Top PDF 1+N Network Protection for Mesh Networks: Network Coding-Based Protection Using p-Cycles and Protection Paths

1+N Network Protection for Mesh Networks: Network Coding Based Protection Using p Cycles and Protection Paths

1+N Network Protection for Mesh Networks: Network Coding Based Protection Using p Cycles and Protection Paths

The protection circuit is adapted to convey a protection signal formed by combining data units from the plurality of bidirec tional connections using netWork coding to thereby protect th[r]

21 Read more

Scalable shared protection approach for mesh WDM-routed networks

Scalable shared protection approach for mesh WDM-routed networks

The paper proposes an approach for calculating the protection pool size on each link in a mesh WDM- routed network. The protection pool evaluation is part of a shared protection scheme applied to a failure dependent scenario and based on aggregated information dissemination. Two models based on a probabilistic approach are proposed to provide a scheme that is scalable as the number of optical cross-connects (OXC), fibres and wavelength multiplexing in a core network increases. Precisely, two models based on a binomial and a beta-binomial distribution are presented. The evaluation of the models by simulation shows that both models are attractive propositions to offer protected λ-services that do not require an absolute protection guarantee offered by (1:1) schemes or shared protection schemes requiring full network state information, or using partial information but with less efficient use of the fibre utilisation.
Show more

9 Read more

Multi-user video streaming using unequal error protection network coding in wireless networks

Multi-user video streaming using unequal error protection network coding in wireless networks

the fundamental system behaviour. This work builds upon our recent theoretical analysis of UEP RLC schemes for erasure channels [18]. Addressing a specific UEP RLC application, the real-time multi-user video streaming, this article extends the layer decoding probability analysis of UEP RLC addressed in previous work to include addi- tional performance measures such as expected decoding delays of different video layers and evolution of the expected received video quality of exchanged scalable video streams over time. Using the presented set of ana- lytical tools, we offer a simple framework for the design and analysis of UEP RLC based real-time multi-user scal- able video streaming systems. The framework provides flexible approach for reliable exchange of layered video streams over dynamically changing wireless channels. The application of the proposed framework and the ben- efits over the standard RLC approach applied in [15] are demonstrated through the distortion-optimized system design examples.
Show more

13 Read more

Protection in survivable WDM grooming network.

Protection in survivable WDM grooming network.

In the existing survivability researches of wavelength-routed optical networks, the protection technique is either developed based on the Optical Multiplex Section (OMS) or Optical Channel Section (Och). OMS is the term usually refers to fiber granularity pro- tection technique that protect, whereas Och is the term usually refers to the wavelength granularity protection technique. The OMS protection is first developed for legacy point- to-point optical networks and the protection is usually performed on the whole fiber by providing extra fibers or equipments. The example of OMS protection techniques includes the commonly known 1:1 protection, 1+1 protection, and many-to-one protection. Though the fiber level protection can offer 100% protection guarantee, the protection capacity reser- vation is considered to be very inefficient when the number of occupied wavelengths in the fiber cables is low. With the introduction of lower granularity protection, Och protection technique seems to be the answer to the problem of inefficiency by allowing only occupied wavelengths to reserve protection resources. Additionally, wavelength granularity protec- tion allows unused wavelengths in working fiber cables to be assigned as protection resource, which will result in better bandwidth utilization without losing 100% protection guaran- tee. Along with mesh topology of wavelength-routed optical network introduction came the backup multiplexing technique, which is the technique to use the same protection resource to protect multiple working resources. Many protection design heuristics have been devel- oped based on this shared protection technique in order to minimize the resource usage reserved for protection purpose [20][17][18][19]. The followings are the detailed descriptions of each protection technique existing in wavelength-routed optical networks.
Show more

136 Read more

Design of adaptive constellations and error protection coding for wireless network coding in 5 node butterfly networks

Design of adaptive constellations and error protection coding for wireless network coding in 5 node butterfly networks

In addition to the analytical evaluation of throughput, we validate the results in a real-world setup. The hard- ware performance is evaluated using Ettus Research Uni- versal Software Radio Peripherals (USRPs) which are computer-hosted Software Defined Radios (SDRs). The USRPs connect to a host computer via a Gigabit Ethernet link, which the host-based software uses to receive and transmit the baseband IQ stream. The host controls the USRP using USRP Hardware Driver (UHD) commands, including setting parameters such as amplifier gain. The USRP then performs the necessary baseband processing then up/down-conversion and transmission/reception. The Ettus Research N210 USRP is used, which consists of a motherboard and a radio frequency (RF) daughterboard; more details can be found in [26]. In these experiments the XCVR2450 daughterboards are used, these are dual- band transceivers with 100 mW output at 2.4–2.5 GHz and 50 mW output at 4.9–5.85 GHz. In this paper, GNU- Radio [27], which is an open-source toolkit, is used as the host-processing software.
Show more

