Top PDF National institutions and subnational development in Africa

National institutions and subnational development in Africa

National institutions and subnational development in Africa

Moreover, the Scramble for Africa resulted in many countries having peculiar shapes, further inhibiting the presence of national governments in remote areas (Herbst (2000), Engle- bert (2009)). For example, the Casamance region in Southern Senegal (where the partitioned Diola-Jola reside) is isolated from Dakar, as Gambia effectively cuts Senegal into two parts. Likewise, the rainforest of Central Africa limits the presence of the government of the Demo- cratic Republic of Congo in the Eastern provinces of North and South Kivu, located hundreds of miles away from Kinshasa. The latter are quite often ruled by local militias and rebel groups. Furthermore, Europeans mostly ruled from the capitals that were located close to the coast, as colonizers had little interest in settling the hinterland that was controlled with the assistance of local chiefs. Herbst (2000; pp. 16) notes that "rather systematically, Europeans created capitals that moved power toward the ocean and away from the interior centers of power that Africans had slowly created ". He lists many examples where colonizers decided to ignore local needs and established capital cities outside preexisting polities. As extreme examples he lists Mauritania and Bechuanaland (Botswana) that were ruled during colonization by capitals outside their nominal territories (Saint-Louis and Mafeking, respectively). 16
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Editorial: Tracing the evolution of higher education institutions and linkage to rural development in Africa

Editorial: Tracing the evolution of higher education institutions and linkage to rural development in Africa

In the Market Place, Higher education reforms have largely been oriented along the demands of stakeholders and society, the dominant ideology and context of the time. The gradual expansion of the private sector, the coming of international companies and foreign direct investments have created additional roles on higher education institutions to be responsive not only to governments but also to the new demands from private sectors. Global competitiveness has also put pressure on higher education institutions to be relevant not only for national demands but also international labour market forces. African universities and governments have recognized that the nature of skills and expertise required in the newly growing global economies and the private sectors are different from the old traditional ones. Thus, many African universities have engaged in curriculum reviews and training programs to meet market requirements and adopt entrepreneurial spirit (World Bank, 2009; Osiru et al., 2016). The labour market now looks out for graduates that are trained in diverse programs on more of practical rather than theoretical
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Globalization, New Regionalism and the Challenge of Development in Africa

Globalization, New Regionalism and the Challenge of Development in Africa

Todaro,  (1985)  however,  conceptualizes  development  as:  “a  multidimensional  process  involving  major  changes  in  social  structures,  popular  attitudes,  and  national  institutions,  as well  as  the  acceleration  of  economic  growth,  the  reduction  of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty” (cf Lane  and  Ersson,  1997:19).  In  another  work,  the  same  scholar  identifies  three  core  values  of  development  (Todaro,  1989:89‐ 90).  These  include  the  ability  to  provide  as  many  people  as  possible  with  their  basic  needs  or  the  ability  to  acquire  adequate  food,  shelter,  health  care  and  protection.  It  also  entails  the  perception  of  individuals  or  groups  of  self‐worth  and esteem as a respected members of the society and freedom  in  the  sense  that  individuals  and  society  at  large  have  an  expanded  range  of  choice,  not  only  with  respect  to  the  material  necessities  for  self  reproduction,  but  also  in  their  ability  to  have  a  say  in,  if  not  to  determine,  the  method  and  process by which values are allocated in the society (cf Ogwu,  2002:12‐13). 
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Growth and Institutions in African Development by Augustin K  Fosu

