The survey was conducted online between 2013-2015, running as a census of NQTs. Since 2016, the survey has adapted to use a mixed mode approach, combining online and postal methodology, and moving to a sampled approach. Those NQTs who did not respond to initial email invitations to complete the online survey were subsequently sent a postal questionnaire. Where mobile telephone numbers were available, NQTs were also sent a text message reminder about the survey (with clickable links to complete the survey on their smartphones), at two points during fieldwork in case they had not seen or checked their emails. The online survey was optimised for completion on mobile
and their challenge management skills which translate to task performance at the onset of their teaching career. Descriptive survey design was used to establish the challenges facing the NQTs. The target population for the study was randomly selected. A total of 77 respondents made up of 32 NQTs, 24 school administrators and 21 local Education Officers in Kimilili Sub-county were involved. Questionnaires were used in collecting data. The data was then analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer programme in order to manage the three sets of questionnaires used and also take care of a fairly high number of respondents. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used. The pilot study of the instruments was done using respondents in two schools that were not included in the sample, and the reliability of 0.82 obtained was accepted based on the correlation coefficient of 0.75 and above. The study revealed that inadequate preparedness resulted into lack of commitment among the NQTs. However, majority (72.5%) of NQTs said that they were satisfactorily prepared for teaching, while the rest (27.5%) disagreed. Majority (62.5%) of them said that they were supported by the school during the probation period, while others (37.5%) said that the school was not supportive. Majority (56.25%) of the NQTs said that they were not assigned a mentor. Majority (65%) of the NQTs said they had challenges with their employer regarding payment, while the rest (35%) said that they did not have that challenge. Some (65%) NQTs cited challenges with the senior management team regarding timetabling, while the rest (35%) said that they were not challenged with timetabling. Some (48.75%) of NQTs said that most of the challenges encountered would be resolved by improving school facilities. It is recommended that internship be introduced and NQTs be employed soon after internship; cooperating teachers ought to be given in-service
The majority (87%) of respondents to our ‘Wave 3’ survey who had successfully completed ITT had managed to obtain permanent or fixed-term teaching posts, with an additional seven per cent securing work as supply teachers. Most of the Induction tutors who were interviewed as part of this study indicated that, in their view, most NQTs were well prepared for their first posts and capable of carrying out their roles as teachers. The majority (93%) of survey respondents who had worked as teachers since completing their ITT indicated that they enjoyed teaching, and 77 per cent rated the support they received during their first (post-ITT) year of teaching as ‘good’ or ‘very good’. The vast majority (95%) of those who, at the time of the Wave 3 telephone survey (May/June 2005), were teaching (or else looking for work as teachers), indicated that they planned to be (or to remain) in teaching at the start of the following academic year, and 91 per cent stated that they expected to be in teaching in four years’ time. In general, those NQTs intending to remain in their current posts and those intending to seek new posts indicated positive reasons for doing so, such as having or seeking opportunities for career development. All of this bodes quite well for the retention of these beginning teachers.
The researcher utilised a purposive sample of 20 social work supervisors. These supervisors have been appointed to the different regional and local offices of the Department of Social Development in the Western Cape and provide supervision to social workers, specifically newlyqualified social workers. Newlyqualified social workers refer to social workers with a maximum experience of 24 months in the practical field. The researcher utilised an interview schedule as a measuring instrument. The results of the investigation confirmed that supervision of newlyqualified social workers is essential to ensure quality service rendering. Second, the results concluded that due to the allocation of responsibilities other than supervision, inadequate time is spent on the execution of the social work supervision process. Third, the lack of formal training of supervisors in social work supervision, has a negative impact on the execution of the supervision process, as most of the supervisors provide supervision to newlyqualified social workers, based on their own experience of supervision as well as the fact that social work supervision follows a process running parallel to the social work process. Fourth, a majority of the social work supervisors execute mentoring on an informal basis. Fifth, most of the social work supervisors are in favour of the appointment of multiple mentors for each newlyqualified social worker. Lastly, senior social workers are viewed as important mentors to assist newlyqualified social workers with the acquisition of skills relating to social work service delivery.
