Top PDF Obesity intervention on the healthy lifestyle in childhood: results of the PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity) Study

Obesity intervention on the healthy lifestyle in childhood: results of the PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity) Study

Obesity intervention on the healthy lifestyle in childhood: results of the PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity) Study

Results: In comparison with control group, classes who performed PRESTO showed a significant knowledge of nutrition, consuming less unhealthy foods. These effects could be observed in the short term (14 weeks) and at follow up (10 months). 24% subjects could be classified as being overweight (BMI ≥90.Perc.). Conclusions: School-oriented intervention programs/studies, like PRESTO, are a potential way to demonstrate positive effect on nutrition, physical activity and healthy behaviours in youth, especially if carried out on a long-term basis. Ultimately PRESTO has proven to be a suitable programme to be disseminated onto schools throughout Austria.
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A childhood obesity intervention developed by families for families: results from a pilot study

A childhood obesity intervention developed by families for families: results from a pilot study

In addition to defining the scope of the community as- sessment, CAB members were invited to participate in the collection and interpretation of the data. Results from the community assessment were shared in two community forums with the CAB, the broader commu- nity of Head Start parents, community members, and Head Start staff and teachers. The final CHL program was developed utilizing results from the community as- sessment, feedback obtained during the forums, and subsequent discussions with the CAB. Primary objectives of the program were to (1) promote parenting practices supportive of healthy lifestyles (e.g., limiting children’s screen time, encouraging consumption of fruits and vegetables, promoting outdoor play), (2) increase chil- dren’s healthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., improved diet, increased physical activity, and decreased television viewing time), and (3) reduce children’s BMI and rates of obesity. The program was pilot-tested during this pro- ject’s second year..
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Study protocol: effects of the THAO-child health intervention program on the prevention of childhood obesity - The POIBC study

Study protocol: effects of the THAO-child health intervention program on the prevention of childhood obesity - The POIBC study

Parents answered to the questions of the Spanish version of the Pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ) to report on children’s sleep duration and quality [17]. The PSQ is a reliable measure for assessing SRBP in children, and has demonstrated valid results in a pediatric population compared with polysomnography (PSG) [18] The PSQ consists of 22 items and three subscales that examine snoring, daytime sleepiness, and daytime behavior. The PSQ scores are averaged so values range from 0 to 1 and are assessed as a continuous variable [18]. Parents were also asked to report the usual earliest and latest time their child went to bed and woke up for weekdays and weekends separately. Sleep duration was calculated as the number of hours on weekdays between the average of the usual earliest and latest bed time and the average of the earliest and latest times the child woke up.
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A randomized home-based childhood obesity prevention pilot intervention has favourable effects on parental body composition: preliminary evidence from the Guelph Family Health Study

A randomized home-based childhood obesity prevention pilot intervention has favourable effects on parental body composition: preliminary evidence from the Guelph Family Health Study

Background: Home-based lifestyle behaviour interventions show promise for treating and preventing childhood obesity. According to family theories, engaging the entire family unit, including parents, to change their family behaviour and dynamics may be necessary to prevent the development of childhood obesity. However, little is known about how these interventions, which may change the family dynamics and weight-related behaviours of parents, affect weight outcomes in parents. Our objective was to examine the effect of a pilot home-based childhood obesity prevention intervention on measures of anthropometrics and body composition in Canadian parents. Methods: Forty-four families with children aged 1.5 – 5 years were randomized to one of three groups: 4 home visits with a health educator, emails, and mailed incentives (4 HV); 2 home visits, emails, and mailed incentives (2 HV); or general health emails (control). Both the 2 HV and 4 HV intervention were conducted over a period of 6 months. Body composition and anthropometric outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6 months and 18 months from baseline. Results: In parents with baseline body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m 2 , the 2 HV group had significantly lower body mass and waist circumference at 6-month (CI = -5.85,-0.14 kg;-5.82,-0.30 respectively) and 18-month follow-up (CI = -7.57,-1.21 kg;-9.30,-2.50 cm respectively) when compared to control, and significantly lower BMI at 18-month follow-up when compared to control (CI = -2.59,-0.29 kg/m 2 ). In parents with baseline BMI < 25 kg/m 2 , the 4 HV group had significantly lower percentage fat mass (CI = -3.94,-0.12%), while the 2 HV group had significantly lower body mass (CI = -2.56,-0.42 kg) and BMI (CI = -0.77,-0.08 kg/m 2 ) at 6-month follow-up, both compared to control; these effects were not maintained at 18-month follow-up.
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Design and methods of the Healthy Kids & Families study: a parent-focused community health worker-delivered childhood obesity prevention intervention

