How a parent responds to NCMP feedback will be shaped by their understanding of their child’s weight. Parents’ understanding can be thought about as a continuum with three distinct phases but the possibility to move back and forth between each one depending on the particular concern raised (Figure 2). In order to respond to NCMP feedback by taking steps to live a healthier lifestyle, parents will need to be aware that their child is above a healthy weight range, understand and accept that this may have implications for their child’s wellbeing now and as they grow up, and have a range of options to take appropriate action.
delivering the NCMP can use the NCMP conversationframework to respond to the most common issues raised by parents in response to receiving NCMP feedback. The issues are organised with reference to the Weight Awareness Continuum to illustrate how school nurses, their teams and other professionals delivering the NCMP can respond in ways that support the parent to move from awareness through acceptance to take positive action about their child’s weight. Each common query is followed by an evidence-based rationale and a suggested helpful response that could be used when talking to parents.
The Northern Territory’s Safe Children, Bright Futures Strategic Framework 2011 – 2015, lists seven areas of reform, one of which is “keeping kids safe” (Department of Children and Families, 2011, p. 8). The authors of the report ask the question “How will we measure our success?” (Department of Children and Families, 2011, p. 7). Their answer (in part) is that the ‘Child Protection External Monitoring and Reporting Committee’ will work with the Department of Children and Families to “develop a performance measurement and evaluation framework to measure the success of reforms to the child protection and child and family support systems, and to evaluate specific initiatives undertaken as part of the reforms” (Department of Children and Families, 2011, p. 7). The authors of the report also state that Government will work “with indigenous organizations and communities to develop new measures that are meaningful for indigenous children and families, and will involve non-government organizations and communities in the design and process of evaluating programs and services” (Department of Children and Families, 2011, p. 7). We suggest that rather than developing “new measures” it would be preferable to have reliable basic measures. It would be better for example, to have uniform definitions of child abuse and neglect across place and across time, so that the effectiveness of interventions can be evaluated. Then there would be no debate about whether the extreme measures undertaken by the Federal Government in implementing the Northern Territory ‘Intervention’, to address the significant problem of child abuse and neglect that is facing so many indigenous communities, have been effective or not. The answers would be in the data. Good data provides protection. Good data needs competent systems of surveillance.
We examined a number of individual level measures representing the child’s socio-economic circumstances (SECs). Mother’s social class (National Statistical Socio- economic Classification [NS-SEC]) in her current or last known employment was captured when the children were aged 9 months and grouped as follows: managerial and professional, intermediate, routine and manual, and never worked/long-term (L/T) unemployed. We also ex- amined two time varying measures of SECs (based at status at age 3, 5 and 7 years): maternal highest aca- demic qualification, classified as degree and above, dip- loma, A-Levels, GCSE grades A*-C, GCSE grades D-G, other qualifications, and no qualifications; and equiva- lised household income divided into quintiles (missing income data were multiply imputed by the data owners). Finally, IMD was used to assess area deprivation, in order to be able to compare findings to the NCMP. IMD was based on the SOA of the child’s postcode at age three, five and seven, divided into national quintiles (in England only).
across the country, now tests all women for HBsAg dur- ing pregnancy and administers hepatitis B immuno- globulin (HBIG) and HBvacc-BD for all HBV-exposed new-borns within 24 h of birth free-of-charge . In addition, China endorsed the 2018–2030 Asia Pacific Re- gional Framework for Triple Elimination of MTCT of HIV, syphilis and HBV in 2017 . However, despite these important programmatic and policy actions, the out- comes of HBV component of the PMTCT programme have not yet been systematically evaluated. Identifying the current HBV MTCT rate will allow for projections and target setting in relation to the global and regional elimin- ation goals. In addition, understanding factors associated with programmatic outcomes is essential to better under- stand how to make policy and programmatic recommen- dations that ensure services reach the ‘last mile’ of mother-infant pairs. Therefore, our study aimed to investi- gate the outcomes and associated factors of the HBV com- ponent of the national PMTCT programme in China between 2016 and 2017.
The results of this study should be a major concern for policy makers, as the observed increase in prevalence of obesity amongst primary school children occurred during a period of significant investment by the Government aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. This investment involved the creation of a National Healthy Schools Programme to support children and young people to develop healthy behaviours using a whole-school approach. Additional investment was made in school sport with the establishment of school sport partnerships between 2000 and 2012 to increase participation in physical activity.
