It is possible to carry out practical PCR using equipment available from a number of suppliers including NCBE (National Centre for Biotechnology Education), Bio-Rad and Discovering DNA. Although all these organisations supply automated PCR thermal cyclers, they are not absolutely necessary. Instead, PCR can be undertaken using three separate thermostatically controlled water baths, although care must be taken with the hottest as a risk of scalding exists. Note that during Science Year (September 2001–July 2002) many schools, colleges and initial teacher training institutions received free PCR equipment. This may have been ‘mislaid’ or tidied away, so check the prep. room before investing in any new kit.
Q5 Look at the ECN website data for the mean flight dates for the orange tip butterfly (note the title on the website is peak flight times). What do these data suggest about the distribution of the butterfly and the likely effect of global warming on the orange tip butterfly’s distribution? The UK Phenology Network, a partnership between the Woodland Trust and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in Cambridge, has thousands of active phenology recorders currently distributed across the UK. These volunteers provide information on a wide range of seasonal events, continuously updating the network’s growing database. You can access their records at the UK Phenology Network website Nature’s Calendar, and some are provided in a spreadsheet that accompanies this activity. Go to the Phenology for Schools page; the contents page link will take you to references for Chapter 6 case studies. Find and view ‘A Frog’s Tale’ and use the interactive maps to answer the question below.
To say he’s obsessed with beetles is not enough. He is possessed, and has been since he was 17, in the 1960s, when he came to the museum and wanted to work on mammals. “But there wasn’t an opening, so I got beetles”, he says, with a shudder of someone who narrowly escaped a life-deforming accident. He has been here ever since. In a couple of years he’ll have to retire, and it doesn’t bear thinking about, so he doesn’t, and burrows on. I gave him my little beetle and waited. “Yes, well, it’s carnivorous, a predator”. Called? “Oh, I don’t know. It’s probably an unrecorded species.” You mean I’ve discovered a new beetle? “Perhaps, I’ll have to check.” My mind races – a new species. I see papers in serious magazines, lecture tours, awards, honorary fellowships. A grateful nation. A beard – and a name: my name, appended to the great roll call of life. “Gill’s salt beetle.” And I can’t
Not only is oestrogen involved in the female reproductive system, it now seems that it plays a part in a variety of brain functions, including memory. For older women whose supplies of the hormone have tapered off after menopause, this has huge implications. Oestrogen acts as an antioxidant, with research showing that high levels can reduce the destruction of neurones by radicals. The hormone acts as a neuroprotectant, avoiding the damage that contributes to the development of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and stroke. A large randomised trial with a placebo control showed that giving oestrogen to women after the menopause can halve their risk of developing Alzheimer’s. The downside of oestrogen use as an antioxidant treatment is that the hormone would cause the development of female secondary sexual characteristics in men, and increase the risk of uterine and breast cancer in women. Chemists modified the oestrogen molecule to form a shorter molecule called 2,4,6-trimethyl phenol (TMP), which does not bind to oestrogen receptors, but still has antioxidant properties. Animal experiments may give an insight into its effectiveness as a neuroprotectant. Studies on mature rats have shown that the hormone can foster new neurone connections and thus strengthen the neural network.
A small tropical fish about 4 cm in length, the zebrafish is playing a major role in helping scientists study the role of genes in development and find genes in other animals, including humans. Adult zebrafish produce hundreds of transparent embryos, which complete their development in less than 3 days. Sequencing of its entire genome, which is only half the size of that of a mouse or human, is allowing scientists to study how mutations affect the way the embryos develop and identify the function of genes in the human genome. An international team, led by researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, found that 70% of protein-coding human genes and 84% of genes known to be associated with human disease, are related to genes found in zebrafish.
When, I applied this theory to the B.Tech. (Subject : Signals and Systems) students, I found students not only grasped this theory but also solved a number of problems based on this. This paper is an outcome from the teaching experience and my related research papers. The students faced a lot of problems to understand the ramp function numerical problems. This work is an attempt to teach the students step by step construction procedure of ramp signal functions and this work has an attempt to explore the new and easy theory specially written for ramp signals related to the basic signal functions. No doubt the future studies will further explore my work in deep. On the basis of this theory, some other signals could be developed that will go long to the scientists and students. As no matter is available on the
In recent decades, industrialized countries also included the thermal treatment (incineration, pyrolysis, or gasification) of MSW as an important option for its management. Within thermal treatments, incineration has reached a great interest. However, although this process notably reduces the space required for the disposal of the same amount of residues in landfills (typically by a factor from 4 to 10) [1- 3], MSW incinerators (MSWI) have been questioned because of the atmospheric emissions of acid gases, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and especially by the emission of the potential carcinogenic agents polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) [1, 2, 4-6].
– Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection.
ETC/LC is organised as a consortium of 16 partners as listed in table 1. The ETC/LC lead organisation is Satellus, a subsidiary of the Swedish Space Corporation and previously known as Miljödatacentrum (MDC). The Centro Nacional de Informação Geográfica (CNIG) and the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) are co-leaders. The needs for research and development of methods identified in relation to the land cover topic are carried out and funded separately by the Joint Research Centre, Space Application Institute. Since July 1997, the PHARE Topic Link on Land Cover (PTL/LC, financed by the DG Enlargement Phare Programme) has extended the activities of the ETC/LC towards central and eastern Europe. The work of PTL/LC is integrated in the ETC/LC work plan. Specific information on products and progress of work of ETC/LC and PTL/LC can be found on the websites http://ptl.gisat.cz/ptl/ and http://etc-lc.eionet.eu.int/.
For the discourse topic structure, some studies have begun to focus on the topic level in Chinese discourse topic annotation. The OntoNotes corpus  was built on two types of infrastructure, the syntax structure and the predicate-argument structure, which were derived from the Penn Treebank corpus and the Penn PropBank corpus, respectively. In addition, the generalized topic framework  defines punctuation clauses as the basic unit of Chinese discourse, and the concepts of the generalized topic and the topic clause is proposed to explicitly describe the topic structure in Chinese discourse. Although both the OntoNotes corpus and the generalized topic framework take into account the special characteristics of Chinese discourse, some issues still remain. For example, there is no suitable representation unit to match different levels of topics. In addition, the lack of sufficient corpus resources to meet the research of Chinese discourse topic analysis is also a serious problem.