Growth and Institutions in African Development by Augustin K Fosu

I will end my observations by highlighting two key themes which in my humble opinion have not been sufficiently engaged. First, while Fosu (2015a) in the introductory chapter has alluded to post- ‘ Washington Consensus ’ (WC) models, I expected a chapter of the strands on institutions to be devoted to an in depth assessment of what kind of post-WC institutions are very likely to sustainably chart the course of African inclusive growth in the post-2015 development agenda. While Fofack (2014) has provided some thoughts in this direction, more studies within this stream would stimulate the debate and enrich the extant literature. Second, there is an evolving stream of literature sustaining that the African growth narrative is based on a myth because the computation of economic growth has failed to debit the national resource account with values corresponding to extracted resources. For brevity and purpose of clarity, this concern is well articulated by Bond (2010): “ Seeking a less-biased wealth accounting – i.e., by factoring in society and the environmen t so as to calculate a country’s “genuine savings” from year to year – we find that Africa gets progressively poorer ”. This ‘ myth dimension ’ should have been critically engaged because the book emanates from the successful execution of the project entitled: ‘ African Development: Myths and Realities ’ . Unfortunately, the editor is not responsible for the choice for what contributors to a book decide to engage. Overall, the book is timely, intellectually stimulating and will substantially
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Effective leadership for turbulent situations in educational institutions in Africa for the 21st century and beyond

Effective leadership for turbulent situations in educational institutions in Africa for the 21st century and beyond

occupy a very important position for influencing actions of other people in achieving desirable outcomes. Their leadership provides essential sense of direction in their organizations. Educational institutions in Africa, Kenya inclusive are marred by turbulent situations that disrupt the teaching and learning processes. This article examines the type of emerging turbulent situations existing in school organizations. It examines the different types of leadership styles adopted by school ate order and address issues appropriately. The study was anchored on situational leadership theory. A mixed method particularly convergent parallel Mixed Method Design with both qualitative and quantitative paradigms guided the study. In Quantitative Cross sectional survey was adopted while in qualitative phenomenology. The study targeted primary head teachers, teachers, County Education Officers and the students in primary schools in Kenya. Stratified random sampling nts and teachers to participate in the study. The Schools that experienced major turbulences were purposively selected and their head teachers automatically included in the study. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, semi structured interview guide and observation checklist which were all subjected to content validity. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages summarized quantitative data. Data from semi structured interviews was and reported in direct quotations and narratives. The findings showed that head teachers employed diverse leadership styles in calming difficulty turbulent situations. The most disastrous one autocratic leadership style. Here some head teachers involved the students and teachers in making decisions on matters affecting them. Vandalism was observable in such schools. Head teachers who used situational leadership style seemed to have contained the situation effectively. The study recommended that all head teachers should attend refresher courses to be inducted on tenets of situational leadership style. Any teacher aspiring to become a principal must show a certificate on courses done on leadership and n teacher education curriculum to equip pre-service teachers with leadership skills which when used appropriately harmonizes situations and learning.
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Fiscal Decentralization and Revenue Stability in the Kyrgyz Republic, 1993-2010

Fiscal Decentralization and Revenue Stability in the Kyrgyz Republic, 1993-2010

Section VIII, identifies the range of possible “[…] local taxes, caps for tax rates, exemptions on taxes for certain segments of the populations, full prohibition of any additional exemptions, tax bases of local taxes, tax payment schedules, auditing and accounting standards, and liabilities for tax evasion” (Tyulendieva, 2005). However, this newly reorganized law improved neither the national revenue yield nor the local capacity for self-government. There were no municipal level tax administration agencies in place and the old institutional arrangements were not dismantled either. The national tax inspectorate was still collecting the taxes at national, oblast’ (province) and rayon (district) levels. The responsibility to provide services and initiate local taxes was given to sub-district levels. Thus, without a clear mechanism of actually being able to distinguish where and why the money was coming from, the district and tax authorities kept most of the money to themselves at their respective levels (‘fly-paper’ effect). Consequently, with no easy way of getting their money back, the municipal governments were not really very keen on enforcing local tax compliance and the yields kept decreasing during the period under survey.
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Extractive Institutions in Colonial Africa

