Top PDF Nature and artifice in Hobbes’s international political thought

Nature and artifice in Hobbes’s international political thought

Nature and artifice in Hobbes’s international political thought

The thesis is that, despite the fact that Hobbesian commonwealths find themselves in a state of nature, their artificiality facilitates coexistence, self-restraint in warfare, and reconciliation. In particular, it will be suggested that states could maintain largely peaceful relations based on an artificial equality of power, which has a contrary effect to the natural equality of individuals in the state of nature. Moreover, it will be shown that states could be decomposed and reassembled in order to re-establish peace after foreign invasions. These factors help to explain both why Hobbes considers the international state of nature more bearable than the interpersonal one, and why he does not seem to provide a separate theory of international relations.
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The Normativity of Rationality: From Nature to Artifice and Back

The Normativity of Rationality: From Nature to Artifice and Back

Although each type of frameworks has gained merit in modelling certain aspects of human rationality and providing a foundation for experimental studies, the generality of each class has at the same time been challenged by psychological experiments and theoretical objections. On the one hand, studies by Wason et al. question the human ability of reasoning in accordance with the principles of classical logic (Wason, 1966; Wason & Shapiro, 1971). Byrne (1989)’s findings on human reasoning with conditionals also indicate severe deviations from this classical paradigm. Similarly, when considering probability-based models, Tversky and Kahneman (1983)’s Linda problem illustrates a striking violation of the rules of probability theory by human reasoners. On the other hand, game-based frameworks are questionable due to the lack of a (reasonably) unan- imously accepted concept of optimality in game-theory. There are numerous proposed variants of the Nash equilibrium (cf., e.g., (Halpern, 2008)), and it is not clear which one—if any—should be taken as ‘the most rational one’ in a given situation. As a result, we are left with a tension between the norms advanced by the theoretical models and the descriptive data the psychological evidence provides.
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Obligations of love : international political thought & the tradition of natural law

Obligations of love : international political thought & the tradition of natural law

Weber engages in his Politics as a Vocation in a critique of power politics noting the inherent vanity which drives politicians who are political only for its own sake. In so doing he notes the futility of politics without a particular end noting that it is this end, however it is defined, which culminates in a shared sense of purpose; in other words, faith. “This is fundamental to all history, a point to be proved in detail here. The final result of political action often, no, even regularly, stands in completely inadequate and often even paradoxical relation to its original meaning,” he writes. “But because of this fact, the serving of a cause must not be absent if action is to have inner strength. Exactly what the cause, in the service of which the politician strives for power and uses power, looks like a matter of faith. The politician may serve national, humanitarian, social, ethical, cultural, worldly, or religious ends. The politician may be sustained by a strong belief in ‘progress’- no matter in which sense – or he may coolly reject this kind of belief. He may claim to stand in the service of an ‘idea’ or, rejecting this in principle, he may want to serve external ends of everyday life. However, some kind of faith must always exist.” 97 The assumptions of the enlightenment place their faith in a positive rationality, as evidenced by the previous investigations of modernity. In so doing, scholars such as Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau marginalized faith rooted in the potential of being. It is possible however, on this understanding of faith to articulate a natural law ethic which
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A Set of New Interpretations in Political Thought

A Set of New Interpretations in Political Thought

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103888 7 Open Access Library Journal In Tractatus Politicus, Spinoza first sticks to his naturalism and determinism from Ethics, spelling out there implication for politics. There is no covenant, and no choice of a regime, as all unfolds from the determinism of nature, or “God” as Spinoza says. Spinoza is not a contractarian philosopher. The state is not based upon any contractual choice but upon natural necessity. Just as an indi- vidual is driven by the ambition to survive—principle of conatus, so groups of individuals do the same also when they constitute a dominion, or common- wealth. Just like human beings, they augment survival capacity by employing reason, informing the political authority to promote general well-being, or face competition from another commonwealth. Spinoza rejects any choice of opposi- tion or rebellion against the political authority, claiming that people are “bound” to obey. However, such a duty cannot be housed within naturalism. Here, Spinoza breaks with Hobbes.
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Machiavelli and the Foundation of the Modern Political Thought