Design and methods of the Healthy Kids & Families study: a parent-focused community health worker-delivered childhood obesity prevention intervention

The focus of the study was limited to examining the effectiveness the intervention and it did not assess cost or cost effectiveness of the intervention. Potential risk of harm from the intervention was possible as families may have had unrealistic expectations for improving their health and these expectations may have gone un- fulfilled. We attempted to mitigate this risk through ef- forts to facilitate appropriate understanding of the study conditions prior to and during the consent process and providing ample opportunities for participants to ask questions prior to study enrollment. Additionally, both intervention and control conditions followed the 5A algo- rithm and thus an important component of the interven- tion involved helping participants set realistic goals for themselves and their families and brainstorming facilita- tors and challenges to goal attainment to plan appropriate solutions. Finally, there were differences in BMI z-scores among the schools thus the analytic plan will account for baseline site difference by inclusion of an intercept for each site. Due to lack of pilot data, this was not considered in the original sample size calculation.
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The effect of an early childhood obesity intervention on father’s obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne InFANT Program

The effect of an early childhood obesity intervention on father’s obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne InFANT Program

In addition to the associations between children’s and fathers’ health behaviours, mothers’ and fathers’ health be- haviours have also been shown to correlate. For example, Feunekes et al. and Oliveria et al. both reported correlations between mothers’ and fathers’ macro and micro nutrient in- takes [25,26] whilst Northstone et al. and Lioret et al. re- ported correlations between identified dietary patterns in mothers and fathers [27,28]. These relationships suggest that the dietary behaviours of one parent may influence the dietary behaviours of the other [29]. It was in the context of the associations between the diets of mothers and fathers and the diets of mothers and their children, that the Mel- bourne InFANT Program was developed. The InFANT program is an early childhood obesity prevention interven- tion with a strong focus on parent modelling using mothers as the point of contact, the aim of which was to test the ef- fectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention inter- vention, focussing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behav- iours, and reduce sedentary behaviours in infants from three to 18 months of age. Results of the study previously reported have included the effects of the intervention on children’s and mother’s diet and physical activity [30], the correlation between mothers’ and fathers’ diets [28]; an ana- lysis of the extent to which the association between mater- nal education and infant diets is mediated by mother’ s diets [31]; and an analysis of the effect of the intervention ac- cording to maternal education and age [32].
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Process evaluation results of a cluster randomised controlled childhood obesity prevention trial : the WAVES study

Process evaluation results of a cluster randomised controlled childhood obesity prevention trial : the WAVES study

In stakeholder consultations undertaken as part of the development work for the WAVES study intervention, family involvement through activities aiming to improve practical skills in addition to knowledge was identified as a priority [16]. Systematic review evidence also supports the importance of involving family members [2]. The WAVES study tried to involve families through school-specific signposting sheets, parental invitation to the cooking workshops and the healthy challenges element of VV. Un- fortunately, the former had little or no impact, and al- though there was positive feedback regarding CWs from the parent focus groups, attendance rates were often low (mean parental attendance was 41%). However, pre- existing parent-school relationships heavily influenced the level of parental engagement, again highlighting the im- portant contextual influences on intervention implemen- tation. The level of involvement of parents with the VV healthy challenges was dependent on the teacher’s ap- proach to delivery of the weekly challenges. Further re- search to determine how schools can better engage parents with health promotion initiatives would be valu- able for both schools and intervention developers.
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Process evaluation results of a cluster randomised controlled childhood obesity prevention trial: the WAVES study

Process evaluation results of a cluster randomised controlled childhood obesity prevention trial: the WAVES study

replicable and could be applied to process evaluations from many different aspects of health intervention research. This paper reports on the analysis of process evaluation data, providing a level of detail which is rarely reported in the process evaluation literature [6]. Following the MRC recom- mendation for analysis of process data [3] we present data which meets recommendation by (i) providing information on fidelity, dose and reach for the intervention, (ii) detailing variation in implementation between schools (iii) using the- matic analysis to analyse the qualitative data (iv) integrating both qualitative and quantitative data sources to provide an overall indicator of intervention implementation, and (v) completing all analyses before analysis of the main trials outcomes. The WAVES study was undertaken in the West Midlands, UK, − a region that is socioeconomically, ethnic- ally and culturally diverse. The school selection process en- sured an over-representation of schools with a higher proportion of South Asian or Black pupils by using a ran- domly ordered, weighted random sampling procedure from amongst 970 eligible state maintained schools. Randomisa- tion of schools to the control or intervention arm used a statistical procedure to minimise inter-arm imbalance in re- lation to school size, free school meal eligibility (as an indi- cator of deprivation) and proportion of pupils of South Asian, Black and White ethnicities. Additionally, as reported earlier, schools from the intervention arm were purposively sampled for inclusion in the interviews/focus groups to en- sure representation from a diverse range of schools. These processes helped to improve the generalisability of the find- ings across different UK locations and the findings from the intervention delivery should be useful to other researchers working in the field.
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Recruitment results among families contacted for an obesity prevention intervention: the Obesity Prevention Tailored for Health Study

