Top PDF Non-teratogenic vitamin A preparation for women of child-bearing age

Non teratogenic vitamin A preparation for women of child bearing age

Non teratogenic vitamin A preparation for women of child bearing age

Non-teratogenic vitamin A preparation for women of child-bearing age Abstract For treatment of acne the glucuronide of retinoic acid (retinoyl β-glucuronide) is orally administered to women of child-bearing age who are capable of conception. This therapy is safer than the oral administration of retinoic acid because retinoic acid glucuronide is essentially non-teratogenic at dose levels effective for the acne treatment. The retinoic acid glucuronide can be in all-trans or 13-cis form.

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Use of prescription medicines in Australian women of child-bearing age

Use of prescription medicines in Australian women of child-bearing age

preparation) and metoclopramide (for nausea and vomit- ing) in pregnancy are likely to account for this difference. Category D medicines contributed to 9 % of all dispens- ings in our study compared to 5 % of all dispensings in pregnant women [5]. Both studies found very low use of category X medicines (below 1 %). The relatively low use of category D and X medicines in pregnant women and in all women of child-bearing age implies caution when pre- scribing those moderate or high risk teratogens to women. Women of child-bearing age may have chronic condi- tion (e.g. hypertension or epilepsy) which require medi- cine(s) therapy. Hypertensive disorders are common and management of chronic hypertension is essential. As some commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs such as agents acting on on renin-angiotensin system are cat- egory D, they should be avoided before conception and during pregnancy [11]. Pre-pregnancy counselling is es- sential and drug treatment should be reserved for per- sistent or severe hypertension with careful monitoring due to the increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes [11]. We found that up to 1 % of women under 30 years of age, 1 % to 4 % between 31 and 40 years, and up to
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Investigating portable fluorescent microscopy (CyScope®) as an alternative rapid diagnostic test for malaria in children and women of child bearing age

Investigating portable fluorescent microscopy (CyScope®) as an alternative rapid diagnostic test for malaria in children and women of child bearing age

Fluorescent microscopy was performed according to the manufacturer’s indications [7]: the fresh blood sam- ple was transferred onto the Partec Malaria Test Slide (ready-prepared containing the necessary lyophilized reagents including the DNA stain), and a cover glass directly placed on top. The slide was then viewed (maxi- mum of four hours between preparation and diagnosis) using 400 × magnification and fluorescent light for rapid diagnosis (qualitative testing on 472 adults and 851 children) or using 1000 × magnification under oil- immersion and fluorescent light to ascertain levels of parasitaemia (quantitative testing on 238 adults and 386 children). In the latter, parasites (viewed as small circu- lar fluorescent bodies) were counted against 200-500 leucocytes and converted to number of parasites per volume assuming 8,000 leucocytes/μL blood. Slides were considered negative when no parasites were detected after viewing 100 microscopic fields. 10% of low parasite density infections (<200 parasites per μL/blood) were photographed using the CyScope ® camera and kept by the lead researcher for future reference. The person operating the fluorescent microscope was unaware of corresponding light microscopy results as readings were undertaken in separate rooms. Said technician works for the Vector Control Division of Uganda ’ s Ministry of Health and is highly experienced in malaria diagnosis using light microscopy.
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Malaria and anaemia in pregnant and non-pregnant women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study

Malaria and anaemia in pregnant and non-pregnant women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study

The higher prevalence observed in primigravidae is consistent with other reports. 12,18-20 Anti-adhesion antibodies against chondroitin sulphate A-binding para- sites are associated with protection from maternal malaria, but these antibodies develop only over successive pregnancies, hence the susceptibility of primigravidae to malaria infection compared to multigravidae. 21 Some authors also believed that primigravid women have little or no immunity against the infecting strains of Plasmodium and hence suffer adverse complications. 22 The occurrence of relatively more anaemia in multigravidae than in primigravidae confirmed an earlier study con-ducted in India where anaemia was found less in primigravidae. 1 This may be due to repeated pregnancies at shorter intervals without allowing for replenishment of the iron stores. 1
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Malaria and Anaemia in Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women of Child Bearing Age at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana*

Malaria and Anaemia in Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women of Child Bearing Age at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana*