The GHQ is a standardised self-rating scale which is very widely used to measure stress in the general population and in research on occupations. It was developed by Goldberg in the 1970s and since then has been used extensively in different settings. The scale asks whether the respondent has experienced a particular symptom or behaviour recently. Each item is rated on a four-point scale (less than usual, no more than usual, rather more than usual, or much more than usual). The GHQ-12 gives a total score of 36 (using Likert scoring: 0-1- 2-3) or 12 (using bi-modal scoring: 0-0-1-1). The GHQ-12 is a brief, simple, easy to complete survey of mental health, and its application in research settings and different cultures as a screening tool is well documented. For additional information, see Golderberg D and Williams P (1988). A user's guide to the General Health
preceptees’ satisfaction (Lee 1997, Pfeil 1999, Dibert and Goldenberg 1995, Fox et al 2006, Hyrkas and Shoemaker 2007). Although the UKCC 1993 guidelines had recommended that preceptors should be qualified for at least 12 months, three quarters of those in the study by Lee (1997) said a shorter period was sufficient and were unaware of the UKCC guidelines. They also thought that preparation for the role of preceptor was necessary and should include how to teach and a list of objectives to be achieved. None of the preceptors participating in Pfeil’s study (1999) had any formal structured preparation for the role and only one felt informed at the outset about preceptorship and its requirements. Consequently an informal support network emerged among preceptors. As noted, most North American studies of preceptorship refer to nursing students but those including newlyqualified nurses as well, showed that most preceptors had received training for the role (Dibert and Goldenberg 1995, Hrykas and Shoemaker 2007). The latter study (Hrykas and Shoemaker 2007) found that preceptors of newlyqualified nurses in particular were in need of more support to be able to fulfil their role. An Australian study of the relationship between preceptors and preceptees (Fox et al 2006) found that over half had experienced difficulties in fulfilling their role and a fifth reported that although their expectations of being a preceptor had not been met upon starting the role, this improved over time.
An 18 year old woman arrived in Ireland alone, applied for asylum as a minor and started in fifth year in school in Dublin in 2016. Her only family member in Ireland was her aunt who also lived near the young woman’s school. She initially lived with her aunt but this situation became unsustainable after a few months. In April 2017 she was assigned to a regional accommodation centre for asylum seekers and refugees. The Manager of that centre facilitated the young woman travelling to Dublin for school during the week then back to the regional centre for the weekend until she completed fifth year in May 2017. As she was absent from her designated centre on weekdays for several weeks the Reception and Integration Agency (RIA) issued her with a warning letter about those absences.
Despite the buoyancy of activity, inflation has held at very moderate rates. Following the rise in the opening months of 2017, associated mainly with base effects of the energy component, overall consumer price inflation resumed a lower rate, standing in March 2018 at 1.3% (see Chart 1.2.2). Core inflation, too, which excludes the most volatile components from the overall index, has held at very stable levels – at around 1% – for most of the period, despite the narrowing of the output gap and the impact stemming from higher oil prices. Such price behaviour is in response to the confluence of different factors that have also affected other developed economies. These factors include some of a more structural type, such as the increase in competition arising from globalisation or the less inflationary dynamics linked to technological progress, along with others which, though more transitory in nature, have exerted very persistent effects, such as the low levels of oil prices and other commodities in past years. Moreover, in the case of the euro area, the easing in inflation may also have been due in part to predominantly domestic factors, such as the appreciation of the euro and the moderate increase in margins and in unit labour costs (ULCs). Wages grew by 1.6%, rising somewhat at the end of the year. Behind this wage moderation are various factors: low productivity growth, the existence of indexing mechanisms that take as a reference the past behaviour of inflation and the persistence of a certain slackness in the labour market the degree of which exceeds what may be inferred from the more traditional measures of unemployment, owing above all to the presence of a high number of part-time workers who would wish to extend the duration of their working day (see Chart 1.2.3). 5
Self-evaluation is a form of evaluation that involves determining the level of self-efficacy in teaching and learning. Its goal is to monitor and adjust instruction to improve the quality of teaching/ learning and identify the areas that still need improvement to further develop your capacity to teach well. This can be conducted through self-monitoring of the performance during teaching, audio or video taping teaching sessions and learner’s perception on the teaching. Induction enables the NewlyQualifiedTeachers appreciate the value of self-evaluation as an aspect of preparing to teach and hence influence their performance in curricular activities. One language Head of Department said, ‘members of my department who had conscientiously taught, posted the quality results’. The concurrences in the findings indicate that induction influences NewlyQualifiedTeachers performance in self-evaluation and thus promotes the personal satisfaction that comes from feeling competent to do a job well. Futernick (2007) in his study on retaining California teachers also noted that teachers felt greater personal satisfaction when they believed in their own efficacy, were involved in decision- making and established strong collegial relationships. These practices which improve NewlyQualifiedTeachers performance in preparation to teach are imparted through the induction processes. Thus, induction influences the quality of newlyqualifiedteachers’ self-evaluation. Objectives are precise statements that set out what the curriculum wants to be achieved by the teacher during the lesson. Stating the objectives clearly is crucial since they help in determining the instructional and assessment method (s) to use during teaching in order to achieve the intent of the lesson. Induction on stating SMART objectives strengthens the need for clarity and hierarchical presentation of teaching/learning activities during teaching. Documentary analysis of the Head of Departments lesson observation records indicated that the NewlyQualifiedTeachers were able to state clear objectives consistent with the approved curricular requirements.