Recruitment results among families contacted for an obesity prevention intervention: the Obesity Prevention Tailored for Health Study

The OPT intervention arm consisted of an hour-long in-person meeting between the parent–child pair and a health coach trained in motivational interviewing [32,33]. Content of the counseling included educational informa- tion and printed materials describing the benefits of healthy eating and physical activity. To individually tailor the counseling, the coach assessed the goals of both the parents and children, and attitudes, confidence, and readi- ness about making changes in their diet and physical activ- ity. With guidance from the coach, parents and children each selected their initial target behavior and created an individual action plan for the following 2 to 3 weeks. The session with the health coach was followed by five 20- to 30-minute telephone counseling calls with the parent delivered by trained motivational interviewers from the University of Colorado Cancer Center, Anschutz Medical Campus. In order to address each of the four target behaviors, over the course of the calls, counselors supported parents in creating three additional action plans for behavior change. In addition, the counselors mentored parents in guiding their children to develop action plans of their own. Both parents and children received four culturally tailored newsletters through the mail, two specific to diet and two specific to physical activity. The newsletters included structured family activities focused on the target behaviors.
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“Effectiveness of Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyle Intervention Program on Body Mass Index among Children with Obesity” by Ester Mary Pappiya, Dr.Sumathi Ganesan, India.

“Effectiveness of Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyle Intervention Program on Body Mass Index among Children with Obesity” by Ester Mary Pappiya, Dr.Sumathi Ganesan, India.

is one of the important public health issues and challenging the world in the 21st century. The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in most populations. According to the England Journal of obesity reported that India has the second highest number of obese children in the world. 14.4 million children in the country have excess weight. China with 15.3 million and India with 14.1 million children were estimated as overweight and obesity 13 . A comparative study was conducted on overweight and obesity among private and government school children and the results revealed that the prevalence rate was high in private schools 14 . Similar study conducted from Karimnagar, Hyderabad, reported that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 11.9 and 2.7 percent among children. Epidemiological evidence suggests that unless effective preventive measures are implemented, the global prevalence will continue to raise. 15 The healthy eating, active and lifestyle intervention program is simple intervention to reduce the body weight. The intervention focus on healthy eating habits , balanced diet, classification of foods, diet plan, and dietary pyramid and healthy food habits, avoidance of unhealthy foods, processing and ready-made foods and low glycaemic index foods. Planned physical activity program which helps to burn out the excessive calories and education on complication prevention along with the involvement of the parents in their child measurement program. The benefits of the intervention are enormous that helps to reduce weight with this background, the investigators felt it necessary to conduct a study to assess the effectiveness of Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyle Intervention Program on body mass index among children with obesity.
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Cost effectiveness analysis of childhood obesity primary prevention programmes: a systematic review

Cost effectiveness analysis of childhood obesity primary prevention programmes: a systematic review

based  obesity  prevention  initiative utilizing activity coordinators in schools and nutrition promotion in New Zealand children, with the purpose to prevent excessive weight gain in 5-12 years old children by enhancing opportunities for healthy and non-curricular physical activity [23]. According to two-year findings, intervention children reported a significant lower BMI values compared with control children. No differences in health-related quality of life were observed in the current study, thus were unable to calculate QALYs. The remaining four studies [19, 24-26] included were model-based cost effectiveness studies on primary prevention addressing childhood obesity as a part of Assessing Cost Effectiveness-Obesity (ACE) project. Following a societal perspective, a simulation-modelling technique was used to obtain the cost-effectiveness ratio and its 95% confidence intervals. Benefits were modelled as changes in BMI and DALYs saved. Intervention costs were compared to future health-care cost offsets in terms of reduced prevalence of obesity-related health conditions.
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The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE): design and methods