Machiavelli and the Foundation of the Modern Political Thought

sometimes they have conveyed the same meanings. In fact realism is an awareness action but actualism a practical reaction. In other words realism creates potentials, but actualism, defenders. Realism in Machiavelli‟s thinking is supposed to accept vir- tue, while actualism awaits luck, realist creates concepts and objectify them, but actualist follows phenomena and events. Realism is derived from a type of thought, but actualism is a type of instinct and its manifestation is solely preserved in ob- edience to events. A realist intends to change, sta- bilize, and/ or form realities according to thought and mind and elevate her or his power of explora- tion and perhaps prediction, and put unexpected elements and choices of the outer world, in their interpretation framework, and with this back- ground to get ready to account for any change or development (3). Actualist, however, observes, the real things, or feels them, and since lacks necessary concepts and categories to understand and explore, and as a result is not able to relate and understand the meaning of actions and events, s/he can only present a passive reaction. In sum, realism con- trary to actualism has some theoretical founda- tions, regardless of these foundations, s/he might not understand, this concept, either, and anytime the concepts might interpenetrate, one might get decreased in expense of the other.
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The Epistemology of Islamic Political Thought in Indonesia

The Epistemology of Islamic Political Thought in Indonesia

Koran and interpretation of hadith from valid to dla’if (doubtful), with exception for the maudlu ’using Prophet Muhammad‟s standard is the closer option. And standardization of the five Islamic principles (syahadat, shalat, fasting, zakat, and hajj 20 ) and the like, will be through accommodation and participation of various Islamic social organizations and other Islamic segments. Some of the points above can be formulated into judicial draft to be promulgated later through legislation process in the parliament in order for it to fit as reference in national scope. Thus, prolonged controversy between groups who are pro-human rights and Moslems who fearthe pollution of aqidah and syariat in their faith can be terminated, and at the same time saving the people and the nation from ideogical convultion that deteriorates politics and physic as reflected in conflicts between organizations like FPI and AKKB in Monas, and several other religious violence in some regions. So what protected is not only human rights of the minority group such as Ahmadiyah for instance, but also the rights of the people generally in this country. Before legality issue is done, the criteria of religiousness must be achieved through long process of religious debate among followers of Islam including involvement from minority group such as Ahmadiyah.
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Domestic analogy in proposals for world order, 1814 1945: the transfer of legal and political principles from the domestic to the international sphere in thought on international law and relations

Domestic analogy in proposals for world order, 1814 1945: the transfer of legal and political principles from the domestic to the international sphere in thought on international law and relations

Domestic analogy in proposals for world order, 1814 1945 the transfer of legal and political principles from the domestic to the international sphere in thought on international law and relations HIDE[.]

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Qanun and the Modernisation of Political thought in Iran

Qanun and the Modernisation of Political thought in Iran

In the 19 th century, like many other non-western countries, Iran had a chance of entering the age of modernization. Many internal and external factors had facilitated this change and development. Newspapers, especially those, which published on exile, had much effect on the changing process. The Qanun newspaper, in many respects, had the utmost influence on the Iranian society due to its clear and frank language and also the extensive modern ideas and thoughts that were elaborated cleverly in this newspaper. The modern and Western ideologies were handled in such a way to build up the mind of the people toward the new meanings of social and political concepts that were in most cases different to how these concepts were understood by the society. In this paper the injection of modern ideas did not follow a blind line, however, it had a systematic discipline that showed the ability of Malkum Khan, the founder of Qanun, to project modern ideas in traditional society such as Iran. Qanun has actually played a vital role in the process of modernization of social and political thoughts in the contemporary history of Iran and its impact is still felt in the current everyday life of the Iranian who has much yet to achieve in ongoing process of modernization especially in the age of globalization.
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Situations manifesto

