For treatment of acne the glucuronide of retinoic acid (retinoyl β-glucuronide) is orally administered to women of child-bearingage who are capable of conception. This therapy is safer than the oral administration of retinoic acid because retinoic acid glucuronide is essentially non-teratogenic at dose levels effective for the acne treatment. The retinoic acid glucuronide can be in all-trans or 13-cis form.
Fluorescent microscopy was performed according to the manufacturer’s indications : the fresh blood sam- ple was transferred onto the Partec Malaria Test Slide (ready-prepared containing the necessary lyophilized reagents including the DNA stain), and a cover glass directly placed on top. The slide was then viewed (maxi- mum of four hours between preparation and diagnosis) using 400 × magnification and fluorescent light for rapid diagnosis (qualitative testing on 472 adults and 851 children) or using 1000 × magnification under oil- immersion and fluorescent light to ascertain levels of parasitaemia (quantitative testing on 238 adults and 386 children). In the latter, parasites (viewed as small circu- lar fluorescent bodies) were counted against 200-500 leucocytes and converted to number of parasites per volume assuming 8,000 leucocytes/μL blood. Slides were considered negative when no parasites were detected after viewing 100 microscopic fields. 10% of low parasite density infections (<200 parasites per μL/blood) were photographed using the CyScope ® camera and kept by the lead researcher for future reference. The person operating the fluorescent microscope was unaware of corresponding light microscopy results as readings were undertaken in separate rooms. Said technician works for the Vector Control Division of Uganda ’ s Ministry of Health and is highly experienced in malaria diagnosis using light microscopy.
preparation) and metoclopramide (for nausea and vomit- ing) in pregnancy are likely to account for this difference. Category D medicines contributed to 9 % of all dispens- ings in our study compared to 5 % of all dispensings in pregnant women . Both studies found very low use of category X medicines (below 1 %). The relatively low use of category D and X medicines in pregnant women and in all women of child-bearingage implies caution when pre- scribing those moderate or high risk teratogens to women. Women of child-bearingage may have chronic condi- tion (e.g. hypertension or epilepsy) which require medi- cine(s) therapy. Hypertensive disorders are common and management of chronic hypertension is essential. As some commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs such as agents acting on on renin-angiotensin system are cat- egory D, they should be avoided before conception and during pregnancy . Pre-pregnancy counselling is es- sential and drug treatment should be reserved for per- sistent or severe hypertension with careful monitoring due to the increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes . We found that up to 1 % of women under 30 years of age, 1 % to 4 % between 31 and 40 years, and up to
of free radicals via many different mechanism including the activation of inflammatory cells . Oxidative stress is a known mechanism that precipitates the development of chronic disease, such as atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis [9,10]. In one puff of a cigarette, the gas phase of the smoke exposes the smoker to greater than 1015 free radicals  and the relationship between antioxidant depletion and reduced antioxidant intake may predispose smokers to the premature development of tobacco related mortality and morbidity . Therefore, it has been hypothesised that poor nutritional status may be more pronounced in certain individuals with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smok- ing [13,14]. Smokers consume fewer food items rich in fiber, antioxidants and phytochemicals and tend to prefer a meat/alcohol dietary pattern compared with non-smokers [15-17]. A meta-analysis of 51 surveys conducted in 15 dif- ferent countries comparing nutrient intakes of smokers and non-smokers showed that smokers’ dietary intakes differed substantially from those of non-smokers, with smokers consuming more fat, alcohol, energy, saturated fat, choles- terol and less vitamins C, E and beta-carotene . Al- though these differences are not reported for all population groups , individuals who smoke might benefit to a greater extent from a fruit and vegetables rich diet . The clustering of both poor diet and smoking can induce physiological changes, such as increased endothelial dam- age, oxidized low density lipoproteins and atherosclerosis that increases risk for development of chronic diseases. In addition to its direct effect on tissues, smoking can contrib- ute to unbalanced nutrient profiles through a combination of altered taste preferences, metabolism and demand of cer- tain nutrients such as folate, beta-carotene, selenium, cal- cium and vitamin C [13,18-22]. Intake of micronutrients such as folate and vitamin B12 in the diet of women of re- productive age are essential for the health of any potential offspring. Folate and vitamin B12 may induce epigenetic changes as they are important methyl donors during preg- nancy . Vitamin E has the potential to influence airway development via epigenetic mechanisms because it influences gene expression and epithelial cell signaling . Understanding the dietary patterns of Inuvialuit women of childbearing age who smoke is paramount to designing nu- tritional interventions specific to this population. The aims of this study were to describe general prevalence of smok- ing and analyze dietary adequacy among Inuvialuit women of childbearing age who are smokers versus non-smokers in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada, and to evalu- ate the risk of dietary inadequacy among smokers.