22 Read more

MPLS Recovery Schemes: An Experimental Evaluation

MPLS Recovery Schemes: An Experimental Evaluation

backup path bandwidth sharing based on statistical aggregation. The key features of his proposal are backup path bandwidth allocation is not limited to single link/node failure, reduces overhead for information since no routing information is required, resourceful bandwidth distribution and low fatal failure probability. The author represents the relationship between the number of working paths, path failure probability of working paths and the amount of allocated bandwidth on the shared backup paths. By finding the appropriate amount of backup bandwidth the author proved that his proposed algorithm can utilize bandwidth more efficiently as compared to 1:1 path protection. ITU- T G.808.3 [17] offers the protection mechanism for connection-oriented layer networks. The mechanism in ITU-T G.808.3 used protection switching recovery model to maximize speed of recovery.
Show more

9 Read more

1.
													Security protection across network based attacks in mesh networks

1. Security protection across network based attacks in mesh networks

In DDoS (routing disruption attack) the main aims to defect the routing scheme which leads to the unavailability of its network services. Examples of DoS attacks at different protocol layers are channel jamming, wormhole attack, Sybil attack, black hole, and grey hole attacks. In this paper we will apply the proposed model that provide the degree of trust on the network. The result is to mark the value of that node which is suspicious. The behavior of a node can be changed over time. Therefore, node A, can decide about E's behavior as bad, good, or excellent with the help of the experienced degree of trust. The grading of a node to be called as good or bad can be adjusted by the network designer according to the environmental conditions of the network.
Show more

9 Read more

Security Protection OF WDM FSO Network

Security Protection OF WDM FSO Network

The channel selector array consists of an upcounter, a hit crossing unit and corresponding switch.The Hit Crossing block works when the input reaches the Hit crossing offset parameter value in the direction specified by a Hit cross Fig.3 represent the block diagram of QPPM system which transmits L=log2Q bits per symbol, providing high power efficiency. In the transmitter, the signals described by the binary data bits are converted into a stream of pulses corresponding to QPPM symbol. At the receiver, after signal detection (the demodulator block) and de-interleaving, channel decoding is performed. The demodulation operation is done based on the received signal light intensity. The electrical signal after the optical or electrical conversion is:
Show more

7 Read more

SURVIVABILITY OF BACKUP CONNECTIVITY IN OPTICAL  MULTI-LAYER IP BASED CONNECTIVITY

SURVIVABILITY OF BACKUP CONNECTIVITY IN OPTICAL MULTI-LAYER IP BASED CONNECTIVITY

The Network topology consists of twenty nodes communicates in the current scenario to support backbone networks. This topology deployed on the 1000 m x 1000 m square area with connecting link and composed by different clients in a coverage range of 70 meters by using NS2.34 Simulator [18]. The mobile node is able to access the other node via wireless link with a packet size of 1024 bytes and round trip time is set to 2ms. The transmission rate is set to 24 Mbps and Dijkstra algorithm is applied to compute the routes. It is assumed that the available spectrum width of each server and host link is 2500 GHz, each frequency slot is 25 GHz, the link cost denotes the link length. The actual request sizes are further varied uniformly between 200 Mbps–1 Gbps in between router, host and servers with increments of 200 Mbps, i.e., to model fractional Ethernet demands. Links that are shared by many backup light paths appear replicated in the sub networks corresponding to all the sharing connections. The mobile nodes communicate with routers to send the data through hosts. When a node in the network receives the request to establish a new route, the node creates an appropriate working path. Each node in the network is required to maintain a routing table that contains an ordered list of a number of fixed shortest routes to each destination node. The link shares the frequency band so that sending and receiving nodes transmitted/receiving the packets. The packets are placed on each link and every node was responsible for maintaining the queue. Queues are served in order. A queue is inspected before an actual frequency switch; if
Show more

6 Read more

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN INTELLIGENT FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN INTELLIGENT FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT

Fire detection system and fire warning are design features of an aircraft. Fire detection system protects the aircraft and passengers both in case of actual fire during flight. But spurious fire warning during flight creates a panic situation in flight crews and passengers. The conventional fire alarm system of an aircraft is triggered by false signal. ANN based fire detection system provides real observation of deployed zones. An intelligent fire detection system is developed based on artificial neural network using three detection information such as heat (temperature), smoke density and CO gas. This Information helps in determining the probability of three representative of Fire condition which is Fire, smoke and no fire. The simulated MATLAB results Show that the errors in identification are very less. The neural network based fire detection system integrates different types of sensor data and improves the ability of system to correct prediction of fires. It gives early alarm when any kind of fire broke out and helps to decrease in spurious warning.
Show more