Extractive Institutions in Colonial Africa

At the beginning of the 20th century, trade in the Senegal/Mali region was con- trolled by a group of eight Bordeaux trading firms, while Guinea and Congo were in the hands of business houses from Marseilles or Paris. Smaller traders were allowed a share of exports as long as they respected the prices fixed by the main trading firms. After WWI, the de facto monopsony of these companies grew stronger: eco- nomic crises eliminated competition from smaller companies, German business inter- ests were canceled by the war, and protectionist measures were taken against British trade. Protectionist policies were not applied everywhere and did not completely eliminate non-French trade (especially in Guinea and Dahomey). Nevertheless, the number of the remaining trading firms became sufficiently small to allow agreement and ban entry into the African market (Suret-Canale, 1971). As a result, at the beginning of WWII, fewer than a dozen companies monopolized almost all of trade from French West Africa and two French companies (Soci´ et´ e Commerciale de l’Ouest Africain, Compagnie fran¸caise de l’Afrique Occidentale) and a British one (Unilever) controlled between 50% and 90% of exports (Suret-Canale, 1971, p. 167).
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Organizational capacities of national pharmacovigilance centres in Africa: assessment of resource elements associated with successful and unsuccessful pharmacovigilance experiences

Organizational capacities of national pharmacovigilance centres in Africa: assessment of resource elements associated with successful and unsuccessful pharmacovigilance experiences

The fight against counterfeit medicines was not men- tioned in any of the described experiences. This is sur- prising given that it is a known and ongoing problem in low and middle-income countries [27, 28]. In an article by WHO, it was estimated that one in 10 medicines in low-income countries are counterfeit and likely respon- sible for the deaths of tens of thousands of children from diseases such as malaria and pneumonia every year [29]. Several researchers have concluded that to combat this problem regulators will need sustained political will, fi- nancial support, tools and technical capacity to enforce quality standards in manufacturing, supply and distribu- tion and a coordinated action from the police, customs officials, and Marketing Authorization Holders [30]. National centres could play a role in this but our ana- lysis did not reveal activities focused on counterfeit medicines as a key priority. To address this problem an effective PV programme with enforcement power is needed. Further, it is also surprising that in only a limited number of experiences industry and academia were mentioned as stakeholders. One of the reasons for this might be that there is little industry and academic activity as pertains to pharmacovigilance in the systems under study.
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Migration Outflow and Remittance Patterns in Indonesia: National as well as Subnational Perspectives

Migration Outflow and Remittance Patterns in Indonesia: National as well as Subnational Perspectives

The phenomenon of Indonesians working overseas has become one of the important recent development issues. Qualitative evidence even implies that one can now easily find Indonesians in various economies (Ananta and Arifin 2008). Indeed, Indonesia has been categorized as one of the biggest sending countries in Asia following Sri Lanka and the Philippines (Hugo 2009). Every year, hundred thousands of Indonesians flow overseas. Massive flow has shaped the feature of emigration in the last 15 years. Compared to 1994, the 2012 figure increased more than 300 percent: the magnitude of which is extremely difficult to manage. In terms of stock, moderate figures of Indonesian overseas workers amount to four to six million people. 2
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Lifting the urban poor out of poverty: Assessing the role of Non-Banking Financial Institutions in India

Lifting the urban poor out of poverty: Assessing the role of Non-Banking Financial Institutions in India

Matin and Hulme’s (2003) examination of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee’s Income Generation for Vulnerable Group Development Programme suggests that its outreach has been impressive and it has been able to reduce poverty. The study concludes that IGVGD is capable of reaching the chronic poor with the dual protective and promotional approaches to livelihoods. Benda’s (2012) study of the impact of Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (RoSCAs) on the well-being and pro-poor community development in rural northern Rwanda suggests that the money pooled in by the group was used for fulfilling their basic needs and building of assets. The gains of RoSCA were not just economic but also social, as it buildt social capital within the community.
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Health sector employment: a tracer indicator for universal health coverage in national Social Protection Floors

Health sector employment: a tracer indicator for universal health coverage in national Social Protection Floors

Finally, achieving sustainability and maximizing the impact of investments require the alignment and coord- ination of health, social, economic and developmental polices in order to alleviate poverty and to transform in- formal labour markets and other informalities that nega- tively impact. Thus, health policies need to be embedded in broader social (protection) policies. At the national level, this requires the development and implementation of inclusive legislation on Social Protection Floors pro- viding financial protection and access to affordable qual- ity health services that are available. At the global level, the post-2015 agenda needs to focus on closing deficits in the health workforce to achieve UHC in the context of SPFs.
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Financial Development, Institutions and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sub Saharan Africa

