and BFGS . MR Asadi dan SM Kouhsari (2009) Using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to obtain a optimum settings solution for coordination overcurrent relay. This study found that the use of PSO method can improve coordination and relay operation time, looking for optimal points in absolute terms and not being trapped in optimal local points . Manohar Sigh, B.K Panigrahi dan Rohan Muherje (2012) Apply Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) to solve the problem of overcurrent protection coordination. This method is tested in a loop system and provides optimal coordination results and there is no coordination error between the primary relay and the backup relay . Hebatallah Mohamed Sharaf, Doaa Khalil
In this paper, a new method for optimal coordination of over-current relays is proposed in which there is no need for introducing additional auxiliary variables and an objective function. It is a simple method and the number of iterations for the pro-gram to converge is low. It also considers both relays of the characteristics of which are linearly proportional to TMS (L.P) of TMS itself is the abbreviation of time dial setting of the relay under consideration. The new optimal coordination method together with its advantage is outlined. Finally, the performance of the new method is evaluated by comparing its results with the conventional optimal methods.
ABSTRACT: Distributed generation (DG) to the power system may lead to nonselective protection actions. This paper proposes a novel method to determine the optimal settings of the Direct Overcurrent Relays (DOCR’s) for the distribution network comprising of DG. Consequently, it provides to the utility planners one set of relay settings valid for different capacities of DG units varying between zero and the maximal desired capacity i.e. a method capable of optimally identifying one set of relay settings valid for all possible future DG planning scenarios. The proposed approach is tested on the distribution part of the radial test system. The protection coordination problem is formulated and is simulated in MATLAB/C-Program
Imagined conversations There has been work in the NLP community applying computational tech- niques to fiction, scripts, and other types of text containing imagined conversations. For example, one recent project identifies conversational networks in novels, with the goal of evaluating various liter- ary theories (Elson et al., 2010; Elson and McKe- own, 2010). Movie scripts were used as word-sense- disambiguation evaluation data as part of an effort to generate computer animation from the scripts (Ye and Baldwin, 2006). Sonderegger (2010) employed a corpus of English poetry to study the relation- ship between pronunciation and network structure. Rayson et al. (2001) computed part-of-speech fre- quencies for imaginative writing in the British Na- tional Corpus, finding a typology gradient progress- ing from conversation to imaginative writing (e.g., novels) to task-oriented speech to informative writ- ing. The data analyzed by Oberlander and Gill (2006) consisted of emails that participants were in- structed to write by imagining that they were going to update a good friend on their current goings-on. 3 Movie dialogs corpus
Deregulation of electricity has brought new suppliers into the electicity market resulting in the power system operating close to its peak limit and requires good protection system against any fault. Protection system for power system has been developed to minimize damage and make sure supply is safe, continous and economical. This is a achieved using relay. A relay is device that makes measuremt or receivers signal that causes it to operate and effect the operation of other equipments. It responds to abnormal conditions in faulty section of the system with minimum interruption of supply. Relay co-ordination plays an important role with protection scheme. It is an integral part of the overall system protection and is absolutely necessary to Isolate only the faulty circuit, prevent tripping of healthy circuit. The main purpose of this paper is to design a computer model to calculate the time setting multiplier (TSM) and pick up current Iset of each relay so that the overall operating time of the primary relays is minimized properly. For optimal coordination, these parameters should fulfill all constraints under the operating time and lead to optimal coordination of overcurrent relay. Each part of the system is protected by a main and back up relay and no interference could occur in relay operation . For a good protection scheme, a reliable back up should exist in case the main protective system fails. This backup protection should act as a backup either in the same station or in the neighbouring lines with a time delay according to the selective requirement .