14 Read more

Improvement and Design of Transmitter Modifier Wind Cooling Protection for CINRAD/CB Weather Radar

Improvement and Design of Transmitter Modifier Wind Cooling Protection for CINRAD/CB Weather Radar

Doppler weather radar has important applications in measuring the intrinsic factors of cloud, rainfall and various convective weather occurrences. Among them, CINRAD/CB Doppler weather radar is based on the requirements of the China Meteorological Administration and many units have been provided. The modulator is a critical part of the transmitter’s high voltage, where high voltage, high current, and energy conversion are concentrated. It is therefore necessary to redesign the transmitter modulator cooling system protection. This article describes the new design of hardware and software solutions. The fan is a DV5214/2N DC fan from Ebmpapst, Germany. The speed is up to 5000 rpm, the power is 18.5 W, and the single fan current is about 0.8 A. It is powered by 28 V. The protection board uses a DC/DC module to output a 5 V voltage and a 3.3 V voltage adjustment chip LM1117. The embedded web software is based on the TCP/IP protocol stack provided by MICROCHIP. After the cooling system is designed and installed in the radar station in Xi’an, China and other places, after long-term operation, the comprehensive test shows that the system runs well.
Show more

8 Read more

Analysis of existing effectiveness and method to enhance the lightning, shielding and earthing protection schemes applied on the Parit Raja’s telecommunication tower system

Analysis of existing effectiveness and method to enhance the lightning, shielding and earthing protection schemes applied on the Parit Raja’s telecommunication tower system

Rolling sphere method as in figure 2.9 has described the procedure for the determination of protected volume derived by this method. Application of the rolling sphere method actually involved an imaginary sphere of a prescribe radius over air termination network [6]. The sphere rolls up and over (and is supported by) air terminal, shield wires, and other grounded metal objects intended for direct lightning protection .The structure below the sphere as in figure 2.9 is considered to be under protection. Equipment that touches the sphere or penetrates its surface is not protected [6].
Show more

38 Read more

Safety Assured Reliable Microgrid

Safety Assured Reliable Microgrid

multi-source power system. The protection philosophy of the microgrid is to assure safe and secure operation of the subsystem in both modes operation, i.e., during interconnected mode and islanded mode. However, the two operating modes pose new challenges in protecting the microgrid. Therefore, two sets of protection settings is the most probable solution to the dual modes of operation. During grid-connected operation, the mains supply large fault currents to the fault point. This makes possible the employment of the existing protection devices in the distribution system. Yet, the protection coordination may be compromised or even entirely lost in some cases due to the installation of DGs. On the other hand, such large fault current contribution from the microgrid cannot always be expected, especially when it is dominated by electronically-coupled DGs. Thus, the use of conventional overcurrent protection in the microgrid is no longer valid due to this low short circuit current contribution from the micro-sources.
Show more

10 Read more

An Artificial Neural Network Based Digital Differential Protection Scheme for Synchronous Generator Stator Winding Protection

An Artificial Neural Network Based Digital Differential Protection Scheme for Synchronous Generator Stator Winding Protection

limiting rule by utilizing different proportions characterized at a higher recurrence [6]. While different scientists proposed concealed Markov's model [7], fluffy rationale based techniques [4, 8], wave formed acknowledgment strategy [1, 9], and furthermore artificial neural networks-(ANNs-) [10, 11] based learning design way to deal with show signs of improvement characterization exactness, low computational weight, and quick reaction of the transfer. In any case, these techniques rely upon fixed limit list (either in time area or in recurrence space) and these may require extensive computational weight. Besides, the execution of an ANN especially relies upon its speculation ability, which thus is needy upon the information portrayal. One critical normal for information portrayal is uncorrelated. At the end of the day, a lot of information introduced to an ANN should not to comprise of associated data. This is on the grounds that corresponded information diminish the uniqueness of information portrayal and consequently acquaint disarray with the ANN display amid learning process and henceforth, delivering one that has low speculation capacity to determine inconspicuous information.
Show more

13 Read more

DWT ANN Based Analysis of Inrush and Fault Currents in Power Transformers

DWT ANN Based Analysis of Inrush and Fault Currents in Power Transformers

analysis of inrush and fault current in power transformer and elimination using artificial neural network algorithm. The proposed analysis helps ANN to easily discriminate among the inrush current and fault current. In typical relay system, the relay tends to trip even at the start because of inrush current. In this paper, the offline model of relay model is built in MATLAB environment and the data is collected for inrush and fault current conditions. Since, the wavelet transform has the characteristic of multi-scale analysis and good time and frequency domain localization, fits to extract sudden- change signals in transient processes, and detects irregularity of signals very well. Further analysis using DWT is done and energy as a feature is extracted at only 7th decomposition level to decide whether the relay should trip or not using ANN algorithm. The 7 level decomposition is carried out using DWT and ANN yields 100% accuracy in results.
Show more