Situations manifesto

In this context, where a great host of complex social and individual realities are reduced to biochemistry on the one hand and/or the supernatural on the other, social science as a whole and radical political thought in particu- lar has failed to provide much of an alternative. The reductionistic think- ing that permeates contemporary society is more than reflected in the cur- rent state of social thought. On the one hand, theorists such as John Rawls and Michael Walzer, among many others, attempt to reduce politics to an exercise in applied philosophy. Normative questions revolving around the issues of justice and war, for example, are technicalized and presented as belonging to the realm of experts. How should resources be distributed? Should we go to war? Normative political theorists have asserted that there are right and wrong answers and that they know what the correct answers are. Fortunately or unfortunately, as these normative theorists craft and recraft their schemas and proofs, real politics continues unfazed. This elit- ist and futile tendency within political and social thought harkens back to the Platonic tradition and, in the last instance, posits some extra-social realm of truth, be it nature or god. For all the trees that have been sacri- ficed to theories of justice, they have offered no alternative to the reduc- tionism that plagues modern thinking nor have they explained any social phenomena or recast any social category.
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Victorian Political Thought on France and the French

Victorian Political Thought on France and the French

Finally, Varouxakis refuses to attach static, monolithic representations of France to each public moralist. He rather argues for a dynamic representation that not only changes with time, but is emphasised differently, depending upon each public moralist’s target group or readers. Accordingly, he notes that J.S. Mill was much more critical in respect of France with his French correspondents than with his English. Vis-à-vis the French, Mill displays more conditional reserves regarding the viability of the French political system. The representations are not forced into rigid, coherent structures, but are indeed often explained from the
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The Social and Political Thought of Yen Fu

The Social and Political Thought of Yen Fu

Yen Fu's universalistic idea expressed here was not unique in the reform generation of the 1890s. It could also be seen in thinkers such as K'ang Yu-wei, T'an Ssu-t'ung and to a lesser degree, Liang Ch'i-ch'ao.*^^ These intellectuals shared some views which were apparently paradoxical: they were nationalistic politically, and yet held almost iconoclastic attitudes towards the heritage of the Chinese past; they were culturally 'pro-Westem' during a period of Western imperialist encroachments on C h i n a . T h e s e paradoxes have been interpreted as evidence of their acceptance of the ethic of social Darwinism. For instance, Schwartz suggested that Yen Fu's lack of anti-Western sentiments stemmed from his recognition of might being right. Tt is entirely inevitable that those states which are fit should struggle among themselves for predominance. China must itself bear the heavy onus for its failure to adapt.'*^^ From our preceding discussions, it is clear that Schwartz's interpretation neglects the fundamental reason underlying Yen Fu's criticism of Chinese tradition and his esteem for the modem West: Yen Fu sincerely believed that the West was better than China in almost every aspect. His perception of the West combined a genuine sense of discovery with his own utopian projections. 'The "West" in this sense' as Furth noted,
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QUANTUM THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS CAN DEFINE NATURE

QUANTUM THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS CAN DEFINE NATURE

Typicalness, radiation, and inference are the three timbers of imaginary experience. For one, an orbit will not represent what ex- ists. Even though an orbit might contain all possible detail, we will choose an orbit to be typical of a kind of thing. Orbits are explicitly good for naught else. Next, we learn of typical behavior through the informing capacity of radiation. Finally, the content of the orbits and the sights painted by the co-orbits are expressly a riddle. We must draw on all our cleverness to get out meaning from them. None of this were we expecting to find in the rock bottom laws of nature.
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International trade in services and services co production: An investigation into the nature of services and their political economy consequences on international trade

International trade in services and services co production: An investigation into the nature of services and their political economy consequences on international trade

