Top PDF NEW SPEC UNIT 2 (TOPIC 4)

NEW SPEC UNIT 2 (TOPIC 4)

NEW SPEC UNIT 2 (TOPIC 4)

To say he’s obsessed with beetles is not enough. He is possessed, and has been since he was 17, in the 1960s, when he came to the museum and wanted to work on mammals. “But there wasn’t an opening, so I got beetles”, he says, with a shudder of someone who narrowly escaped a life-deforming accident. He has been here ever since. In a couple of years he’ll have to retire, and it doesn’t bear thinking about, so he doesn’t, and burrows on. I gave him my little beetle and waited. “Yes, well, it’s carnivorous, a predator”. Called? “Oh, I don’t know. It’s probably an unrecorded species.” You mean I’ve discovered a new beetle? “Perhaps, I’ll have to check.” My mind races – a new species. I see papers in serious magazines, lecture tours, awards, honorary fellowships. A grateful nation. A beard – and a name: my name, appended to the great roll call of life. “Gill’s salt beetle.” And I can’t
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NEW SPEC UNIT 2 (TOPIC 3)

NEW SPEC UNIT 2 (TOPIC 3)

In 2002, researchers at King’s College in London revealed an interaction between MAOA genotype, mistreatment in childhood and antisocial behaviour in later life. They used the results of a study that had followed the health and social development of 1037 children in Dunedin, New Zealand, for over 20 years. The study records for the children born in 1972 and 1973 included information about how the children had been treated by their parents and any antisocial or criminal behaviour by participants. In 1999, the children, now 26 years old, provided blood and saliva samples to the Otago University research team in Dunedin. This allowed DNA to be extracted and tested. There are two alleles for the MAOA gene: one results in the production of high levels of the enzyme, the other with the mutation is linked with low production of the enzyme. The researchers focused on the 499 men in the study because the MAOA gene occurs on the X chromosome so males have only one allele and are more at risk. The 7% of the males with Maori descent were excluded from the study.
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NEW SPEC UNIT 5 (TOPIC 7)

NEW SPEC UNIT 5 (TOPIC 7)

Dissociation curves are useful when thinking about whether the haemoglobin is combining with or releasing oxygen. Notice on the dissociation curve in Figure 2 that haemoglobin becomes almost fully saturated with oxygen at partial pressures of 10 kPa and above. Blood is rarely more saturated than 95%. In the blood leaving the lungs the partial pressure of oxygen is about 13 kPa; this favours loading of the haemoglobin with oxygen, so the blood will be saturated with oxygen. As tissues around the body respire, oxygen diffuses out of the blood plasma, causing the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood to fall. Small decreases in the partial pressure of oxygen in the plasma can result in comparatively large falls in the saturation of the haemoglobin as it gives up more of its oxygen. In resting tissues the partial pressure of oxygen is around 5.5 kPa and oxygen dissociates from the haemoglobin until it is only about 75% saturated. This replenishes the oxygen in the plasma, making more available for respiring cells.
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NEW SPEC UNIT 5 (TOPIC 8)

NEW SPEC UNIT 5 (TOPIC 8)

antithrombin protein. A GM goat can produce about 2.5 litres of milk a day containing 5 g of the antithrombin, which means that in a year each goat can produce about a kilogram of the protein, overcoming the reliance on donated human blood. Also see the ‘Did you know?’ box Transgenic sheep and AAT on page 262 of Student Book 2. In addition, significant quantities of the human proteins interferon beta, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and monoclonal antibody miR24, used to treat melanoma skin cancer, have been produced in the egg white of GM chickens. GM microorganisms can also be used in the manufacture of therapeutic proteins and vaccines. GM microorganisms are also used to make animal proteins for the food industry, for example, chymosin enzyme used in making hard cheese, which would otherwise be extracted from calves’ stomachs.
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NEW SPEC UNIT 1 (TOPIC 1)

NEW SPEC UNIT 1 (TOPIC 1)

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends the assessment of health risks due to being overweight or obese should be based on both Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference. It recommends the use of the two measures because although BMI takes account of height, it does not differentiate between mass due to muscle development and mass due to body fat. In addition, BMI does not consider fat distribution, which has been identified as contributing to increased health risk. The health risk consequences of obesity can be significant; an obese man is five times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and a woman is 13 times more likely. Obese men and women are about three times more likely to develop cancer of the colon, and both have increased risk of a number of other diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD).
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NEW SPEC UNIT 4 (TOPIC 6)

NEW SPEC UNIT 4 (TOPIC 6)

The details of the final conclusion are not that important, but it should be possible to deduce that the victim, Patrick Barrett-Hughes, met with Gifford at Garlands Rd, where he could have handed over the briefcase and accepted money. The witness statements suggest a row broke out. If the stabbing took place at this point, it could have been possible for the victim to get home as it can be seen from the map that Whitepost Hill is only around the corner from Garlands Rd. A likely conclusion is that the case should be passed on for a murder trial. See the hints column on page 2 for detailed outcomes for each expert group.
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NEW SPEC UNIT 1 (TOPIC 2)

NEW SPEC UNIT 1 (TOPIC 2)

Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology Resources Activity 2.20 Student Sheet. You are Alex G Gnome, a genetic counsellor[r]

