The importance of FoodScience and Quality Control lies in the fact that it has capability to provide food to our population through scientific conservations, eliminating avoidable losses and making available more balanced and nutritious food. High value products from low grade material can be produced by innovative and appropriate processing and packaging technologies and also from by-products and residue waste using integrated approach. Thus modernization of post harvest operations and agro-processing industries through innovative and appropriate technology has a vital role to play in national economy in general and rural economy in particular. Considering the above aspects, the role of food technologist does not stop at farm level but it continues till the harvested crops and animal products are processed, preserved and further modified into useful and nutritious products, until it utilized by the consumer. So, the post-harvest handling and processing need to be attended on priority basis at national and international level. Moreover, with development of processing industries, it is quite likely that the demand for food scientists and technologists will increase in the next few decades. Hence, specializations offered at graduate level need to be strengthened considering occupational needs as well as demands of the food industries.
Biogas is also called landfill gas because it is produced by natural degradation of bio-waste by bacterial action. Bio waste such as human and animal excreta, food waste, vegetable and plants waste and industrial waste involving organic materials can be used for generating methane gas which on combustion yield energy stored as chemical energy. Plants convert sun’s energy into carbohydrates by photosynthesis which is the source of this energy. Biogas plants can be small scale, suitable for homes and hotels or large plants on an industrial scale. Large biogas plants may generate foul smell and therefore need to be away from residential areas. Bio ethanol is produced by fermentation of corn, sorghum, wheat, rice, sugarcane and potato. Some shrubs, grass and non-edible parts of plants can be used to produce cellulose ethanol. Currently 99% of bio ethanol produced is used to make E10 or gashol which contain 10% of ethanol and 90% gasoline. When 85% bio ethanol is combined with 15% gasoline we get E85 which requires special engines to use it as a fuel. Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil such as soya bean and rapeseed oil and animal fat. By combining with petrol and diesel, bio ethanol and biodiesel reduce green gas emission. When biodiesel burns it produces 20-40% less greenhouse gases such as CO, CO 2 , SO 2 and unburned hydrocarbons. However,
Use of conventional energy sources for power production, transportation and power producing devices demands huge amount petroleum products such as Petrol, Diesel etc. This may cause pollution, global warming, climate change and human health problems. Developing countries like India needs energy for its continuous development, as energy is the backbone of GDP. Natural resources like coal, oil and natural resources are limited and may not be available for long run. To maintain sustainable development, Worlds need the sources of energy which can satisfy this increased demand as well as there should not be any environmental issues.
Government run ODR has always been preferred by the people due to people’s faith and confidence in governmental dispute resolution. It can be ideally hosted by government because government has more incentive to resolve disputes. It has no vested interest in outcome of decisions. 16 Government is capable providing social reputation to ODR providers and provides credibility and authenticity to ODR system. Government also provides financial help to ODR projects and assists in building technical and administrative the infrastructure required for ODR procedures. 17 There is need to amend Consumer
Data mining (the analysis step of the "Knowledge Discovery in Databases" process, or KDD), an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science, is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Aside from the raw analysis step, it involves database and data management aspects, data pre- processing, model and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures, visualization, and online updating. The term is a misnomer, because the goal is the extraction of patterns and knowledge from large amount of data, not the extraction of data itself. It also is a buzzword and is frequently applied to any form of large-scale data or information processing (collection, extraction, warehousing, analysis, and statistics) as well as any application of computer decision support system, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, and business intelligence. The popular book "Data mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques with Java" (which covers mostly machine learning
For my research, walking interviews brought the agency of more‐ than‐humans into the conservation process. By suggesting plants have agency, I am saying that their liveliness extends beyond their responses to the biophysical conditions in which they are situated (Watts, 2013). In simple terms, the capabilities of plants (like growing, moving, spreading and even dying) play an active role in shaping the way people understand and engage with ecologies through conser- vation. This means, for example, that knowledge of how to manage or conserve plants is often co‐produced through direct human–plant relations rather than detached human observation (Atchison & Head, 2013). As told in the story above, plants actively shaped how con- servation work unfolded, and how we understood that work from a research perspective. It helped to show me that plants are not passive recipients of conservation action, but active participants in shaping a trajectory of conservation outcomes (Cooke, 2017). Walking inter- views offered me a deeper engagement with socio‐ecological worlds. But most importantly, they showed the importance of making room for social science modes of understanding in conservation and ecol- ogy that make visible a wider array of human–environment relations.