Financial Development, Institutions and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sub Saharan Africa

in the growth process. They found both finance and corruption control to be substitutes. Here, the marginal benefit of improving financial development is greater when a country has higher corruption levels than at lower levels. Thus, when corruption falls, the effect on growth is higher in an economy with low levels of financial development than in a financially developed economy. Such outcome is because higher corruption levels is associated with higher burden for less financially developed country than developed ones. Compton and Giedeman (2011) considered a sample of 90 countries from 1970 to 2004 to investigate whether the state of institutions impacts on the finance-growth nexus. Using both bank and stock market measures of financial development, their evidence showed that for the case of bank-based measures, the interaction with institutions is negative. This means that the effect of banking development on growth is smaller in countries with strong institutions than those with weak institutions. For stock market development, their interaction with institutions is insignificant, meaning that its effects on growth is independent of a country’s level of institutions. Lastly, Anwar and Cooray (2012) concentrated on the case of South Asia for the period 1970-2009. Measuring institutional quality with Freedom House political and civil liberties and Polity IV democracy index, they found that institutions enhances the impact of finance on growth as both factors are complements in the growth process for South Asia.
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Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach

Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach

REDD+ continues to be a concept in active development, and it has substantially evolved from a vague idea of “pay- ments for forest carbon sequestration and storage” to real tests, for example in the Noell-Kempf Project [9] or the Kariba REDD+ Project [33]. REDD+ is taking a prominent role in international climate change mitigation negotia- tions [1,22], and continues evolve through the develop- ment of a variety standards certifying REDD+ projects (CCBS, VCS, PlanVivo, ACR, CAR [34,35]). The latest progress in this field was the publication of the VCS Juris- dictional and Nested REDD+ Requirements [21], the Warsaw UNFCCC decisions on REDD+ [1], and the FCPF Carbon Fund Methodological Framework [24]. On the other side, the first embryonic developments of compli- ance carbon trading schemes accepting and actively sup- porting international REDD+ offsets [34] are taking shape with the integration process of the system of payments for ecosystem services in the Brazilian state of Acre and the California compliance carbon offset and trading scheme. The link between the two could potentially be a verifica- tion of Acre’s GHG emission reductions by [21], and an acceptance of this approach into the California system.
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Determining Environmental Quality in a Federal Setting: An Empirical Analysis of Subnational Governments in India

Determining Environmental Quality in a Federal Setting: An Empirical Analysis of Subnational Governments in India

Determining Environmental Quality in a Federal Setting: An Empirical Analysis of Subnational Governments in India Chakraborty, Lekha S National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, Ne[r]

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Technology development framework for Ghana: The role of technical and research institutions

Technology development framework for Ghana: The role of technical and research institutions

The overarching methodology adopted for this study replicates an existing successful system of operation which is culturally assimilated in a given society. This is derived from the principles rhythm as presented by Clemens and Dalrymple (2005). The authors showed that every individual, organisation or society has its distinctive rhythm as its natural feature and it is when different rhythms are synchronised that they result in a desired output. This, the authors referred to as entrainment of rhythms. Applying this rhythm concept to the subject of discussion led to a three-step overarching methodological approach. In this approach, the rhythm of the society or organisation of interest is mapped out and “entrained” with the development intent, which in this case is technology development. The steps involved in the approach are: (1) studying the society; (2) identifying a culturally assimilated success project within that society and (3) modelling that success project as a template for the development intent. The research approach found most suitable for the overarching methodology was the mixed-research approach. Mixed- research, also called mixed-methods or multi-methods, has emerged as a distinct research approach on the same ranking as qualitative and quantitative research, thus, establishing three research approaches (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004; Greene, 2008). The following subsection provides a brief narrative of the mixed-research adopted in this study.
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Volume 38 - Article 60 | Pages 1843–1884 

Volume 38 - Article 60 | Pages 1843–1884 

We first describe a simple Scale method that provides an initial probabilistic exten- sion of methods used by the US Census Bureau and other national agencies. This simple approach works well from many points of view, but it does not allow for the possibility of crossovers between regions, whereas in fact these do happen. We therefore elaborate this model to allow the scale factor to change stochastically, but slowly over time, yielding the so-called Scale-AR(1) method. Finally we describe a quite different approach, called the one-directional BHM, which directly generalizes the national approach to the subnational context, allowing regions to vary more freely within a country.
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An assessment of the African peer review mechanism (APRM) : the case of Nigeria