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Using Topic Modeling and Similarity Thresholds to Detect Events

Using Topic Modeling and Similarity Thresholds to Detect Events

The main parameter, α, in Loess Smoothing de- termines the percentage of nearest points used in the weighted regressions. Smoothing is done for α= .02, .03, .04, .05, .10 on (x,y) pairs grouped by date1:topic1 in the mapping table. The date2 day index is the x-value, and the cosine similarity is the y-value. The α that we use in Eventy-Topic Detec- tion is significantly lower than the usual .25 to .5 range. This is done to accommodate the sharp, un- usual bumps that are found for Eventy-Topics in the cosine similarity pair graphs. The larger the α, the more smooth the graph becomes and the bump be- comes less pronounced. These small α values as- sure a pronounced bump in Eventy-Topics as well as mononically increasing/decreasing sections. 3.5 Bump Detection
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Land Cover  Annual Topic Update 1999  Topic Report no  4/2000

Land Cover Annual Topic Update 1999 Topic Report no 4/2000

The semi-automatic conversion of the LCMGB to the CLC standards was completed in December 1999. The procedure has been validated against standard CLC manual methods with considerable success. The conversion ensures that CLC land cover data for Britain are calibrated against the existing national map and against proven ground reference data available from the Countryside Survey. The approach also ensures that information about CLC in Britain is entirely consistent with the national dataset. There were significant financial benefits of automated conversion of the LCMGB to CLC format, a process which is estimated to have cost about 15 % the price of a new CLC mapping of Britain.
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A study of some aspects of the metabolic profile of grazing dairy cattle in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University

A study of some aspects of the metabolic profile of grazing dairy cattle in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University

units, urea nitrqgen, sg€ Variation in pasture nitrogen with time of year Unit 1, glucose, time in 4 wk intervals Unit 2, glucose, time in 4 wk intervals Unit 3, glucose, time in 4 wk in[r]

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Rapid and specific detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from sputum specimens using IS6110 and pncA through multiplex-PCR

Rapid and specific detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from sputum specimens using IS6110 and pncA through multiplex-PCR

Tuberculosis is an ancient, extensively prevalent, and more often deadly, contagious disease caused by M. tuberculosis complex species, usually M. tuberculosis [1]. TB has proceeded to be a “slate wiper” in the human history throughout centuries and was titled “consumption” and “white plague” in the 20 th century. It was world’s major cause of death from all causes, responsible for one death in every seven cases [2]. Today’s statistics are still alarming. Globally, TB ranks 2 nd major cause of death after HIV by an infectious disease and WHO estimates that some 2 billion individuals, 1/3 rd population of the world, are infected with M. tuberculosis [3].Each day some 23000 new TB cases develop and nearly 5000 people die. Annually, approximately 8.7 million active TB cases and 1.7 million deaths are reported. If TB was not massively controlled by TB control programs, another estimated 1 billion people globally will become infected and 40 million will die of TB by 2020. Mortality is highest in developing countries, where over three-quarters of TB-cases occur [2, 4].
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Unit 4 June12

Unit 4 June12

*(ii) Scientists have estimated that if all cattle in Britain were fed on a diet with added chopped hay and straw, there would also be an annual reduction of at least 1.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. With reference to your answer in (c)(i) and the information on carbon dioxide release, suggest why the new diet may be supported by organisations that are concerned about global warming.

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Unit 4 Notes

Unit 4 Notes

Trimmed mean: Purpose is to remove outliers from a data set To calculate a trimmed mean: • Multiply the percent to trim by n • Truncate that many observations from BOTH ends of the distr[r]

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UNIT 4 SUMMARY

UNIT 4 SUMMARY

Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels with so thin walls that allow substances to be exchanged quickly and easily between the blood and the interstitial fluid. Capillaries come tog[r]

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Unit 4 Jan10

Unit 4 Jan10

With reference to the data in the table, suggest why the time taken for a cow pat to decompose changes at different times of the year. (3).[r]

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Unit 4 Jan11

Unit 4 Jan11

(iii) The students estimated the percentage cover of each of five species of plant within each quadrat. They also measured the depth of free-standing water. The results of this part of the study are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Use the data in Figure 1 and Figure 2 to complete the table below.

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Unit 4 Jan12

Unit 4 Jan12

(d) Suggest one source of evidence, apart from growth ring studies, that could be used to estimate changes in mean environmental temperature in Nepal during the past 400 years.. (1)..[r]

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Unit 4 Jan13

Unit 4 Jan13

In this study, a line of 8 people at 2 m intervals walked across the study area. They recorded the position, height and width of each specimen of Petty Whin. The direction of the line was changed several times to ensure that the whole area was covered.

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unit 4

unit 4

[2] Moy. P., Krishnan. N., Ulloa, P., Cohen, S., Brandt-Rauf, P. W. Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: a preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications. Journal of Environment Management, 2008, 87, 73–9.

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Unit 4 June11

Unit 4 June11

2 Many scientists think there is a link between global warming and increased levels of carbon dioxide and methane in the upper atmosphere. Most organisms are found in regions where the temperature range is between 0 °C and 40 °C at the Earth’s surface. (a) (i) Suggest why temperatures below 0 °C or above 40 °C would be unsuitable for

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