. The live blog has been recognized in the scholarly literature as a transparency- oriented journalistic genre with a strong participatory component, more popular among readers than other news formats on the Internet (Pantic, 2017; Pantic et al., 2017; Thurman & Newman, 2014; Thurman & Walters, 2013). Based on the findings of the current study, readers cherished all major characteristics of live blogs, but most appealing to them was the capacity of the format to employ multiple sources, provide information in real time and utilize diverse multimedia items. This finding is in line with previous research on live blogs that identified balanced reporting embodied in multitude of opinions and timeliness, which refers to live updates about a running event, as the most cherished characteristics of live blogs (Pantic, 2017; Thurman & Newman, 2014; Thurman & Walters, 2013).
d) Transaction. When Hagel and Armstrong identified this use of online communities more than a decade ago, it was accepted in the broader context of the word to mean bartering for the ultimate online resource – information – on a quid pro quo basis. At that time technological constraints and sceptical user attitudes allowed only limited transaction in the economic sense of the word. However, attitudes and technology has evolved and e-commerce has become commonplace. As such, online communities are often used to execute transactions where monetary currency is exchanged or where expertise, time and knowledge are used in lieu of money to procure assets, labour or knowledge. Depending on the website, users may conduct these transactions among themselves or with the website owner. According to Sangwan (2005:
In terms of limitations, our study expressly did not inquire people’s initial choice of a gamified over a non- gamified platform in the wild, nor of a particular platform over another. Our study was also limited by the game elements incorporated in the studied platforms; future work should therefore test whether other features (such as social game elements) would bring out other U&G. Furthermore, longitudinal research is needed to unpack the potential evolution of U&G over time. For example, curiosity was found to be the second most important reason for use among our novice participants, but might be less of a factor for more experienced users. The impact of study participation on reported reasons for use is also unclear. This might have led to e.g. overestimating the prevalence of social desirable U&G, like learning. Lastly, in the learning domain, the link between users’ reasons for use and learning outcomes is an interesting open question. Acknowledgements
Moreover, research into social me- dia usage patterns suggested that most of the college students are using MySpace and Facebook for an indispensable com- ponent of their everyday lives for reasons such as developing new friendships as well as re-connecting with old friends (Raacke & Bonds-Raacke, 2008). Wang, Tchernev, and Solloway (2012) found similar results, indicating that four main motivations for social media use includ- ed emotional expression, cognition, social maintenance, and habitual diversion. In a study of 597 respondents, Ku, Chu, and Tseng (2013) discovered four general grat- ifications among the computer-mediated communication technologies, consist- ing of social maintenance, information exchange, amusement, and style. Based an online survey, Ruehl and Ingenhoff (2015) applied a combined perspective of uses and gratifications (U&G) and so- cial cognitive theory (SCT) to assess in- dividuals’ motives for brand page usage on Facebook, indicating that consump- tion behavior could be drived by activity, self-reactive-novel as well as monetary incentives. Later, Gan and Wang (2015) re- vealed that three patterns of gratifications were obtained from using both microblog and WeChat: content gratification, social gratification and hedonic gratification. In addition, they found that content grati- fication plays the most salient role in us- ing microblog, while social gratification is the most important for WeChat usage. Although what motivates users to adopt social media and how the gratifications affect the practices through social media are crucial research subjects (Gan & Wang, 2015; Leung, 2013; Quinn, 2016), prior published studies assessing the effects of these local social media platforms on in-
Abstract As the main consumers of music, young people can be considered as members of subculture(s) who tend to and adhere to music consumption. The variables of cultural capital and class differences play an effective role in music consumption, but the conditions of the new society have allowed other variables to influence the tastes. The main objective of this research is to investigate the popularity of different music styles among the youth and teenagers in Mashhad. The method used is survey using a questionnaire. The statistical population included 2541841 adolescents and youths in Mashhad, of whom 100 were selected as the sample using Cochrane formula. The sampling method was simple random selection. The results of this study showed that there is no significant relationship between gender, age, religious attitude and religious beliefs, social interactions of individuals and social class with type of consumed music style.
number of hours spent watching television. These three measures were hypothesized to have a positive correlation with acculturation level, which was measured based on Cuéllar et al’s 1980 ARSMA scale. Of the three measures, proportional television
viewing was found to have the strongest correlation with acculturation. This suggests that immigrants who spent the majority of their television viewing time watching English content experience higher acculturation levels. Phase 2 of the research introduced the mediating variables of information seeking motivation and perceived reality as they related to English-language television viewing. Put another way, the researcher hypothesized that the effect of television exposure on acculturation would increase as immigrants increasingly used English-language television for information gathering and forming perceptions of reality. Results indicated that information seeking motivation for television viewing was slightly stronger than forming perceptions of reality, although both correlated positively. This suggests that immigrants use television primarily for information gathering about their new cultural surroundings, and secondarily to develop perceptions of their new reality. Phase 3 of the study explored the relationship between duration of residence in a new culture and level of television exposure (low or high). It was predicted that among immigrants with low television exposure, those whose duration of residence was longer would experience higher acculturation levels. It was also
Social media platforms have begun to be quite widely used as alternatives of the conventional media among the young in the recent years. The ratings and number of users of YouTube – a social media platform established in 2005 for image recording, storage, and sharing – worldwide and in Turkey have increased depending on the change in the mobile use habits as well as on the flourishing of smartphones. It is seen that the use of YouTube has become widespread particularly among the young in the sense of reaching information and of social interaction as well as for reputation acquisition, to become famous, and for entertainment. In this context, a survey was carried out in December 2017 to reveal the motivations of some 579 university students for use by employing the method of random sampling. As a result of the research, it was discovered that the university students used YouTube on each day of the week and for an hour to 3 hours daily to acquire information and reach alternative information, for access to alternative news broadcasting, and to obtain economic and social utility most and accessed YouTube largely by means of a laptop.