Pregnant women in malaria-endemic communities are more susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum infections than non-pregnant women of child-bearing age. Objective: To comparatively investigate malaria and anaemia in pregnant and non-pregnant women of child-bearing age. Design: A cross-sectional comparative study. Three hundred and eighty pregnant women and 380 non-pregnant women were screened for the study. Setting: The study was conducted at the University Hospital, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Measurements: Par- ticipants’ demographic data were collected via the administration of questionnaires. In addition their blood samples were analyzed for haemoglobin level and malaria parasites, while stool samples from the pregnant women were exam- ined for intestinal parasites. Results: The study revealed that pregnant women have higher malaria parasitaemia (12.6%) and anaemia (62.6%). The species of Plasmodium isolated from the pregnant women were P. falciparum (85.4%), P.
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Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondiiinfection in women of child bearing age in central Ethiopia

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondiiinfection in women of child bearing age in central Ethiopia

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to September 2011. Sera of 425 women were analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. Results: The study revealed that anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 81.4% of the samples of which 78.4% were positive for only IgG and 3.06% positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.14, 5.86) was suggestive of recent infections. Of the 213 pregnant women 9 (4.2 %) were IgM reactive. Out of 17 potential risk factors investigated, univariate logistic regression showed significant association of T. gondii infection with study area, age, pregnancy status, raw vegetable consumption, source of water, presence of cats at home, contact with cats, HIV status and precaution during cats ’ feces cleaning (P ≤ 0.05). The final logistic regression model revealed that: the probability of acquiring T. gondii infection by women of Debre-Zeit was 4.46 times (95% CI of adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.67, 11.89; P =0.003) higher compared to women of Ambo, pregnant women were twice (95% CI aOR: 1.13, 3.59; P = 0.018) more likely to be seropositive than non-pregnant women and women who consume raw vegetable were at increased risk of infection (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.78; P = 0.043) than women who didn ’ t consume.
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A comparison of folate status in women of child-bearing age in Korea and in the United States

A comparison of folate status in women of child-bearing age in Korea and in the United States

to be associated with the presence of unmetabolized FA. 31 Evidence suggests that unmetabolized FA found in blood after the ingestion of supplements or fortified foods may have adverse effects on folate binding proteins or transporters, 32 possibly interfering with normal folate metabolism. Although it is possible that unmetabolized FA may have different effects on already initiated cancer cells compared to uniniti- ated cells, it is also important to understand that fortification will not only raise the concentrations of unmetabolized FA but also the concentrations of total folate in the body, which could have disease protective effects. The studies in the US did not corroborate the concern that supraphysiologic plasma folate concentrations seen in the post US FA fortification era increase the risk of precancerous lesions in the cervix in pre- menopausal women of child-bearing age. In fact, higher folate was associated with significantly lower risk of those lesions, especially when vitamin B12 is sufficient, demonstrating the importance of vitamin B12 in the high folate environment created by the FA fortification program. 33 Because adequate numbers of women who had supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate and insufficient vitamin B12 were not found, it was not possible to evaluate whether cervical cancer risk may be higher in women with such a combination. The rarity of this micronutrient profile in this group of US women at higher risk of developing cervical cancer suggests that this concern may be of little public health relevance. However, studies have documented conflicting or equivocal results for the role of folate in other cancers, including neuroblastoma, 34 breast cancer, 35 and colorectal cancer. 36 This inability to reach a consensus represents a critical issue and deserves further studies in view of the FA fortification programs that are underway in many countries, potentially exposing billions of people to higher levels of FA.
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High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among women of child-bearing age in Lahore Pakistan, associating with lack of sun exposure and illiteracy

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among women of child-bearing age in Lahore Pakistan, associating with lack of sun exposure and illiteracy

low specificity (18.6 %) for identification of vitamin D deficiency (Table 6). Discussion We report that inadequate vitamin D status is very common among healthy women of child bearing age living in Lahore, Pakistan: only 10 % of participants in our study had optimal vitamin D status (serum 25[OH]D ≥75 nmol/L), 73 % were vitamin D deficient (serum 25[OH] D <50 nmol/L) and 43 % were pro- foundly deficient (serum 25[OH]D <25 nmol/L). Risk of deficiency was independently associated with sam- pling in January - March, illiteracy, decreased sun ex- posure and lack of multivitamin use; we also found evidence that vitamin D binding protein genotype may be a determinant of vitamin D status in this population. Vita- min D deficiency was independently associated with in- creased risk of bone pain and body ache. The use of tests for hypocalcaemia or raised serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was neither sensitive nor specific for the
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Duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Southern Ethiopia

Duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Southern Ethiopia

Women who were rural resident, being student and daily worker in husbands’ occupation, breast feeding for 7 to 12, 13 to 23 and 24 and above months, non use of modern contraceptives and highest wealth quartile were found to be significant predictors of short birth interval length. Women in the study area have been practicing on average 7 months shorter birth interval length than they would prefer otherwise and the preferred length of birth interval among the study subjects is significantly greater than actual birth interval length. Interventions to enhance contraceptive utilization behaviors among women in Lemo district would be helpful to narrow the gap between optimal and actual birth spacing.
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Smoking and dietary inadequacy among Inuvialuit women of child bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada

Smoking and dietary inadequacy among Inuvialuit women of child bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada

childbearing age comparing smokers versus non-smokers. Research methods & procedures: A cross-sectional study, where participants completed a culturally specific quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare mean nutrient intake, dietary inadequacy and differences in nutrient density among smokers and non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for key nutrients inadequacy and smoking status. Data was collected from three communities in the Beaufort Delta region of the Northwest Territories, Canada from randomly selected Inuvialuit women of childbearing age (19-44 years).
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Short birth interval and associated factors among women of child bearing age in northern Ethiopia, 2016

Short birth interval and associated factors among women of child bearing age in northern Ethiopia, 2016

Conclusion and recommendation Even though currently coverage of FP use has increased, this study shows that SBI is still a concern for Ethiopian women as a result of religion, suboptimum breastfeed- ing, unwanted pregnancy and non-use of contraceptive factors. Currently, SBI has decreased as compared to the previous studies in Ethiopia. However, nearly one fourth of women are still at risk for adverse maternal and child outcomes resulted from SBI. These findings highlight the need to address these gaps. Therefore, the following recommendations are forwarded to midwives and other stakeholders to strengthen the FP service in terms of quality and utilization. Corresponding with increasing levels of contraceptive use, they should also encourage optimum breastfeeding and involvement of religious leaders in FP programs.
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Institutional Delivery Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Child Bearing Age Women in Goba Woreda, Ethiopia

Institutional Delivery Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Child Bearing Age Women in Goba Woreda, Ethiopia

2.2. Sample Size Determination and Sampling Technique Childbearing women who gave birth in the last 12 months in the woreda, regardless of their birth outcome, were included in the sample. The required sample size of eligible mothers for the study was determined using single population proportion formula. The following assumptions were made while calculating the sample size. Ninety five percent confidence level (95% CI) of obtaining mothers who gave birth at the health institutions from the population within 5% margin of error and expecting a 10% non response rate, the final sample size was calculated to be 580. One urban and 8 rural kebeles were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Census was carried out in the selected kebeles to identify mothers who gave birth in the last one year prior to the survey. Then, proportional distribution of the sample size for each selected kebeles was done. Finally, mothers were selected by systematic random sampling method. Convenient sampling for FGD was employed. This method was employed because mothers in that specific kebele are expected to be homogenous in many ways. Due to this, easily accessible mothers were selected. Those women who have given birth in the last 12 months, resident in the area for at least 6 month and available during data collection period were included. Four FGD having an average of 8 participants were employed. Out of the four FGDs, one was conducted in Urban and the remaining three FGD were conducted in rural kebeles.
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Vitamin D Deficiency and Pseudofractures in Child Bearing Egyptian Women: Successful Medical Treatment Helps to Avoid Fractures and Surgical Interference

Vitamin D Deficiency and Pseudofractures in Child Bearing Egyptian Women: Successful Medical Treatment Helps to Avoid Fractures and Surgical Interference