Identify the major functions of packaging used for food products, differentiating between the functions of primary, secondary and tertiary packaging. Identify common types of packaging materials, and compare and contrast the properties of containers made from different packaging materials and selection criteria.
Second, latecomers to a project may be included in its work without entering into an express agreement with all the existing parties. 30 In relation to the rules of unincorporated members’ clubs, the law has developed methods for dealing with the problem of how contracts governing on-going relationships can be extended to include new-comers. In such contexts it is generally assumed that the members of a club are in contractual relations with one another; that the terms of that contractual relationship are set out in club rules, including procedures for the admission of new members; and that those rules can only be altered either in the manner prescribed in the rules themselves or by the agreement of every member of the club. There is no reason why such an approach might not also be adopted as a means of organising the entrance of participants who joined the collaboration at various points after its inception. This may not be possible, however, if the newcomer were to enter the relationship on a basis that has not been anticipated at the outset of the project. Moreover, even in situations in which the agreement between the collaborators allowed for the admission of new-comers, the terms of the contract among the original members of a collaboration would need to be made clear to the late-comer. The difficulty with contractual analyses of these types is that the outcome to a dispute between the parties, particularly one involving parties to a collaborative relationship who have joined at different points in time, may not reflect the expectations of all the parties. Indeed, such expectations are unlikely to coincide.
The implementation of research findings into practice has become increasingly recognised as a major priority for researchers, research funders and policymakers over the past decade [1-3]. Nine years after its establishment, Implementation Science currently publishes over 150 ar- ticles each year. This is fewer than 30% of those submit- ted for publication. The majority of manuscript rejections occur at the point of initial editorial screening, frequently because we judge them to fall outside of jour- nal scope. There are a number of common reasons as to why manuscripts are rejected on grounds of scope. However, as the field of implementation research has evolved and our journal submissions have risen, we have also, out of necessity, had to become more selective in what we publish. This partly reflects our strategy for sus- tainable growth: despite being an open access journal with potentially infinite space for publishing articles, we inevitably have limited editorial and reviewer resources. We therefore need to prioritise manuscripts which can
Each team will receive a product development scenario describing the need for a new or redesigned product that appeals to a potential market segment. The team’s task will be to design a new food product or reformulate an existing product based on information contained within the product development scenario.
Nearly 27 per cent Indians live in urban areas. Urbanisation and industrialisation has given birth to a great number of environmental problem that need urgent attention. Over 30 percent of urban Indians live in slums. Out of India’s 3,245 towns and cities, only 21 have partial or full sewerage and treatment facilities. Hence, coping with rapid urbanization is a major challenge.
Once students have settled in and the course is running, they are offered guidance and support regarding their mobility scheme in the programme and the specialisation in a domain of interest (choice of optional modules, professional competence semester and Master’s thesis, cf. supra). The programme coordinators have experienced that this kind of guidance is necessary since many students are not familiar with determining an individual study pathway themselves. Stu- dents can address their lecturers during the course of the modules in case they face academic learning problems. All lecturers are encouraged to make direct contact with the students, par- ticularly because of the high number of visiting professors who are much less available once the lectures that they provide are over. The experience of the programme coordinators learns that students particularly need guidance and support during the first few modules in the curriculum. Some students have very little experience in writing essays and need to adjust to this new way of working. For that reason, some time is reserved after the first module to reflect with students about what they have learned in terms of their study method and how they can do things differ- ently - if necessary - in the consecutive modules. The panel supports such proactive initiatives. In case of problems or complaints concerning the education or examination, students can con- tact an independent ombudsman.
Mechanical computers depend on millions of microscopic moving parts instead of solid-state transistors and other components to push the electrons to perform calculations. Gates, pillars, levers, and pistons create the binary switches, which compute the ones and zeroes that drive modern computers. Because they are more rugged and can perform at much higher temperatures than conventional silicon chips, scientists say, nano mechanical chips will have a wide range of uses in “extreme environments such as space, car engines, battlefields, and children’s toys.” Another benefit: they require less power to operate, meaning they don’t need the energy- sucking cooling systems required by conventional computers.