To identify factors associated with the higher intakes of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines, we developed models using variables from a pre-defined set of factors known to be associated with birth defects. The factors that we considered as covariates were: race/ethnicity (non-His- panic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and other); maternal age at conception in years (<20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35+); maternal education in years at school (0-8, 9-11, 12, 13-15, 16+); annual household income in thousands of dollars (<10, 10- 19.999, 20-20.999, 30-30.999, 40-40.999, 50+); intake of folic acid containing supplements (as a single or in a multivitamin supplement, any use one month prior to three months post conception vs. no use); general or multivitamin supplementation (supplements containing more than one vitamin, any use one month prior to three months post conception vs. no use); pre-preg- nancy body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 kg/m 2 under- weight, 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 normal weight, 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 overweight, ≥ 30.0 kg/m 2 obese); area of residence (Arkansas, California, Georgia, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Utah); dietary folate intake as dietary folate equivalents in quartiles (DFE) (<319; 319-464.9; 465-685.5; >685.5 μg/day); and dietary fat (percentage of daily caloric intake ≤30%, >30%). Additionally, information was avail- able on frequency and type of alcohol consumed (beer, wine, malt liquor, mixed drinks, and shot liquor). Nitro- samine values for alcohol were estimated from the avail- able literature for nitrosamine content only. Very few sources were located that reported the nitrate and nitrite content of alcoholic beverages, therefore estimated intake of nitrates and nitrites from alcohol was not calculated.
Cutaneous production from sun exposure represents the main source of vitamin D , as naturally occurring dietary sources are limited, and supplementation or food fortification are inconsistent, or non-existent . The amount and effectiveness of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) from sunlight that reaches the skin are affected by many variables as time of day, season, latitude, altitude, clothing, veils, illiteracy, cultural habits, sunscreen use, pigmentation, and age . The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with little sun exposure, especially women who wear veils and decreased absorption of vitamin D from the intestine . Vitamin D exerts wide- ranging effects, due, in part, to the fact that most tissues in the body contain receptors for 1,25(OH)2D . Vi- tamin D is important in a number of physiologic processes, including calcium and phosphate absorption for the mineralization of the skeleton, innate and adaptive immunity, and homeostasis of a number of organs. Chronic vitamin D deficiency in adults results in osteoporosis, osteomalacia, muscle weakness, and increased risk of falls  .
Another FGD participant shared her testimony about benefits of ANC attendance as stated beneath: “Benefits of ANC are well- recognized in our community. For ex- ample, pregnant women who had a good knowledge and attended ANC clinic usually delivers at health institu- tion. In addition, women attend health institution for de- livery after they encountered complications such as too much bleeding and/or prolonged labor”. (A 35- year old FGD participant). In our study, women and their fam- ilies thought that skilled birth care is necessary only when complications occur. A qualitative study among rural women in central Nepal shows similar results that women go to the health facility only if they experience a problem during labor .