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Abstract Background: Recent evidence for the effects of vitamin D and recognition of the high prevalence of its deficiency has increased the interest in it. Vitamin D-sub nutrition may contribute to the risk of a wide range of disorders. Methods: The females in the child-bearing period attending the endo- crinology and orthopedic out-patient clinics complaining of pain and/or tenderness at the groin were evaluated. Patients with chronic metabolic or skeletal illness, primary hyperparathyroidism, and patients receiving drugs that interfere with bone mineral metabolisms were excluded. One hundred accepted and consented to participation in the study. All the participants were subjected to full history taking, clinical evaluation, laboratory investigations including serum Ca, Ph, PTH, ALP, TSH, F T4, F T3, Cortisol level, and 25(OH)D level. Plain X-ray was done for the regions of bony tenderness. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of pseu- do-fractures (looser zones). They were treated and followed up till normalization of the labora- tory parameters and healing of the looser zones. Results: The mean age for patients was 30.45 ± 5.8, their mean 25(OH) vitamin D level was 14.7 ± 5.9 ng/ml, the mean PTH was 195.7 ± 162.6, and looser zones were evident in the X-rays of 34 patients. The serum 25(OH)D showed significant negative correlations with veiling, parity, localized hip pain, and tenderness, ALP, PTH, but, a sig- nificant positive correlation with sun exposure, dairy products consumption, vitamin D supple- mentation, and serum calcium levels. The independent factors associated with hypovitaminosis D were the lack of sun exposure, lack of vitamin D supplementation, and the presence of pseudo- fracture (p ≤ 0.009, 0.038, and 0.001 respectively). No surgery was required in any of our patients.
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Birth preparedness and complication readiness among women of child bearing age group in Goba woreda, Oromia region, Ethiopia

Birth preparedness and complication readiness among women of child bearing age group in Goba woreda, Oromia region, Ethiopia

Sampling procedure Multistage sampling was employed to select study sub- jects. First, all kebeles in the woreda were stratified in to urban and rural. Goba Woreda constitutes 24 rural kebeles and one town administrative (consisting of two urban kebeles) that makes up a total of 26 kebeles. To determine representative sample of kebeles for the wor- eda and got adequate sample, 1/3 rd of the kebeles were selected. Based on the above calculation, 9 kebeles were chosen using simple random sampling from the total 26 kebeles. According to the strata i.e. urban and rural resi- dence, a kebele from the 2 urban and 8 kebeles from the 24 rural kebeles were selected using simple random sampling technique. Then, the total sample size (n =580) was allocated proportionally to the size of the selected kebeles. Finally, systematic sampling was employed to se- lect the study subjects in each kebele until the desired numbers of sample was obtained. To select the first house hold in each kebele, first a land mark which is common in almost all kebeles that is health post was identified. A pen was spin and the direction pointed by the tip of the pen was followed. To select the first house hold, one of the house which was included under the initial sampling interval of each kebele was selected by simple random sampling; lottery method. Then, the next house hold was selected through systematic sampling technique that is every K th interval household which was calculated for each kebele because the numbers of households vary from one kebele to another kebele. In a case when the study participants were not be able to be interviewed for some reason (e.g. absenteeism), attempt was made for three times to interview the respondent and after all, they were considered as non respondents. On the other hand, if the household did not include women who meet the inclusion criteria, the next household was substituted.
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Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study

Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study

To identify factors associated with the higher intakes of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines, we developed models using variables from a pre-defined set of factors known to be associated with birth defects. The factors that we considered as covariates were: race/ethnicity (non-His- panic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and other); maternal age at conception in years (<20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35+); maternal education in years at school (0-8, 9-11, 12, 13-15, 16+); annual household income in thousands of dollars (<10, 10- 19.999, 20-20.999, 30-30.999, 40-40.999, 50+); intake of folic acid containing supplements (as a single or in a multivitamin supplement, any use one month prior to three months post conception vs. no use); general or multivitamin supplementation (supplements containing more than one vitamin, any use one month prior to three months post conception vs. no use); pre-preg- nancy body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 kg/m 2 under- weight, 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 normal weight, 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 overweight, ≥ 30.0 kg/m 2 obese); area of residence (Arkansas, California, Georgia, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Utah); dietary folate intake as dietary folate equivalents in quartiles (DFE) (<319; 319-464.9; 465-685.5; >685.5 μg/day); and dietary fat (percentage of daily caloric intake ≤30%, >30%). Additionally, information was avail- able on frequency and type of alcohol consumed (beer, wine, malt liquor, mixed drinks, and shot liquor). Nitro- samine values for alcohol were estimated from the avail- able literature for nitrosamine content only. Very few sources were located that reported the nitrate and nitrite content of alcoholic beverages, therefore estimated intake of nitrates and nitrites from alcohol was not calculated.
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Educational Attainment as a Predictor of HIV Testing Uptake Among Women of Child-Bearing Age: Analysis of 2014 Demographic and Health Survey in Zambia.