The method used for selecting case studies draws on Mill’s Method of Agreement (Mill 1973; Hancke 2009), according to which, theoretical generalisation power is possible using two case studies which are different in everything but are similar in their outcome and its explanation.22 The two case studies selected for comparison here are healthcare services and accountancy services. These sectors differ considerably from each other, particularly in two broad categories. First, their structural and production characteristics vary considerably. Second, different explanations have been invoked with regard to each sector’s internationalisation or lack thereof. Accountancy services are often regarded as the most internationalised service sector. At the same time, healthcare services are taken to be among those sectors that are least internationalised, with limited scope for international trade (European Commission 1997). The empirical analysis will show that, contrary to conventional wisdom, these two sectors are internationalising along similar trade patterns, with proximity-bias serving as a common explanation of the shared outcome. The proximity- bias will serve as the basis for the development of the theory of services co-production. Nevertheless, Chapter 5 will take issue with the fact that, despite the surprising findings of the empirical chapters regarding similar international trade patterns, overall absolute trade in accountancy services has been much higher than that of goods. Thus, Chapter 5 will raise the empirical and theoretical bar and will advance a general argument regarding the organisation of production in services.
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Consent, Consensus and the Leviathan: A Critical Study of Hobbes Political Theory for the Contemporary Society

Consent, Consensus and the Leviathan: A Critical Study of Hobbes Political Theory for the Contemporary Society

The purpose of the state and its apparatus right from the formation of human society to this con- temporary period is still being confronted with the question of legitimacy. One of the major rea- sons why the state is formed is for the attainment of good life of the citizens. The institution of the state would thus remain legitimate only when those who are in political authority perform basic functions of government to meet the expectations of the members of the society. To this end, this paper examines the concept of consent and consensus as a foundation for the justification of the emergence of the state and argue that if there is no mutual agreement within the society, there can be little or no way of ensuring peaceful resolution of policy differences that is associated with the democratic process. Consequent upon this, the paper adopts Thomas Hobbes social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explain the origin of the state and justify the absolute power of the government which is rooted in the consent and the consensus of the people. The philosoph- ical methods of conceptual clarification and critical analysis are employed to examine Hobbes po- litical theory and evaluate its relevance to the contemporary society.
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Capitalism's alter ego : the birth of reciprocity in eighteenth century France

Capitalism's alter ego : the birth of reciprocity in eighteenth century France

The aim of this study has been to uncover these origins. I have located them in ideas of moral equality and the social forces of capitalism. The concept of reciprocity, I have argued, carried the moral traces of early modern redistributive orders (Chris- tian charity, noble generosity) and modern commerce (barter, contract). Above all, I have aimed to explain how the concept evolved from justifying economic liberal- ism to becoming its “ antithesis and alter ego ” (Weiner). The French Revolution marked a key turning point. Before 1789, reciprocity ’ s egalitarian connotations were useful for economic liberals in their campaign against privilege, patronage, and protectionism. After the failure to stabilize a new regime based on liberal eco- nomic principles after 1789, reciprocity ’ s ties to economic liberalism were sundered. The inequalities produced by capitalism betrayed reciprocity ’ s promise of equity, mutual prosperity, and solidarity. Although more research is needed to chart rec- iprocity ’ s course across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries — occurrences of
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A Comparative Study on Political Theology in Western and Islamic Political Thought

A Comparative Study on Political Theology in Western and Islamic Political Thought

John Calvin, a Frenchman, who was born in 10 January 1509 in Noyon Diocese (near to Paris). His father was clerk in financial affair of local Diocese. Young Calvin, educated to Paris University and after end of his course in Latin Grammar, entered to College de Mon- tague as assistant to Maturin Cordia and after (McGrath, 2005: 99). His extensive study in field of civil law, make him familiar with thought that later when he has been known as crusader, used these thoughts. He studied Greek language in Orleans and in 1529, un- derstanding of Andre Alessati reputation (Italian Great Jurist) went to Burges. After his education in law course, returned to Noy- on for his father’s decease, but local council of Church excommunicated him and for this, he return to Paris to continue to his studies, but attract strongly to reformation thoughts of Looter, that newly has been paid attention by people. This is while authorities seriously hated him.
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The Concept of the Political in Contemporary Western and Non-Western Political Thought

The Concept of the Political in Contemporary Western and Non-Western Political Thought