An ethnographic methodology was also rejected although it would have provided a means to enable direct observation of the interaction between a newlyqualified nurse and patient. The purpose of the study was however to describe and explore a particular phenomenon from the perspective of participants and the meanings ascribed to those experiences. Observation has an obvious impact on the person being observed and apprehension of those being observed (practitioner or patient) may limit or prevent natural behaviour. This may have resulted in participants modelling behaviour they think the researcher wanted to see thus behaving in a way that maintains the relationship rather than challenging it. Multiple and prolonged periods of observation are necessary to undertake participant observation in a rigorous way and is thus time and resource intensive and not necessarily feasible within a time limited study. The level of observation needed to conduct an ethnographic study may not be possible in the current climate in the NHS where organisations are already experiencing increased scrutiny from an array of professional and regulatory bodies.
Stakeholders offered differing opinions in relation to differences between community-based and private children’s services. Opinions were dependent on the work or practicum experiences stakeholders had had personally or had been related. Some stakeholders commented that the trained staff shortage was more apparent in the private sector as these centres did not want to employ early childhood trained teachers as they were too expensive, offered lower pay, had a lack of resources and expected staff would participate in out of hours fund raising. Others stated that the community-based sector had greater difficulty due to the lack of consistency with community management committees having an annual turnover, with a lack of expertise and support in managing staff resulting in higher trained staff turnover. One stakeholder commented that private owners put ‘blood, sweat and tears’ into their centres, with the owner doing all the work while parent committees do not have the skills to manage small businesses.
registered nurses result from inadequate preparation of registered nurses for the role of the supernumerary student. Joyce (1999) interviewed 31 nursing students about their supernumerary learning experiences. The findings reflected those of this study in that the students did not feel that they were part of the multidisciplinary team. Some spent time studying on the wards, while others were reported to have fallen asleep while on duty. Participants in this study echoed those sentiments through descriptions of spending time making beds and seeking occupation in the clinical area. The literature (Joyce 1999, Hyde & Brady 2002) suggests that staff nurses are confused about how much students are permitted to do and consequently, supernumerary students are relatively uninvolved and given little, if any, responsibility. In contrast with the descriptions of the time spent as supernumerary students, the participants felt that as newlyqualified nurses, they had moved to a higher status. The wearing of the staff nurse uniform accounted for the changes described. By wearing the uniform, respondents felt acknow- ledged and accepted. Bradby (1990) interviewed nurses who highlighted that there was meaningful significance associated with wearing a uniform in nursing. Tradewell (1996) suggested however that the feeling of becoming a nurse was associated with both working the same shifts and wearing the same uniform as staff nurses.
This was followed by a face to face session with Pat McGovern who introduced the NQTs to early concepts around leadership, and the qualities of leadership such as self awareness and efficacy. The mentors also participated which allowed both NQTs and mentors to share an understanding of this initial approach. Together they explored ideas about what they admired about what makes an effective leader and how all teachers are leaders. Anecdotally, it was interesting to hear the NQTs discuss their fears around being ‘told off’ and they were encouraged to see that they themselves were in control of many decisions e.g. around working late and having a workload balance. We then asked the mentors to include an element of the leadership aspect within their mentoring sessions which were held fortnightly. Mentors were encouraged to talk to their NQTs about self-management and future career roles when they felt that this was appropriate.
be met before he would even consider working in a high-needs school: “I would want to see social services for parents and children, accomplished leadership, adequate resources and facilities, and flexibility, freedom and time …. One of the single greatest factors that would convince me would be an effective administrator. The leadership of the principal has everything to do with school success (because) effective leaders are magnets for accomplished teachers …. It is amazing to me the level of attention that is being focused on teacher qualifications in hard-to-staff schools when little is done to address the sometimes appalling conditions in which teachers are forced to work and students are forced to learn …. As an accomplished teacher, my greatest fear is being assigned to a hard-to-staff school and not being given the time and the flexibility to make the changes that I believe are necessary to bring about student achievement including co-curricular activities” (Darling-Hammond, 2010). The requirement that schools staff all classrooms with “highly qualifiedteachers” has created challenges for many schools, particularly those in inner city and poor rural areas. The challenge is due neither to teacher shortages (the United States produces many more qualifiedteachers than are hired) nor to growing student enrollments or increasing teacher retirements. Data show that the chronic demand for new teachers is largely due to teacher turnover: teachers moving from or leaving their teaching jobs. Retaining teachers is the greatest challenge facing schools today for they should also be involved in co-curricular activities (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2004). The knowledge gap relating to the literature reviewed was the deficiency in providing information on the perspectives on influence of induction on NewlyQualifiedTeachers performance in games and sports which was the subject of this study.