Educational Attainment as a Predictor of HIV Testing Uptake Among Women of Child-Bearing Age: Analysis of 2014 Demographic and Health Survey in Zambia.

Therefore, we are very confident that the non-participation was very minimal and not important in altering our findings. As in most of secondary analysis-based studies, the data were not tailored with this objective as a focus and as such predictor measures may not capture exactly initial measures intended and we tried to controlled for the effect of confounding through stratification during the analysis process. We further adjusted for ever had a child (used a proxy question “Total children ever born to a woman,” and “Currently pregnant,” but this did not have effect on the association of education and HIV testing. It may not be possible to conclusively control for all confounding and interactions in these findings due to uncontrolled confounding effect that may result from other forms of non-participation bias such as misclassification of missing values which is a threat to most data. In this analysis taking into account all these limitations, we still believe their effect is minimal and unimportant in explaining our findings.
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PREVALENCE OF FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY AMONG WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE

PREVALENCE OF FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY AMONG WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE

In Japan, a ten year study was conducted to examine whether their life styles have been shifting to the direction of lowering the incidence of spina bifida. Food records were asked from the participants to semi- quantitatively describe diets and beverages they consumed for a 3-day period. Life style questionnaires demonstrated that knowledge of folic acid and the proportion of those who took folic acid supplements elevated from 15.3% and 9.1% in 2002 to 43.7 and 61.5% in 2011, respectively. Three-day food records revealed that the mean dietary folate intakes ranged from 260 to 360 microgm/day in each year which were less than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) publicized by the government, but that the proportion of pregnant women in the first trimester who consumed folic acid supplements from 4 weeks prior to 12 weeks after conception increased from 7.4% in 2003 to 69.6%
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PREVALENCE OF FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY AMONG WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE

PREVALENCE OF FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY AMONG WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE

In Japan, a ten year study was conducted to examine whether their life styles have been shifting to the direction of lowering the incidence of spina bifida. Food records were asked from the participants to semi- quantitatively describe diets and beverages they consumed for a 3-day period. Life style questionnaires demonstrated that knowledge of folic acid and the proportion of those who took folic acid supplements elevated from 15.3% and 9.1% in 2002 to 43.7 and 61.5% in 2011, respectively. Three-day food records revealed that the mean dietary folate intakes ranged from 260 to 360 microgm/day in each year which were less than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) publicized by the government, but that the proportion of pregnant women in the first trimester who consumed folic acid supplements from 4 weeks prior to 12 weeks after conception increased from 7.4% in 2003 to 69.6%
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Awareness of the effect of traditional birth attendance among women of child bearing age

Awareness of the effect of traditional birth attendance among women of child bearing age

during child birth and initially acquired her skills by delivering babies herself or through apprenticeship to other traditional birth attendant. Traditional birth attendant are integrals members of their communities and provide an important window to local customs, traditions and perceptions regarding childbirth and newborn care. Although childbirth is a natural phenomenon, it is associated with risk and unforeseen complication, which may result to death. Traditional birth attendant may only be possible in uncomplicated labour, once there are complications, these mothers need to be referred immediately to a nearby health facilities, very unfortunately when complication arise it is too late or the mother is so weak that she cannot deliver safely. As a result, such mother dies before, during or after delivering or ending up stillbirth. Since it is difficult to predict the complication, which may arise during childbirth
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Rural-urban differentials in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of child bearing age in Zambian

Rural-urban differentials in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of child bearing age in Zambian

Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are markedly higher among urban women than rural women, and that differences on how these occur between these two groups of women have a socioeconomic and demographic dimension. In order to deal with increasing overweight and obesity challenges among women in Zambia, the paper recommends continued sensitizations about dangers of overweight and obesity with emphasis on behaviour changes in feeding or eating practices focussing more on traditional low fat and low calorie foods which in actual sense are cheaper and produce healthier results. Added to this recommendation is the need to change life styles to include routine exercising and increased medical check-ups.
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