In the majority of immune competent subjects, the infection is asymptomatic [3, 12] and frequently results in the chronic persistence of cysts within the host tis- sues. The cysts normally lie dormant, probably for life . But, in immune compromised states such as in HIV infections, subjects are at risk of developing acute toxo- plasmosis due to reactivation of the organism if their CD4 cell count decreases below 200 cells/μL [13–15]. Moreover, in up to 10 % of HIV-infected immune com- promised individuals, it causes cervical lymphadenopa- thy or ocular disease . When the infection occurs in pregnant women, it can cause severe disease symptoms including toxoplasmic encephalitis, blindness, foetal abnormalities, abortion and even stillbirth [3, 17]. Toxo- plasmosis has also been proven to be the cause of abor- tion and infertility in women .
In Africa, Rubella natural immunity in adolescent girls has been found to range from 55% to 80% [12–15]. Despite the high seropositivity of Rubella virus specific antibodies among adolescent girls, a substantial number of these girls reach childbearingage without acquiring natural immun- ity. There is no specific level of natural immunity which is required before routine introduction of RCV. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that wide age range campaigns should be conducted as part of RCV introduction. In addition for the effective CRS control the coverage of RCV should be more than 80% to reduce trans- mission to pregnant women  hence decreasing the chances of transmitting the virus to the foetus [16, 17]. According to WHO position paper  and Centre for dis- eases control and Prevention (CDC) , different factors have been found to be associated with Rubella immunity. A single dose of RCV in most cases result in long lasting immunity. However, in USA other evidence for Rubella immunity includes receiving more than one dose of RCV and laboratory evidence of >10 IU/ml of Rubella specific IgG antibodies . Other factors such as age, residing in rural areas and socio-economic status(SES) have not been well studied in relation to Rubella immunity but have been found to be associated with immunity in discrete studies [9, 13].
An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted in Mekelle, from Jan-Feb, 2011. The source population was all women of childbearingage that experienced induced abortion in the catchment area, attending MCH clinic during the study period. The study population was all women of childbearingage, attending the MCH clinics at study period and fulfilling the inclusion criteria. The sample size for the study was determined using single population proportion and data was collected using standardized structured questionnaire and female diploma Nurses were recruited. Continuous follow up and supervision was made by the principal investigator throughout the data collection period. Interviewer administered structured questionnaire that contain two parts, (Socio- demographic, and regarding induced abortion) was used to describe determinants of induced abortion. Independent variables were age, education, marital status, income, occupation, residence, lack of contraceptives, contraceptive failure, lack of knowledge about contraception, child spacing, rape, incest, and health problems and the outcome variable was induced abortion. To assure data quality, training was given for the data collectors by the principal investigator. The questionnaire was initially prepared in English and then translated in to Tigrigna version. The Tigrigna version was again translated back to English to check for consistency of meaning.
Safe motherhood has been conceptualized as a means of ensuring women's accessibility to needed care through antenatal programme in order to facilitate their safety and optimal health throughout pregnancy and childbirth (Price, 2002). It is a means of saving the lives of women and improving the health of millions of others (Jatau, 2000). Safe motherhood is aimed at preventing maternal and prenatal mortality and morbidity. It also enhances the quality and safety of women's live through the adaptation of combination of health and non- health strategies. The scheme is achieved through a programme of inter-linked steps which strive to provide family planning services to prevent unwanted pregnancies; safe abortions (where abortion is legalized couple with efficient management and treatment of complication of unsafe abortions are accessible); prenatal and delivery care at the community level with quick access to first-referral services for complication and postpartum services, promotion of breastfeeding, immunization and nutrition services. Safe mother services must be integrated into the health delivery system and necessary inputs such as drugs, equipment, facilities and property trained staff supplied (Daly, Azefor, Nasah, 1993).