Anti-cancer drug resistance is the major cause of death of cancer patients with disseminated tumors (Borst, 2012). In some patients intrinsic (or primary) drug resistance is already observed from the start (i.e. prior to chemotherapy) and tumors grow in the presence of chemotherapy (Holohan et al., 2013). Such intrinsic drug resistance can be a cancer-type specific or caused by individual cancer features (Gottesman, 2002). Frequently however, resistance arises in two steps. The tumor initially responds, but not all tumor cells are eradicated. From the residual disease the tumor regrows and eventually becomes resistant to all available chemotherapeutic drugs (Borst, 2012). We have recently reviewed various mechanisms that may cause minimal residual disease (Blatter and Rottenberg, 2015). Although residual disease may already contain selected drug-refractory tumor cells, it is also possible that the residual tumors are only transiently resistant due to cell cycle characteristics (Pajic et al., 2017). Then, drug resistance is acquired during the course of treatment (Housman et al., 2014). This secondary resistance is often due to (epi-)genetic alterations arising during the treatment and lead to, for instance, the activation of alternative signaling pathways, increased drug efflux, altered drug target availability, or rewiring of the DNA damage response (Holohan et al., 2013, Borst, 2012, Bouwman and Jonkers, 2012). To attenuate the development of drug resistance, combinational therapies of several drugs with different molecular mechanisms are frequently given to cancer patients (Al-Lazikani et al., 2012). Another approach is to re-sensitize resistant tumor cells by drugs targeting the resistance mechanism or the tumor microenvironment (De Henau et al., 2016, Callaghan et al., 2014). Unfortunately, we often lack knowledge about the mechanisms underlying resistance and therefore we usually lack a personalized strategy how to treat patients with (relapsing) tumors.
Overcurrent relays are used as back up relays. The problem of coordinating protective relays in protection systems consists of their suitable settings such that their fundamental protective function is met under the requirements of sensitivity, selectivity, reliability, and speed. The main function of protective relays on power system is to detect and remove the faulted parts as fast and selectively as possible. Directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) have been commonly used as an economic alternative for the protection of sub-transmission and distribution system or as a secondary protection of transmission system. DOCRs have two types of settings: pickup current setting and time multiplier setting (TMS). Basically, to determine these settings, two different approaches are used; conventional approach, and optimization techniques. The basis of the conventional protection approach is the concept of pre- determinism (i.e., analysis of all faults, abnormal operating conditions, and system contingencies are predetermined).
many years, power system engineers have relied on conventional methods for overcurrent relaycoordination. These methods are based on trial and error approach that can be laborious and time consuming depending on the size and the complexity of the network. As a result, it has been proposed to automate the relaycoordination pro- cedure using computer programs  . However, these automated methods do not provide optimal solutions but rather the best of the tried solutions . Consequently, new methods that can provide optimal overcurrent relaycoordination have been proposed. A comprehensive review of different optimal coordination methods to overcome this problem is given in  .
In this paper, we have proposed an approach to minimize the energy consumption on source nodes by using mobile relay node. Our approach can work with less optimal initial configurations such as greedy geographic routing. Our approach improves the initial configuration using two schemes. New nodes into the tree are inserted first. The optimal position of relay node in the tree is then computed given a fixed topology. This algorithm is suitable for a variety of data-intensive wireless sensor networks. When optimization algorithm is considered in zigzag fashion, we can observe that energy is optimized to the greater extent. Here our approach considers only static nodes but it can further be extended to dynamic nodes. Our analysis results show that it considerably reduces the energy consumption and also provides security to an extent.
Reproduction: In this process the individuals are selected based on their fitness values relative to that of the population. Thus individuals (chromosomes) with higher fitness values have a greater chance of being selected for mating and subsequent genetic action. Consequently, highly fit individuals live and reproduce, and less fit chromosomes die. Crossover: After reproduction, “crossover” operation is implemented. Crossover is an operator that forms a new
DSDM is an agile project release structure, first and foremost used as a software development method. DSDM is an iterative and incremental approach that embraces values of agile development, together with nonstop user involvement. The main aspect of DSDM is that the users are required to be involved dynamically, and the teams are given the power to make decisions. Frequent delivery of product becomes the vigorous focus with DSDM.
