In the Mediterranean region, Catalonia has the singularity of having experienced an important industrialization since the nineteenth century, a factor that favoured intense trade by sea and land and, later, a strong urbanization of some parts of the territory. These changes have favoured conditions for the penetration of non-native flora. Another singularity in the Mediterranean area –also shared with some regions in southern France– is the beginning of botanical studies in the 17 th century and its continuity since the 19 th century, which has provided a good floristic knowledge over the last 150 years. As a result of these studies, three regional flora compilations have been published (Costa, 1877; Cadevall & Font Quer, 1913–1937; Bolòs & Vigo, 1984–2001). The flora of Catalonia has also been recently covered by Flora iberica project (Castroviejo, 1986–2018), which is not yet concluded.
The present work used the database “Documenta Florae Australis” (from now on referred as DFA), developed and maintained at the Instituto Darwinion during the last 20 years. Such relational database integrates scientific name of the accepted taxa with their synonyms, indicates original publication data, presence and distribution in each country of the South American Southern Cone (discriminating by regions, provinces or states, departments or municipalities), status (if the taxon is endemic, native or introduced), habit and life- cycle, including also bibliography and vouchers, line drawings and field photographs. A complete inventory of the vascular plants cited for the Southern Cone can be obtained from DFA. As soon as new taxonomic and systematic treatments are published, DFA data is updated and its records are increased daily by the contribution of numerous registered users. Also, more than 15 institutions are digitalising their collections and these are continuously uploaded into this system. Today, DFA has 66,784 scientific names recorded for the Southern Cone, of which 19,787 are accepted and the remaining 44,943 are synonyms. The number of herbarium specimens linked to the system is 442,155, the bibliography records amount to 10,005, while 12,554 names of taxonomists, collectors or botanical authorities, close to 9,000 line art illustrations and 35,000 pictures of plants in the field, amongst other items, are included in DFA. This database is open and available for consultation and represents a valuable resource for improving knowledge, management and conservation of the flora of Southern South America.
century as ornamental plant for aquaria (Banfi and Galasso 2010). It quickly spread in many regions of northern Italy, as well as in Lazio (Azzella and Iberite 2010). It is a harmful invasive plant due to its rapid vegetative growth and high spread potential. The plant is subject to control and eradication projects in many European and South American countries. It was recently included in the list of Invasive Alien Species of Union Concern (Commission Implementing Regulation EU 2016/1141). The plant was identified according to Galasso (2007) and it was also observed in other locations along the Torrente Ombrone (il Castellare –Pistoia municipality, Pistoia–, Caserana and Ferruccia –Quarrata municipality, Pistoia–) and along the Arno River (Camaioni –Montelupo Fiorentino municipality, Firenze–). During the summer of 2016, rapid expansion of the taxon and a considerable increase of its coverage was observed.
During a recent trip, the lichen flora on the northern slopes of São Jorge turned out to be of special interest. To our knowledge the lichen flora of this region has not previously recorded. In the fog-enshrouded belt between 300 and 650 m E of Norte Grande a bush vegetation dominated by Juniperus brevifolia and Erica scoparia ssp. azorica (= E. azorica) is thriving, interrupted partly by pastures. The old gnarled stems are covered with foliose macrolichens such as Pseudocyphellaria, Sticta, Nephroma, Lobaria, Parmotrema, Hypotrachyna, Rimelia and Usnea. Vividly red crowned podetia of Cladonia didyma are abundant on rotten wood of Erica azorica. The lichen flora is similar to that on the floor of the Caldeira do Faial, as reported by P URVIS & JAMES (1993).
Abstract: From the botanical collecting trips to the Bodrogköz, NE Hungary, organised by Zoltán Tuba in 1982–1983, Edit Farkas collected 76 specimens of 35 lichen species. Furthermore Zoltán Tuba collected 12 additional specimens, among them 3 further species recently. From the 38 species 19 are new to the investigated area. These data represent valuable contributions to the lichen flora of the Bodrogköz area, since together with other literature and herbarium data 59 species are known from the area so far. 18 species are only known from earlier collections or old literature sources. The most frequent species now are as follows:
As previously mentioned (Cattaneo & Grano, 2015), Chalki looks like a calcareous island, with a maximum height that do not exceed 600 m above sea level and with few flat areas located in the cent- ral part of the island. Probably the most interesting aspect of the island is given by vertical cliffs of massive limestone and deep gorges along the coa- stline, except for the oriental side. The presence of these vertical cliffs allowed the growth of a rare and highly specialized chasmophytic flora. Several species are endemic with a distribution area limited to the island and to the SE Aegean, including W Turkey. The rest of the island is characterized by a kind of flora essentially phryganic with prevalence of chamaephytes and nano-phanerophytes, as Sar- copoterium spinosum, Salvia fruticosa, Origanum onites, Thymbra capitata, Teucrium capitatum, Euphorbia characias and E. dendroides.
No single or dominant conceptual framework seemed to have emerged to guide translation research. Contributions in this special issue find and draw on a multitude of perspectives from actor–network theory, knowledge-based theory, Scandinavian institutionalism and knowledge transfer, to critical realist perspectives and broader theoretical perspectives in the management ideas literature (institutional, rational, dramaturgical and political). Reflecting upon the different perspectives there may be potential for different ways of conceptual integration (Cornelissen and Durand 2012) but we also underscore that different perspectives encompass distinctive strengths and so suggest that separation should remain. Given the diverse landscape of the translational field, we suspect researchers in this field will continue to draw from different theoretical perspectives to offer insights in translation theory. However, the contributions to this special issue do prompt the question about whether integration is at all possible.