International studies on student experiences in these settings are consistently positive, highlighting the impact that attending alternative schools can have on students’ peer relations, academic commitment and school performance (Lehr, 2004). The innovative pedagogies used in these settings aim to move away from failure and instead create a cycle of success which will then motivate young people to engage in school and continue in education (Nouwen et al., 2016). Many of these studies stress the importance of students’ sense of school membership or belonging in a school and their perceptions of support in establishing a positive relationship with school (Edgar-Smith and Baugher Palmer, 2015). One Scottish study used qualitative data with students in alternative education and their families and national-level data on student outcomes (McCluskey et al., 2015). The findings show that student opinion of the alternative education is ‘overwhelmingly positive’ with students often feeling ‘welcome’, ‘valued’ and ‘proud of their successes’ (p. 604). These findings were, however, in sharp contrast to national- level data which highlighted the poor outcomes for these students and the variability in leadership and management across different alternative education providers. The authors conclude with the suggestion that the young people’s views of alternative education are ‘too partial’ and are a ‘sad consequence of the extremely poor experience they have endured previously in mainstream schools, often involving exclusion’ (p. 605).
However, children continue to pure a threat to the principles laid down in world summit. For instance, more than one core children under the age of 5 still die each year, Armed conflicts killed more than 20 lakh children in last 10 years and left many other millions psychologically traumatized, disabled and even mutilated, over six crores children work in the worst forms of child labour etc., Although these facts show a gloomy pictures, the achievements emphasize that overall a beneficial foundation has been laid to reach the Summit’s objectives.
The social environment includes one’s relationships, culture, community, and society. Although less research exists in this area, the social environment is increasingly becoming a critical factor in assessing injury prevention. Family structure, cultural practices, community expectations, and social structure all have an impact on risk for injuries. The socioeconomic status of persons within their environment is associated with the risk for intentional and unintentional injuries and is particularly relevant for understanding and planning interventions. The Annie E. Casey Foundation’s KIDS COUNT 2008 reported that, for years 2005 - 2007, 20% of Georgia’s children were living in poverty; Georgia ranked 37th among states for this indicator in 2007. Examples of population-based interventions that focus on changing the social environment include making certain behaviors unacceptable (e.g., drinking and driving, child abuse, and partner abuse) and promoting family-friendly work places. Targeted interventions include home-visitor programs for new parents at risk for maltreating their children.
It must be noted that the outputs from the Handyperson Financial Benefits Toolkit are highly sensitive to changes in the assumptions. A conservative approach was used in relation to the evidence base and working assumptions used in the Toolkit. For example, there are a number of studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of various small repairs in preventing falls, ranging from a reduction of 32 per cent to 66 per cent. The Toolkit uses the lower of these figures to calculate how many fewer falls should result from this type of intervention. But if the impact of the falls prevention activities, rather than just being included in small repairs and minor adaptations, were given a higher weighting in the Toolkit, so that the reduction in incidence of falls was increased from 32 per cent to 40 per cent for the 10 per cent of people at risk from falls, then the gross benefits would be increased to £66,317 (outweighing costs by 27 per cent), assuming the number of visits were 1.55 per client. The above analysis used the Handypersons Financial Benefits Toolkit to demonstrate retrospectively that the impact of the Part A element of DCLG Handyperson Programme funding and associated activity has been cost beneficial. It has also demonstrated that under the assumptions arising from the evaluation findings, the benefits from the Part A funding of the handyperson services outweigh the costs.
). The proportion of business R&D staff in the overall R&D workforce is around the EU average, though the Irish figure is lower than all other Member States apart from the other LFRs. The good news, however, is that the compound growth rate for all R&D personnel in Ireland is much higher than the EU average, surpassed only by Greece, which is coming from a much lower base. The overall picture, therefore, is of an expanding R&D base despite fairly limited investment in R&D generally, particularly by the Irish Government, and it is against this background that Irish involvement in FP4 must be set. Irish institutions received about 36 MECU per annum from FP4, and although this is small in comparison with overall industrial spend on R&D, it is similar to the amount of all government funding of R&D in the business sector and about one quarter of government contributions to tertiary level institutions. In terms of publicly-funded efforts to expand the national S&T base and ready the country for a transition to a knowledge-based economy, the contribution of FP4 was substantial.
In 2009, 8.2% of the exposed infants on ZDV regimen tested at 45 days were HIV positive. In the Petra clinical trial, multidrug ZDV regimen showed 63% efficacy in reducing MTCT. In this trial the rate of HIV transmis- sion among infants on multidrug ZDV regimen tested at 45 days was 5.7% . Considering the fact that our data are generated from a national PMTCT programme and the obvious methodological difference with the Petra trial, the 8.2% infant infection rate reported in our study indicates the success of the national PMTCT pro- gramme among those who completed their follow up to infant HIV testing. A cohort study from similar resource poor settings that evaluated the effectiveness of a PMTCT programme among predominantly formula fed infants on ZDV regimen tested at >=45 days reported a 9.1% cumulative infant HIV infection, higher than the rate of HIV infection reported in our study . How- ever, since the HIV testing was done at >=45 days, those HIV negative infants who continue to breast feed are still at risk of acquiring new infection. In general, the rate of MTCT averted by the national PMTCT pro- gramme appears promising among those who adhered to the programme. Nevertheless, the possibility of underestimation cannot be excluded since we lack infor- mation on loss to follow up. In line with this limitation, Ahoua et al. found that the cumulative probability of infant HIV infection among tested infants was 8.3%, whereas it was 15.5% when HIV related deaths were included in the analysis .