It is difficult to predict which pregnancy, delivery or post delivery period will experience complications; hence birth preparedness and complication readiness plan is recommended with the notion of pregnancy is risk . BP/CR strategy encourage women to be informed of danger signs of obstetric complications and emergencies, choose a preferred birth place and attendant at birth, make advance arrangement with the attendant at birth, arrange for transport to skilled care site in case of emer- gence, saving or arranging alternative funds for costs of skilled and emergency care, and finding a companion to be with the woman at birth or to accompany her to emer- gency care source. Other measures include identifying a compatible blood donor in case of hemorrhage, obtaining permission from the head of household to seek skilled care in the event that a birth emergency occurs in his absence and arrange a source of household support to provide temporary family care during her absence [6,8].
The retrospective case reports in humans are difficult to interpret as neural tube defects are among the commonest birth defects (occurring in about 1 in 1000 pregnancies, with marked ethnic and geographic variation in preva- lence ). A few case reports can establish a strong asso- ciation if a drug is taken by a relatively small number of women, causes a characteristic or obvious pattern of abnormalities (as is the case with most teratogens, for example thalidomide, warfarin and retinoic acid), or results in a rare malformation . However, reports of common defects may reflect either background occur- rence of these malformations in the general population or an increased risk for drug-induced birth defects. Moreo- ver, without knowing the denominator (the total number of infants exposed to EFV in the first trimester of preg- nancy), the relative risk of exposure is unknown.
Knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications during pregnancy, labour and postnatal period is the first essential step for appropriate and timely referral. It is also strategy aimed at enhancing the utilization of skilled care during low risk births and emergency obstetric care in complicated cases in low income countries . The ma- jority of pregnant women and their families do not know how to recognize the danger signs of complications. When complications occur, the unprepared family will waste a great deal of time in recognizing the problem, getting or- ganized, getting money, finding transport and reaching the appropriate referral facility . Raising awareness of pregnant women on the danger signs would improve early detection of problems and reduces the delay in deciding to seek obstetric care [3,4].
The observed increase in fish consumption and corre- sponding decrease in blood mercury levels may be attributed to several different possibilities. In the most recent survey cycle (2009 – 2010) 34% of the fish con- sumption was from marine fish, 18% from tuna, 42% from shellfish, 5% from fresh water fish and lest than a quarter percent from swordfish or shark. Swordfish and shark have the strongest association with increase in blood mercury levels ( β 1.80, 95%CI: 0.57,3.01) followed by tuna and freshwater fish. However they account for such a small percentage of the fish being consumed in the U.S., it seems unlikely that the consumption of these species is affecting blood mercury levels nationally. The decline in women's blood mercury levels in the NHANES samples may have been driven largely or in part by market changes; for example, over the decade studied, market shares for low-mercury varieties includ- ing shrimp, tilapia, salmon and catfish have increased dramatically, while shares of high-mercury varieties were decreasing, as did consumption of those high-mercury fish by women of childbearing age, as already noted. Tuna is of particular interest, since in 2014 it accounted for 14% of the US seafood market (FDA 2014). It is therefore plausible that differences in consumption of tuna fish among regions or age or ethnic groups might be associated with differences in blood mercury levels. If so, that would have major implications for seafood con- sumption advice.
Urban Bedouin women who receive medical care service in one family-physician practice in the “Clalit Health Services” Clinic, in Rahat, the largest Bedouin town in Israel. This clinic serves low-income population. In the practice there are about 1800 patients, among them 652 women, childbearing ages of 20 - 50 years old. The study population included women who from 2008 up to 2011 had undergone at least one blood test for Vit D level that was measured by a diasorin 25-OH-D assay.