The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE): design and methods

The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC) is currently conducted among 11, 13 and 15 year- old children in 43 countries (Europe, USA and Canada) [7]. Results from two previous cycles of the HBSC (2001–2002 and 2005–2006) indicate a consistent relationship between self-reported physical activity and overweight across coun- tries; however, the relationship with dietary variables has been less consistent [3,4]. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescents (HELENA) study is a multi- country European collaboration that focuses on the health and health behaviour of adolescents [8]. Recent analyses from the HELENA study have examined associations among obesity and several lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, sedentary behaviour, dietary habits, and sleep duration [9-11]. The European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) was a 4-country examination of cardiovascular risk factors and their related influences in 9 and 15 year- old children [12]. Results from the EYHS indicate a signifi- cant association between objectively measured physical activity (using accelerometers) and adiposity (sum of skin- folds), although the variance in adiposity explained by physical activity was <1% [13]. Further analyses incorpor- ating self-reported television viewing habits suggest that physical activity and television viewing may have inde- pendent effects on adiposity and cardiovascular risk fac- tors [14].
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Assessing the effectiveness of an obesity prevention intervention to improve healthy lifestyle among Saudi school girls aged 9 to 16 : a feasibility study

Assessing the effectiveness of an obesity prevention intervention to improve healthy lifestyle among Saudi school girls aged 9 to 16 : a feasibility study

Application of social cognitive theory (SCT) in modelling and achieving the aim, objectives and methods of this study can be seen to be effective and instrumental as the behaviour change was observable and the intervention objectives were met. SCT theoretical framework was important for understanding and developing the intervention within a social environment, especially, in defining the role of teachers, friends, family or parents on child obesity intervention. McEachan and colleagues (2008) assert that SCT is a crucial tool for studying behaviour and the social environment of school-based interventions because the model allows the use of methods suited to engaging parents, teachers and friends in influencing children’s feelings and behaviour. Rovniak and colleagues’ (2002) study on the social cognitive determinants of physical activity in children and youths using SCT argued that SCT was effective in establishing a prospective structural equation analysis of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectation and self-regulation in relation to. In this study, the SCT structural elements were as follows: reciprocal determinism (interaction with environment, personal factors and behaviour); behavioural capability (knowing what and how to do); observational learning; expectations; self-efficacy and reinforcement were used. Reciprocal determinism informed the choice of research methods used to interact with the environment, such as the use of anonymous questionnaires, for assessing personal factors and behaviours. Additionally, reciprocal determinism and behaviour capability guided the use of Arabic language and complying with Islamic religion and culture in order to reduce conflict and mitigate barriers. These structural components were integrated into the study research design considering that SCT structural methods offered principles and predictors of how to change behaviour (Burke et al., 2012). According to Bandura (2004) SCT fundamentally supports a study targeting behaviour determinants and offers a foundation for how to effect behaviour change.
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Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.
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Family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions: a systematic review and quantitative content analysis

Family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions: a systematic review and quantitative content analysis

This study also revealed gaps in behavioral domains tar- geted, as interventions have not adequately targeted media use and sleep. Moreover, only 16% of interventions tar- geted all four behavioral domains. The emphasis of inter- ventions on diet and physical activity may reflect their relative contribution to obesity risk. However, behavioral risk factors for obesity are interconnected, and thus may be better addressed by considering complimentary and supplementary behaviors [57–59]. While it can be argued that targeted messages may have a greater impact, the re- search gaps identified in this study (e.g. the lack of inter- ventions targeting sleep among older children) highlight areas of needed research in the field. It is worth acknow- ledging how varied intervention length was across studies, with about a third of interventions being less than 3 months long. This is important given the difficulty in making and sustaining lifestyle changes.
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Recommendations for Prevention of Childhood Obesity

Recommendations for Prevention of Childhood Obesity

2. The expert committee recommends the use of the following techniques to aid physicians and allied health care providers who may wish to support obe- sity prevention in clinical, school, and community settings: (a) actively engaging families with parental obesity or maternal diabetes, because these children are at increased risk for developing obesity even if they currently have normal BMI; (b) encouraging an authoritative parenting style (authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive) in support of increased physical activity and reduced sedentary be- havior, providing tangible and motivational support for children; (c) discouraging a restrictive parenting style (restrictive parenting involves heavy monitoring and controlling of a child’s behavior) regarding child eating; (d) encouraging parents to model healthy di- ets and portions sizes, physical activity, and limited television time; and (e) promoting physical activity at school and in child care settings (including after- school programs) by asking children and parents about activity in these settings during routine office visits.
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Harnessing the power of advertising to prevent childhood obesity