To establish fully quantum multi-partite networks, it is necessary to route quantum signals through a backbone of quantum nodes. This can be achieved by leveraging quantum entanglement to set up non-local correlations between measurements by end users. Examples of such schemes are distribution of entangled photon pairs to end users, where local measurements are performed, or conversely, where photons are sent by two users to be projected into a Bell state by an intermediate quan- tum node[9–11]. Photonic quantum repeaters and relays employ both of these eﬀects to teleport entan- gled or single qubits respectively in a manner that can be chained to create a fully quantum network for which theoretically proven quantum security can be preserved. Here, we report operation of a quantum relayover 1 km
Co-operation and network coding are two such powerful techniques that heightened the proficiency of wireless Networks. This paper mainly focuses on Physical-layer Network Coding (PNC) and Analog Network Coding (ANC), as they are the most studied variants of network coding in literature and represent radically different strategies between themselves, thus shedding light into which problems may hinder the scalability of network coding to more better wireless network topologies. Also, performance of cooperative networks can be enhanced with optimum relay selection. In this paper, we present the simulation results for both Analog Network Coding and Physical-layer Network Coding. We have evaluated the bit error rate (BER) over Rician fading channelsfor ANC and PNC with relay optimization by taking path loss in our system model. BPSK modulation is used for simulation results.
Various criteria described in this paper shall be used to workout relay settings and coordination of electrical network. The protection system is really only such if the protection functions necessary are provided and these are suitably set. Particular attention must be paid in the relaycoordination study to verifying that the protections do not cause unwanted trips. Modern digital and microprocessor based relays may have number of protections built in one relay. While configuring these relays, it is necessary to set only desired protection units and disable the undesirable protection units otherwise, relay may operate inadvertently.
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to solve the coordination problem encounter by IDMT directional overcurrent relays in meshed power systems, using a hybrid optimization algorithm called hybrid BFO-DE (Hybrid Bacterial Foraging Optimization and Differential Evolution). The operating time of the overcurrent relays influence a non-linear relationship with TDS and PS. The objective of hybrid optimization algorithm is to reduce total operation time for each protective relay. The competence of the proposed hybrid algorithm is shown in the paper. In this study two models are considered namely IEEE 3-bus model and IEEE 4-bus model. The result has shown that the BFO-DE approach provides good convergence speed and solution quantity.
In our approach, all the information and data have been collected from different medical research centre and cancer hospital. RGCIRC is a project of Indraprastha Cancer Society and Research Centre, a not-for-profit public society. It is one of the largest medical centers for cancer treatment in Asia. Dr. Pervez Ahmed Khan is a Consultant - Neurosurgery at Batra Hospital, New Delhi. Once, I discussed with Dr. Perwez regarding mathematical approach of cost optimization of brain tumor treatment. He accepted my proposal and provided valuable information and data of diagnosis and its respective details for the set of diagnosis to implement my approach. Diagnosis which result for similar symptom have been grouped together as Gj with per unit cost, for all j. We have proposed a methodology of optimality to optimize the cost of brain tumor treatment. The expertise of medical science people like, doctor, and health care team may use my proposed approach to get an optimal solution. In table 1, the different diagnoses are described, and in figure 3, diagnoses have been categorized as a group with the similar result and it’s per unit cost.
As for further research, someone could look into more call centers and specific companies to see their philosophies of teaming and how VIs handle teaming together. Looking at the bigger picture would give a better rounded view of what is happening when teaming occurs in VRS. Video Relay Service is very challenging work. Each time Video Interpreters go to work, they can rarely predict what is going to happen. Every call is so unique and different. Having a team interpreter there to clarify the information, make sure the caller is being respectful or helping to handle a 911 call can be so valuable for both the Video Interpreter and the team interpreter that is helping out. By developing the current teaming practices within VRS, the interpreters who do this challenging work on a daily basis can have a network of support in place. Some potential problems that may arise are not everyone seeing eye to eye when it comes to the teaming practices. Or, if new practices are established as a result of this and future research, then some people might not like how the standards are put into practice. Another issue that could arise is everyone talking about people’s personal habits instead of talking about the work itself. I am hoping this research information will cause everyone to think about the teaming “practices” that seem to be employed now, and perhaps ways to improve any of those “practices.”