The postmodern interpretation of the political is primarily shaped by the rejection of what Lyotard termed ‘metanarratives’ - of all attempts, that is, to legitimate social and political relationships by presenting them as natural, rationally grounded or inevitable. The reverse side of this deconstructive scepticism is a sense of the contingency of all identity and all social and political relationships which is shared by agonal theorists like Connolly, as already noted. In the case of postmodern thinkers, however, the impression has often arisen that they are ultimately inspired by a purely negative ideal of deconstruction that regards all social relations as merely masks for power and domination. It is to the credit of the American philosopher, Richard Rorty that he sought to combine sympathy for the anti-rationalist and anti-foundationalist aspects of postmodern philosophy with a more positive formulation of the political implications of postmodern philosophy by focusing on what he regards as the two most fundamental features of the political for postmodern theory.
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“By Sovereignty of Nature”1: The Influence of Political Realism on the U.S. and the International Criminal Court

“By Sovereignty of Nature”1: The Influence of Political Realism on the U.S. and the International Criminal Court

In the study of historical international relations, few systems exemplify the arguments of liberal theory more than international cooperative efforts of actors, state and non-state, to codify any set of international laws. These types of laws, designed to protect civilization from aberrant acts of nations, organizations or individuals, have been typified by international cooperation as historically exemplified in Geneva; the Nuremburg Trials; the International Criminal Tribunals on Yugoslavia and Rwanda; the Special Court for Sierra Leone; and ultimately, in the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC). While the structure of international law itself may be best examined through liberal theory, the motivation for participation among individual members may be better explained by international relations realist theory, or political realism. While liberal theory best describes the international organization, realist theory may best describe the motivation for or against participation from a respective state. For example, classical realist theory best explains the American refusal to ratify the Rome Statute and fully participate in the ICC. From a realist perspective, the ICC may be effective in creating some order among states, but some states will only comply with international law when it best serves their interest; most would prefer “self-help”. 3
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An early European critic of Hobbes's De Corpore

An early European critic of Hobbes's De Corpore

work was being discussed, and had been recruited by the anti-Hobbes lobby, or at least volunteered his services to them. Tacquet‟s involvement seems to have been Moranus‟s doing, as Tacquet mentions that Moranus had sent him a copy of Hobbess work, asking his opinion on the mathematical chapters. 16 Moranus must have sent Tacquet a copy of De corpore very quickly for his friend to read, digest and write his critical letter to Moranus within three months of its publication. It seems possible that – like Wallis and his friends – Moranus might have procured pre-publication copies of Hobbess work from the printer, and had been encouraged to pass them on to his famous mathematical friend. This would explain why Ward was aware, within months of its publication, of a small book published in Brussels by an obscure Belgian philosopher.
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The Concept of “Political Legitimacy” in Shia Political Thought (With Focus on Imam Khomeini’s Political Thought)

The Concept of “Political Legitimacy” in Shia Political Thought (With Focus on Imam Khomeini’s Political Thought)

At last, exploration of Imam Khomeini’s political thought undertaken through a review of his speeches, quotations and organized works demonstrated that however his early works on Fiqh dealt exclusively with divine legitimacy and the issue of “Appointment” to such an extent that people’s vote seems to be completely of no importance, later works and speeches which are largely related to after Islamic Revolution period contain remarka- ble emphasis on the determining role of people in the process of governance. Indeed, as in Imam’s perspective practical require- ments have always been prior to the theoreti- cal logic of issues, it is no wonder that he had formally recognized and confirmed the de- mocracy in this preferred level, but did not present an illustrative explanation of the rela- tionship between his early theoretical argu- ments on divine legitimacy and implications of practical level as mentioned above. This inquiry tends to suggest that the legitimacy in Imam Khomeini’s point of view is divided to two main stages; first is associated with the establishment of government and second re- lates directly to basic aims of the government and primary need for its formation. According to Imam Khomeini, the legitimacy in the first stage is mostly a popular one, while the sec- ond stage relies heavily on a ground of divine legislation and legitimacy.
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