Initiating and maintaining relationships with schools, educational administrators and curriculum developers requires a different approach. Since the education system in member countries is different, each country must be handled in a tailored way. All WP3 members will be assigned to be in charge of their country and others. These assignments will be made at the upcoming face-to-face meeting in Helsinki, 06-08.03.2013. The task for each will be to contact the national association of teachers, or Ministries at a national level, to promote the ‘Dare to Think the Impossible’ campaign as a way to increase awareness of HPC. Also, we will exploit PRACE contacts, such as like teacher’s PRACE, TERENA PR network, EGI and HPC forum sites and organizations. These existing networks will be leveraged as dissemination channels.
Child mortality is one of the most important indicators of a country’s general medical and health quality, and subsequently, the country’s level of so- cio-economic development. Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the Middle East and North Africa region and has a low Human Development In- dex (HDI), presenting high rates of child mortality. The objective of this pa- per is to calculate the rate of infant mortality and child mortality in Yemen and put into evidence some characteristics of households that may influence the rate of child mortality. The database that is used is the Yemen National Social Protection and Monitoring Survey (NSPMS). The Brass indirect me- thod was used for calculating infant and child mortality rates, while Poisson regression was utilized for putting into evidence covariates that may affect mortality. According to the results of Brass indirect analysis, infant and child mortality rates are elevated in Yemen. Poisson regression puts into evidence the importance of mother education, quantity of water available, household economic situation and electricity in household in reducing child mortality. Yemen needs to increase the access to schools of population, particularly of girls, and improve the infrastructure of the country, mainly water and elec- tricity supply, with the objective of further reduction of child mortality.
This analysis was guided by a desire to monitor the ser- vice uptake throughout the continuum of care, as the CCT programme was designed to promote this behaviour change in women enrolling. The analysis both within the CCT beneficiary database and at the facililty level shows that continual effort is required to stimulate attendance and improve data collection. Loss of CCT beneficiaries to follow-up remains a challenge, with over 35% of benefi- ciaries not returning after initially enrolling. This suggests failings either by PHCs to track beneficiaries and encour- age them to return to the facility, or by record-keeping staff logging return visits. However, this figure cannot be directly compared to any baseline, so we cannot yet say if the challenges faced here are similar to those in other pro- grammes. The differences in performance between clus- ters in terms of retaining beneficiaries throughout the continuum of care needs to be explored further. Perform- ance far outside the norm is being investigated to find out if apparently poor results are due to partial data capture. This may be the reason for the high observed attrition in Bauchi state, and the lower-than-expected enrollment of beneficiaries in Zamfara.
The experience of many countries in acting to create building blocks for a comprehensive, integrated approach to early child development points to the need for a framework of collaboration across sectors and silos within countries. This overall framework must be grounded in the science of early child development, and both public and private sectors must be engaged. No one sector can do it all, and no single blueprint can possibly fit the specific needs of every country. Yet, the overall framework applies to all and reflects the experience of many. To build national ECD systems, all countries will need to do the following:
The term child labour has many definitions by different scholars. According to Suda(2011) the term child labour refers to when children is working in any type of work that is dangerous and harmful to children’s health or the work hinders their education. For Moyi (2011) child labour refers to low wages, long hours, physical and sexual abuse. According to Edmonds and Pavcnik (2005) child labour is viewed as a form of child labour abuse, when children work in bad conditions and hazardous occupations. The meaning of the term of child labour also varies among organizations, ILO argues that child labour is difficult to define. It depends on the type of the job and, if the age is under eighteen and if the job intervenes the children’s education and development (ILO: 2004). A child, according to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 1989 refers to a person under the age of eighteen. The World Bank assumes that child labour can do serious threat to long-term national investment. Furthermore, according to UNICEF the problem of child labour can have more bad consequences besides all the concerns of investment or its relation to economic activity (ILO, 2013; Weston, 2005). Bhat (2010) asserts that the definition of child labour is not simple because it includes three difficult concepts to define, which are “child”, “work” and “labour”. He claims that the term of childhood can be defined by age but in some societies, people cease to be a child at different ages. The onset of puberty occurs at different ages for different people. Therefore in the Article 1 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182) defines a child who is under the age of eighteen years (Bhat, 2011).