9.1 Define and describe the need for asepsis and infection prevention in the classroom, laboratory, and in the healthcare environment. 9.2 Compare and demonstrate various physical (hand washing and PPE) and chemical methods (cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization) used to control or prevent microbial growth.
offers, regularity, and changes in contenders' SKU costs. With numerous SKUs in their portfolio, retailers are managing vast data sets. Retail locations, especially those spread over nations, have a huge number of exchanges each day with information sizes going in hundreds of terabytes. To process this huge volume of ever growing pile of data, conventional factual programming or software systems would need to run for a considerable length of time, and much of the time, would come up short on memory while dissecting them. Customarily, along these lines, retailers use models manufactured just to handle a couple sets of SKUs. Then again, store supervisors depend on their instinct and experience to foresee deals volumes. Presently retailers can understand better results and precisely assess price elasticity of items by utilizing a measurable model and structure that employments appropriated processing or Big Data.  
increased food animal productivity is the inevitable shift to more intensive production systems, most notably in beef cattle, poul- try and swine, to meet the expectations and needs of a growing number of people. Antibiotic use in food animals as an overall strategy to prevent and treat infectious disease is most relevant to antibiotic use in intensive production systems, in which the health of food animals is linked to consumer need for plentiful amounts of food animal products, food safety, and public health. In modern production systems, food animals are generally raised in groups (NRC 1999). Typically chickens are raised in barns accommodating 10000 to 20000 birds, pigs are maintained in multiple-pen buildings, and beef cattle are raised outdoors in large pens in feed yards. Given the close proximity of the ani- mals to one another (commingling), physiological and environ- mental stressors, and immature immune systems, any underlying viral infections, or bacterial respiratory or enteric diseases that may occur in a few animals can spread to others, including en- tire herds or flocks. Within the limits of the production system, and depending on the nature of the disease, the producer and/or veterinarian may intervene in such situations by medicating the entire group via the feed or water rather than treating each af- fected animal. Feed medication is more efficient for long-term prophylaxis, whereas medication of water is more effective for treating disease outbreaks due to its rapid intake and clinical re- sponse elicitation. Medicated water is also a more effective means for treating sick animals, which often continue to drink despite not continuing to eat. Administration of medication via water also allows large numbers of animals to be treated in an efficient manner, and avoids worker safety issues associated with injecting large numbers of animals.
To Promote Flexible Learning: Multimedia ensures flexible learning according to the learners pace and need. In this flexibility is recognized in the level of access to courses/ content, the place of entry to, exit from course, the place, time and place of study; the form and pattern of interaction among learners, teachers and resources, the type and variety of resources to support study and communication; the goal or outcome of the educating process and the method used to measure achievements and success.
A way toward more transparency and harmonization in the future The SAFA guidelines pursue a different concept (FAO 2012). They aim at rendering approaches and results of sustainability assessments in the food sector more transparent and comparable. This is in line with the call for disclosing the values and assumptions behind sustainability (Binder et al. 2010, Gasparatos 2010). The SAFA guidelines contribute to overcoming the previously described challenges by establishing a comprehensive, widely accepted language for sustainability in agriculture and food; facilitating transparent comparisons of the sustainability performance of companies; and emphasizing the need to take the varying scope of influence of enterprises into account, which may stretch beyond the physical borders of a production site and even include suppliers and stakeholders outside the supply chain. Thus, despite being operator rather than product centered, the SAFA approach maintains a supply chain perspective. Although the SAFA guidelines provide a standard set of sustainability themes and goals that all enterprises in the sector should pursue, they allow for flexibility in selecting indicators for measuring sustainability performance. So although they aim for being globally applicable for all food, the practical applicability of the SAFA guidelines is yet to be tested and evaluated under a diversity of conditions. SAFA-consistent assessment tools, e.g., SMART, can help in operationalizing the SAFA guidelines to establish transparent and comparable reporting systems for food companies (Schader et al. 2012a, Jawtusch et al. 2013). Still, communication of sustainability requires full transparency about the perspectives, values, and assumptions. Therefore, developing methods for communicating sustainability in both an efficient and transparent way remains a transdisciplinary challenge for researchers, developers, and relevant stakeholders. However, if the variability among the assessment perspectives remains or even increases, it is simply a matter of time before the concept of “sustainability” will lose the central influence that it currently has in the public and scientific debate.
Agnes Fay Morgan, co-author of the essay excerpted above, was a pioneer among women in American science. Morgan came to UC Berkeley’s faculty in 1915. The next year, she became a founding co-chair of the Department of Home Economics. Two years later she was sole chair of the new Department of Household Science, within UC Berkeley’s College of Agriculture. Her goal was to validate or debunk common household customs of cookery, clean living and good order by scientific means, and in that way promote sound practices in this tradition-bound arena. Those who studied under Morgan were well qualified to teach science and nutrition courses, along with the cooking and sewing classes one might expect of a home economics graduate.