Harnessing the power of advertising to prevent childhood obesity

To achieve high levels of community awareness, Hornik and Kelly emphasize the importance of obtaining high levels of exposure for messages [24]. They note that pay- ing for exposure is the only way of guaranteeing sufficient air time but that exposure can also be donated by me- dia companies, for example through CSAs, and earned through editorial media coverage, or ‘making news’. Good for Kids earned editorial exposure through regular com- munication and building strong relationships with local media outlets, creating news through making program an- nouncements, releasing research findings, holding com- munity and media events and offering strong photo opportunities. Good for Kids program messages were also delivered via print media such as through newsletters and special publications distributed throughout the settings where program interventions were conducted (school newsletters, childcare centre websites etc.). The program also linked with parent’s networks and other relevant or- ganisations to deliver program messages. For example, the Good for Kids vegetable campaign won the 2010 national Parents Jury (www.parentsjury.org.au) award for the best marketing campaign to promote healthy eating or physical activity to children. In addition, all program communica- tion included an action point for the audience to visit the program website for further resources and information. The website www.goodforkids.nsw.gov.au played a crucial role as a platform for the many program audiences and stakeholders to interact with the program. The program website was also linked to and from other relevant stake- holder sites to gain further exposure for the program.
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Pink and Dude Chefs: Efficacy of an Online Train-the-Trainer Mechanism and Student Program Outcomes

Pink and Dude Chefs: Efficacy of an Online Train-the-Trainer Mechanism and Student Program Outcomes

Nutrition knowledge alone is not enough to improve dietary behaviors, and should be coupled with building cooking skills (Ternier, 2010). Knowledge about nutrition and food preparation has been positively associated with more healthful dietary behaviors, including meeting food guideline requirements (Story, Neumark-Sztainer, & French, 2002). Decline in food preparation in the home and declining culinary skills are associated with increased reliance on convenience and fast foods (Monsivais, Aggarwal, & Drewnowski, 2014). In a study performed on 1,710 young adults, individuals who reported frequent food preparation at home were less likely to consume frozen or fast food, and more likely to meet dietary requirements for fat (p<0.001), calcium (p<0.001), fruit (p<0.001), vegetables (p<0.001), and whole grains (p=0.003) (Larson et al., 2006). In a study of 3,699 middle school and high school adolescents between the ages 11-18 years, involvement in helping to prepare family meals at least once a week was associated with increased intake of fruits and vegetables, and decreased intakes of fried foods and carbonated beverages (p<0.01 for both) (Larson et al., 2006). A cross-sectional study performed on 1,049 subjects assessed food-related outcomes in learning cooking skills at different ages. Compared to adults and adolescents between the ages of 13-18 years, children ages 12 or younger showed greater improvements in safe food handling, time invested in cooking on weekdays and weekends, interest in eating healthily, less frequent consumption of convenience food, using fresh ingredients for meal preparation, and significantly higher fruit intake per day (p<0.05 for all) (Lavelle et al., 2016).
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Childcare Providers' Perceptions of Their Influence on Obesity in Early Childhood

Childcare Providers' Perceptions of Their Influence on Obesity in Early Childhood

or encouragement, and the fourth group did not receive any instruction or have access to the equipment. At the end of 27 weeks, children who received instruction in motor skills from parents and providers showed significant gains in their motor skill development while the “free play” and control groups lagged behind. With no adult supervision or encouragement, the “free play” group explored the motor skill equipment for a few days and then began to play in small, quiet, largely inactive groups. Javernick concluded, “Children are attracted to classroom activities in which a teacher is enthusiastically participating . . . children who see their teachers engaged in vigorous physical activity are likely to join in” (p. 20). In a study of providers’ preferences for active play equipment, 70% of the equipment requested (climbers, slides, and swings) supported independent active play, with only 28.7% of the equipment requests designated for materials (balls, hoops, balance beams and bean bags) that would indicate a teacher-led preschool gross motor program (Poest, et al., 1989).
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Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective

Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective

For our discussion here, an intervention is a single pub- lic health activity meant to positively affect the health of target groups [12], whether that be aimed towards pre- vention, control, or reduction of negative conditions, or enhancement or maintenance of positive ones. Multiple intervention programs are organized, funded sets of interventions with coordinated, interconnected interven- tion strategies targeting at least two different levels of a system (e.g., individual behaviour change; organizational change; municipal by-law change) even if each level has only one intervention [12]. Such programs are based on socio-ecological models that attest that health is deter- mined by complex interactions between behavioural, bio- logical, cultural, social, environmental, economic, and political factors. Determinants do not work indepen- dently but interact, and may mitigate or compound the effects of other determinants. Effective population health approaches often reflect a socio-ecological framework [1,12,2].
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