An assessment of the African peer review mechanism (APRM) : the case of Nigeria

First, then, this thesis adds significantly to the general literature on the APRM as a whole. The process received attention around Africa and the donor community at its onset and for a few years after as the pioneer countries began and completed their reviews. This includes Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, and South Africa. However, for various reasons identified and discussed in Chapters Six and Seven, interest in the process since then has diminished among African states, and especially from the international donors (multilateral and bilateral parties). In terms of research carried out in academic circles, the momentum has reduced over the years, but interest is maintained by organisations like SAIIA and EISA, which have received funding for this purpose from the Netherlands and Switzerland. Their work is focused on research and advocacy in the empowerment of civil society to
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Access to electronic health knowledge in five countries in Africa: a descriptive study

Access to electronic health knowledge in five countries in Africa: a descriptive study

We used a self-administered questionnaire, drawing on similar examples [7,8]. We asked about Internet use for medical literature, and whether they had heard of specific online services (additional file 1). We identified options from a pilot study in Uganda: PubMed/Medline, HINARI, BMJ website, the Cochrane Library, Medscape and BioMedCentral. We piloted questionnaires in each coun- try with postgraduate doctors not included in the actual study sample. We approached the relevant teaching hospi- tal administration to obtain an up to date list and contact details of all registered postgraduate doctors, then drew up a list of those available to participate in the survey (Table 1). We traced these individuals and physically handed the questionnaire to them. In the four national postgraduate institutions respondents were followed up and questionnaires collected directly from them; in Lagos, those living outside campus returned completed ques- tionnaires to the Chief Resident doctor's office. At the MRC laboratories email reminders were sent to all partic- ipants and completed questionnaires were collected by hand, or delivered by hand or internal mail; two were returned electronically.
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Expanding to outward foreign direct investment or not? A multi dimensional analysis of entry mode transformation of Chinese private exporting firms

Expanding to outward foreign direct investment or not? A multi dimensional analysis of entry mode transformation of Chinese private exporting firms

to enter the industry in which their firms operate. This is a broad measure. Future studies should examine the impact of entry barriers, such as tariffs imposed on host country industries. Third, we have followed the existing literature to measure the impact of international experience. However, such a measure may not fully reflect the fact that firms may engage in internationalisation in various ways, such as using their own distribution networks or doing contracted manufacturing/OEM. Future studies are awaited examining the impact of international experience gained through a variety of channels. Finally, Peng et al. (2008) suggest paying attention to the interactions among firm resources, industry dynamics and institutional factors. For example, firms are motivated to gain or enhance their legitimacy and performance by becoming isomorphic within their industry and institutions. They, therefore, adjust FSRs and implement
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Policy progress with REDD+ and the promise of performance-based payments: A qualitative comparative analysis of 13 countries

Policy progress with REDD+ and the promise of performance-based payments: A qualitative comparative analysis of 13 countries

In all three countries, while donors dominate the REDD+ process, it is designed to be an inclusive participatory process. None of them receives any performance-based funding. To explain why this process has been successful in Tanzania, we can again refer to the above-mentioned experience in joint forest management, which might have triggered a path change that is now helping the REDD+ process. Although Burkina Faso and Ethiopia have embarked on new climate-related policies, these changes only occurred recently, and may not yet have had an impact on REDD+. It can be assumed that a positive impact would be observed if the analysis were to be repeated in another 2–3 years. In addition, the role of donors in Tanzania – with regard to financial investments – is much greater than in Burkina Faso and Ethiopia, and may be seen as a large incentive for stepping up REDD+ policies. Tanzania has a long- term relationship with Norway, which may provide performance-based funding in the future. However, there is criticism about the quality of the national strategy in Tanzania. It has been argued that rather than being a strategy, the document is still a draft plan, providing rather vague outlines and not giving any real guidelines for implementation. The reasons for approving such a vague document could be related to the influence and requirements of the donors.
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