Platanthera dilatata (Pursh) Lindl. ex L. C. Beck var. dilatata (Tall White Bog Orchid, Orchidaceae) was collected in an open marshy fen at Scotty Creek. It is ranked as “may be at risk” (Working Group on General Status of NWT Species 2011); the only other known locations for the species in the NWT are in Nahanni National Park (Talbot s.n., 6-VII-1976, DAO!; Scotter 24227, DAO!) and Tungsten (Spicer 1501, DAO!), both in the Mackenzie Mountains (Environ- ment and Natural Resources 2014). The Scotty Creek collection constitutes a small range extension (about 320 km) to the east of the western portion of the range of this Cordilleran–Eastern American disjunct species, which is known only along the Pacific Coast Ranges and the Rocky Mountains in the west and from New- foundland to central Manitoba south to Indiana in the east, with no records known in Nunavut and Sas kat - chewan (Sheviak 2003). Scotty Creek is, therefore, probably near the northeastern limit of the species’ range in western North America.
It is important to keep in mind when interpreting the analysis of these data that it is capturing behavior at a very high level. Many of the details of how charities are run cannot be seen or described here. In particular, one must be careful to remember that charities are in long term relationships with their contributors, be they individuals, foundations, or the government. It is well known in fundraising communities that getting the first contribution from an individual is the hardest, and obtaining repeat donations is far easier. If this is true, then the assumption that within a given year the charity allocates its fundraising across revenue sources to equalize the marginal contributions will be erroneous—we would need to equate the marginal expected present value of donations instead. It is difficult, however, to know how this would affect our conclusions, if at all.
I would like to thank anyone who ever contributed to this project, whether it came in the form of a plant ID or in encouraging words of support. I am indebted to the NC Native Plant Society and the NC Academy of Science for funding this project. I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Alexander Krings, for his enthusiasm, dedication, and immense knowledge of botanical treasures. I would also like to thank the other members of my committee, Dr. Jon Stucky and Dr. Marc Johnson for guidance and excellent, intriguing botanical conversation. I thank the Staff at Howell Woods, Jason Parker, Frank Grubbs, Mike Rose, Katrina McDougald, Stephen Ashby, and James Sasser to for the logistical support and making sure I wasn’t left out on the property! I am extremely grateful for the GIS files provided by Jason Parker. I know that these dedicated people care about the conservation and protection of their natural area.
Lands abutting the southern shoreline are privately owned and were once subject to residential development. Remnants of bulkheads and recreational piers can still be seen today along the southeast shoreline. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission gained property rights to all remaining lands surrounding Little Singletary Lake before residential development could ensue. On June 20, 2011, a lightning caused wildfire (Simmons Road Fire) started just west of Little Singletary Lake and by August 18 th , had burned over 2,023 hectares (5,000 acres) of Carolina bay and pocosin habitat, much of which surrounded Little Singletary Lake. During growing seasons of extreme drought, water levels have been known to recede low enough to reveal a clean sandy lake bottom 90−275 m (100−300 yds) out into the lake (G. Lewis, pers. comm.). Native American projectile points have been found on this lake bottom during drought years (G. Lewis, pers. comm.).
Al llarg de les darreres dècades, s’han produït uns canvis i uns avenços molt no- tables en aspectes relacionats amb la sistemàtica i la taxonomia de plantes vascu- lars. Bona part d’aquests canvis provenen d’estudis sistemàtics i evolutius a nivell de famílies, gèneres o grups d’espècies més o menys amplis, fet que ha determinat tot un conjunt de noves interpretacions i delimitacions taxonòmiques i propostes nomenclaturals, les quals poden diferir de manera destacable respecte als criteris adoptats a les síntesis florístiques més recents i amb incidència a Catalunya (Bo- lòs i Vigo, 1984, 2001; Bolòs et al. 2005; Castroviejo, 1986-2014). Paral·lelament, i ja a una escala més local, també ha estat destacable la millora del coneixement sobre la distribució d’espècies a Catalunya o el descobriment de nous tàxons per a aquest territori, sovint de caràcter al·lòcton. Fins i tot, en alguns casos, aquestes novetats corresponen a descripcions de espècies i subespècies noves per a la cièn- cia. Tot aquest conjunt de dades i interpretacions noves posa de manifest la neces- sitat d’actualitzar el coneixement florístic del país, ja que les síntesis ara disponibles ja han quedat obsoletes en força aspectes. Per aquest motiu, els autors d’aquest article han preparat una actualització del coneixement relatiu a la floravascular (autòctona i al·lòctona) de Catalunya que és previst publicar aviat i a la qual ens referirem com a Checklist d’ara endavant. En aquest article, s’aporten un conjunt de notes d’índole molt diversa (corològiques, taxonòmiques, sistemàti- ques, nomenclaturals, etc.) que argumenten o que precisen una part dels canvis que presenta la Checklist en relació amb les informacions contingudes a les diver- ses síntesis florístiques de referència en els darrers temps. De forma especial, es tracta d’informacions destinades a aclarir casos de grups de tàxons que han tingut interpretacions heterogènies i conflictives o bé de tàxons d’estatus considerat dub- tós dins el territori.
If ancillary mechanisms can contribute to AD, one consideration is how to determine the relevance of these pathways in individ- ual patients, especially if the mechanisms are not specific to AD. Again, cancer provides a useful analogy. Estrogen and proges- terone receptor expression is not specific to breast cancer, and also occurs in normal tissues and other cancers. Nevertheless, in patients with breast cancer, hormone receptor expression predicts response to antiestrogen therapy such as tamoxifen and such ther- apy improves patient outcome. Likewise, patients with cognitive impairment could be tested for vascular abnormalities and inflam- mation. Those that exhibit these ancillary pathologies could then be treated for those conditions. As with cancer, it seems likely that this approach would benefit this subset of patients.