During the observation, among others, the creativity of teachers who were observed, working conditions, atmosphere and ambiance at school, the level of students, etc have been noted. There were no differences between the conditions of work, enthusiasm among teachers and the atmosphere within the school. In general, it was also noted uncertainty among teachers, and a reaction (with a coldness and indifference) to the request for observation. But, this did not happen at all schools. Teachers, who by nature are resourceful and creative, have accepted the request for observation in the classroom with pleasure. While, for others, with the lack of self-confidence, more precise clarification related to the purpose of observation, with the confidentiality observation contained and with the flexibility and neutrality required during the performance observation in the classroom was needed. Thus, the eventual dilemmas, among teachers who underwent observation, are avoided.
Interpreting the data: Developing a textural description of “what happened”. The researcher developed a structural description of how the phenomenon was experienced; for example how the newlyqualified professional nurses were supported/not supported during community service. Interpretation involves abstracting beyond the codes and themes to get to the larger meaning of the data (Saldana 2009:187). The researcher created a visual image of what was found in the text, using figures (pie charts, bar diagrams and descriptive columns) and tables, in Chapter 4; and tables (displaying themes and codes) in Chapter 5. Bazeley (2009) states that qualitative researchers should not rely only on the presentation of key themes supported by quotes from participants’ text as the primary form of analysis and reporting of their data. They should also include strategies such as: improving interpretation and naming of categories or themes; using divergent views and negative cases to challenge generalisations; returning to substantive, theoretical or methodological literature; creating displays using matrices, graphs, flow charts and models, and using writing itself to prompt deeper thinking (Bazeley 2009:6). Findings were compared, contrasted and supported with literature in Chapter 6.
Support practices with widening opportunities for newlyqualified sessional doctors to further develop their generalist and enhanced skills and to be mentored by an experienced GP to help avoid a divide deepening between sessional doctors and partners. A toolkit has been developed for practices by Severn School of Primary Care, to support the personal and professional development of newlyqualified GPs, which could help to address this; 20
In addition, three reviews considered single interventions 18, 19, 42 . For example, an integrative review of the literature by Park and Jones 18 , looked specifically at orientation programs for newly graduated nurses and their effects on confidence, competency, and retention. This was based on 17 published reports. The conclusion was that such programs have strong merits and facilitate the retention of newly graduated nurses, although recommending more research on the length of such programs. Secondly, the review by Winfield et al 19 examined nurse internship programs. Although this intervention was supported in the literature, this review did not provide information on its selection criteria or how the quality of the studies was assessed. As such this remains a weak review of this intervention. Finally, a review of only three studies examined the use of simulation in graduate nurse orientation 42 . Although this has the potential for new graduates to develop clinical and decision making skills, there was no clear evidence of their effectiveness that went further than self-reported measures. The review concluded that there were limited number of experimental studies, a heavy reliance in self-reported measures with a failure to establish the validity and reliability of the instruments.
Following on from the signing into law in May 2017 of the Companies (Accounting) Act 2017 and the impending Companies (Statutory Audits) Act 2018 which is scheduled to commence in 2018, the Office is currently updating its suite of information guidance to reflect changes to the law. The revised documents are expected to be published in the second half of 2018. During the year under review, approximately 9,500 physical copies of the various ODCE publications, principally, Information Books and Quick Guides, were issued to interested parties. These publications were issued in response to public demand, either at, or as a consequence of attendance at, events, exhibitions and presentations or as a result of persons contacting the Office directly. In addition, and in agreement with ODCE, the Companies Registration Office (“CRO”) issue a Quick Guide on the roles and duties of directors to persons registering new companies. In the past, a physical guide issued, however, reflecting the CRO’s move to electronic means the guide is now issued electronically, consequentially reducing the number of physical copies issued by the Office by about 6,000.
The Trinity Access 21 project (TA21), developed in 2014-17 with support from Google, impacts on educational disadvantage and supports post-secondary educational pro- gression by partnering with schools to develop strong ‘college going cultures’ and innovative approaches to teaching and learning through the use of four ‘core practices’: Pathways to College, Mentoring, Leadership through Service and 21C Teaching & Learning. The aim of TA21 is to build capacity within partner schools so that all students are informed and prepared to make post-secondary educational choices which will support them to realise their full educational potential. In 2014-17, the TA21 project carried out a longitudinal, action research project which has tracked the educational outcomes of 1,100 students in 11 Trinity Access Programme (TAP) linked schools. This evidence base has revealed the positive impact that TA21 has had upon whole school cul- ture - increasing college-going aspirations in students, and supporting the increased use of innovative, project-based teaching practices within the classroom. Based on this evi- dence, the project is now poised to scale nationally in TA21 Phase 2; expanding its reach and range of partnerships across other communities in the 2017-20 period. This growth phase has been supported by a range of companies and individu- als, in partnership with the government, through the Social Innovation Fund Ireland Education Fund.