7 Read more

Cathodic Protection Remote Monitoring Based on Wireless Sensor Network

Cathodic Protection Remote Monitoring Based on Wireless Sensor Network

As an example a Cathodic protection methodology is considered for the Oil pipelines. In this method the cath- ode and anode are buried under the ground in a distance of two meters. Both cathode and anode are connected to the wireless sensor. This sensor is installed in one meter from the Oil pipeline and the distance between each two sensors of WSN is two kilometers. The data are collected from the environment by wireless sensor and sent to the RTU. Each RTU collection data from range about 50 kilometers and then forward to base Station. The distance between RTU and Base Station is 100 kilometers.
Show more

8 Read more

Bridging the Gap Between Security Tools and SDN Controllers

Bridging the Gap Between Security Tools and SDN Controllers

To make use of the protection capabilities of traditional security tools and maximize the SDN benefits in securing networks, we need to make them work together. Consider most security tools are designed for traditional networks instead of SDN networks, there are several practical issues when combining them together. The first issue is the current security tools are heterogeneous, and their detection results are not compatible. For instance, a host-based intrusion detection system will be mainly monitoring system behaviors, while a firewall will be interested in suspicious network activities. The log generated by the two tools can hardly join together for further security analysis. The second issue is we lack an interaction mechanism for security tools to communicate with SDN networks. We want to employ real-time threats information to adjust network behaviors dynamically. The last issue is we need a unified method to translate the semantics of threat information into SDN rules. For example, how do we extract effective threats information from heterogeneous security event information? Given a certain security threat, how do we adjust network behaviors for an effective defense? How do we distribute defense decisions in an SDN network?
Show more

16 Read more

Methods for calculating Protection Equality for conservation planning

Methods for calculating Protection Equality for conservation planning

Ecological representation is a key principle of systematic conservation planning that broadly aims to ensure a PA system protects a sample of all biodiversity present [6]. Usually, this is accomplished through setting quantitative targets for individual conservation features (e.g. species or habitats) to be protected. Despite some criticisms (e.g. the arbitrariness in target amounts [7, 8]), target-based conservation planning is now commonplace and driving biodi- versity commitments at both global and national levels. However, questions remain regarding the adequacy of target amounts and comparability between countries. For example, what bio- diversity outcomes do we achieve with 17% protection of terrestrial habitats? Does it make sense to protect an equal percentage of ecologically or geo-politically defined units, such as ecoregions? What is good ecological representation, and how should we measure it?
Show more

17 Read more

Microcontroller Based Intelligent Protection  Scheme for Heavy Dc & Ac Single and Three Phase Appliances Intelligent Protection Scheme

Microcontroller Based Intelligent Protection Scheme for Heavy Dc & Ac Single and Three Phase Appliances Intelligent Protection Scheme

Fig 6:- Schematic Diagram of Voltage Divider Circuit With a proper input sinusodial waveform, output waveform will be rectified like half wave rectified signal with lower magnitudes. So any changes in the original voltage will cause a change in output of voltage divider circuit which in under supervision of microcontroller. The same circuit is used for measuring frequency as well. The output waveform of the voltage divider circuit is as given below. The Micro controller reads Analog values of the rectified voltage obtained from voltage divider circuit. Micro-controller then based upon the analog values will estimates the proportionate voltage from the real voltage. The peak value of the voltage is detected by the micro- controller and it is processed to get the RMS value of the real voltage.
Show more

6 Read more

A Review on Protection Techniques used in HVDC Transmission Line Shweta Mahajan , Prof. S. U. Kulkarni

A Review on Protection Techniques used in HVDC Transmission Line Shweta Mahajan , Prof. S. U. Kulkarni

Mathematical model of the system is not required for design of fuzzy logic controller. Based on output requirement, qualitative knowledge is needed for design of fuzzy logic controller. Moreover, it is simple to add data or knowledge in terms of system behaviour in the controller model. The major advantage of Fuzzy logic controller is to remain unaffected during variations in system operating conditions and system parameters. The power flow order is modulated through the output of Fuzzy logic controller for DC power modulation. Through large signal modulation obtained from AC system variables, stabilizing control is achieved. The control effect can be improved by reduced short term overloads and increased converter rating for overloads [7].
Show more

5 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...