Background and Objectives: Access to Ante Natal Care (ANC) remains a major barrier to maternal healthcare particularly in most developing countries thereby leading to high mortality rate of women and children. Despite the number of health facilities available in Wushishi Local Government Area (WLGA), quite a number of women of childbearingage are still not accessing ANC, and most times many lose their lives during delivery at home, some end up with complications or lose their baby at births. The question now is why are pregnant women not attending ante natal care in health facilities around them? The aim of this study was to determine the barriers in accessing ANC among the women of childbearingage in WLGA. Methods: Structured questionnaires were administered to 200 women. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the characteristics of the respondents and Chi Square test was used to establish the relationship between socioeconomic and demographic variables and ANC visits. Findings: We found out that the location of the respondents, lack of support from husband were two most significant demographic and socioeconomic barriers to access to ANC in WLGA. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The findings from this study have informed policy recommendations of the need to focus on strong advocacies towards encouraging men to participate more actively in their wives reproductive health. It also involves making cost of
The implementation of a convenient sampling method in the current study made it dif ﬁ cult to conduct inferential statistical analysis. The analysis basically speci ﬁ es the percentages of the female responses to issues related to knowledge of contraception and their practice. Only mar- ried women were included in the study, which may not re ﬂ ect the knowledge and practice of contraception use of the whole population. Sitting limitations include that the study was carried out in public clinics and centers, the sample was relatively inadequate to evaluate the knowl- edge and practices of less frequently used contraceptive methods. The knowledge in the present study was brief and limited to females ’ use. This means that knowledge about contraceptive methods was not covered in terms of mode of action, safety, and concerns. Cost and availability of the contraceptives as well as experience of the partici- pants with contraception might explain the inconsistency with other studies. Several knowledge domains were not evaluated like ef ﬁ cacy, mode of action and risk of com- plications of chronic use. The assessment of such domains may provide a clearer picture of women ’ s knowledge and practice.
A study done in East Africa on Variations in Desired Family Size and Excess Fertility, the result obtained from descriptive statistics focusing on excess fertility which is defined in reference and actual fertility and excluding demographic factors like mortality shows that there are variations of preferred fertility in terms of ultimate number of children; it appears clearly that East Africa countries such as Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwanda do not have the same attitude toward fertility and within the same country different communities have different aspirations regarding family size. Of the above mentioned East Africa countries, Rwanda has lowest and Kenya has highest diversity of fertility preferences according to either socio-economic or socio- cultural factors that determines communities of interest, mainly educational level (categorized as no education, Insc. Primary, Comp. primary, secondary and above) and religion (categorized as Catholic, Protestant, Muslim and others). In relation to religion, Christians desire nearly a half number of children desired by that of children desired by Muslims (6.7 children for Muslim and 3.8 children for Protestant) where as in Rwanda Christians desire more than Muslims desire. In Tanzania Muslim prefer on more children than Christians and in Uganda there is no significant difference among religious community (5.3 and 5.2 children for Muslims and Christians respectively). Based on wealth index, individuals categorized under poorest status of life have higher chance of bearing children in both Christian and Muslim religion of East Africa countries. In the analysis of binary logistic regression, if women have 3 to 5 children than if she has more than or equals to six, then the effect of an extra children on excess fertility is greatly higher .
Background: Viruses of the Herpes viridae family infect 90% of the Earth’s population. Humans are the hosts of at least nine unique herpes viruses. Aim: This study is aimed at evaluating the seroprevalence of type specific herpes simplex virus infection and the associated risk factors in a cross-section of asymptomatic healthy women of childbearing age in Kogi state, Nigeria. Methodology: A total of 330 females of childbearingage (15 - 49 years) par- ticipated in this study. They were recruited from various local government areas of three Senatorial districts of Kogi state. Blood samples were collected from participants and analyzed for HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies (IgG) quan- titatively with ELISA kit. Results: The overall prevalence of HSV was 76.7%. Data further show that majority (96.4%) of the population studied had HSV-1, while 77% had HSV-2 infections. Results also showed that the young adults indicated prevalence of 95.7% for HSV-1 and 74.7% for HSV-2, while in the middle aged, the prevalence were 98.6% for HSV-1, and 84.9% for HSV-2. 99.2% of the married women were positive for HSV-1, while 86.9% How to cite this paper: Drisu, U.I., Oron-