References: Djalalinia S, Saeedi Moghaddam S, Sheidaei A, Rezaei N, Naghibi Iravani SS, Modirian M, Zokaei H, Yoosefi M, Gohari K, Kousha A, Abdi Z, Naderimagham S, Soroush AR, Larijani B, Farzadfar F. Patterns of Obesity and Overweight in the Iranian Population: Findings of STEPs 2016. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Feb 26;11:42. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00042. PMID: 32174887; PMCID: PMC7055062. Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².
This study adds to data on the prevalence of excess weight in the German adult population, as available studies were restricted to samples aged < 80 years  (mBMI). Prevalence of excess weight in subjects aged ≥ 80 years is lower compared to younger adults and simi- lar to subjects aged 30-39 years . This comparatively low prevalence may be partly explained by a reduction in energy intake and unintentional weight loss, which is frequent in older adults. This may suggest underlying diseases as well as impending death  (systematic re- view). Yet, in the total sample, prevalence rates of obesity found in our study were considerably lower compared to other European studies, in particular from Spain  (mBMI) and Italy  (mBMI). The Spanish study con- ducted in 2001 reported a high prevalence in individuals aged ≥ 80 (M: 19.4 %; F: 29.2 %). In 1992/1993, prevalence of obesity among Italian men and women aged 80-84 years was 7.7 % and 25.4 %, respectively.
region. 42 Thus, we were particularly interested in understand- ing the impact of disparities on the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We had the unexpected ﬁ nding that the association between SES and adiposity measures is markedly different for children and adults. Children from higher SES strata consis- tently showed increased rates of excess body weight, while among adults SES displayed a strong negative association with excess weight. As part of the so-called nutrition transition in emerging countries, it is frequent to observe a shift in the burden of obesity towards economically disadvantaged seg- ments of society. 14,43 With the progressive westernization of lifestyle and food habits that usually accompanies economic development, the cost of unhealthy, industrialized, calorie- dense foods decreases, physical activity levels drop and chronic diseases become more prevalent among the poor. 44 These factors may explain the inverse association we found between SES or educational level and obesity/abdominal obe- sity in adults. In children, we hypothesize that the nutrition transition has not yet taken place completely, 28 perhaps due to cultural factors that limit the caloric intake of children in lower income families, but promote it in wealthier families (ie increased exposure to publicity for industrialized foods). Another possible explanation involves the increased caloric expenditure of economically disadvantaged children, coupled with the increased energy requirements necessary to sustain growth, 45 in the context of relative food scarcity. Cultural beliefs about what a healthy child should look like may also play a role in the positive association between SES and child- hood obesity.
It was concluded that the researchers studied issue on Body Composition with application of different methods for the assessment of Overweight and obesity. The various methods adopted in the studies were BIA, BMI growth chart, DXA, Hydrostatic Weighing, Skinfold measurements, etc. to assess the various components as BMI, %BF, FM, FFM, WC, HC, LBM, TBW, WHR, WHtR, and so on. These studies were conducted on both gender of different age group, physical fitness levels. The subjects were children, adolescents, adults, students, patients. The physical activity, exercise and training program have been also employed so that effect of these training could be used to see the effect on the selected body composition parameter.
In the present study it was found that among boys, 1.5% was obese and 51% were overweight. A study by Khadilkar VV et al showed a prevalence of obesity and overweight as 8.1% and 25.1% respectively in the age group between 10-15 years among boys. 19 The higher percentage of obese and overweight of the other study could be because it was done in affluent school children. In the present study, obesity and overweight constituted 5.9% and 8.2% among girls. This is comparable to study by Subramanyam et al showed a prevalence of 9.67% of overweight and 6.23% of obesity in school girls aged between 10-15 years in Chennai. 20 In the present study it was found that obesity and overweight was higher in girls as compared to boys. This is in comparison to studies
The present study shows incidence of overweight and obesity in school children at the age 10-11 years and describes the effects and relation between sociodemographic, birth weight, dietary patterns, practice of sports and BMI of school children in Constantine- Algeria. In this study, 27.8% of the children were over weight/obese, 8.3% were lean and 63.9% had normal weight. In 2003, the prevalence of childhood obesity in the Netherlands was12%, which was the lowest in the Europe. 3 In the United States and the United Kingdom, the prevalence has been reported to be nearly double. 8 Furthermore, the study in Nova Scotia showed that 32.9% of children (grade 5 students) were overweight and 9.9% were obese. 9 In Mexico, obesity affects 10.8 and 9% of school-aged boys and girls, respectively. 10 Our results confirm the increased incidence of overweight and obesity in developing countries. A study conducted in Italy reported a prevalence of overweight/obesity to be 31.2% among school students aged 11–19 years 11 , while in Brazil, this prevalence among school children aged 8– 10 years was 7.4% and 17.3%, respectively. 12
One of the national health objectives for 2010 is to reduce the prevalence of obesity among adults to less than 15%. The NHANES 2007–2008 data for adults aged 20 and over suggest an increase in obesity between the late 1980s and today in the United States, with the estimated age-adjusted prevalence moving upward from a previous level of 23% in NHANES III (1988–1994) to approximately 34% in 2007–2008. Among women, however, there was no significant change between 1999–2000 and 2007–2008. Among men, there was a significant linear increase between 1999–2000 and 2007–2008, but no change between 2003–2004 and 2007–2008. Trends in obesity and overweightprevalence since 1988–1994 are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1.
Introduction: Overweight and obesity is major health challenge worldwide. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of over- weight and obesity and assess knowledge on the health risks associated with obesity among female adolescents in the Jordanian capital Amman. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 782 female adolescents was conducted using ran- dom sampling technique. Height and weight were measured and body mass index for age was used to determine overweight and obesity depending on In- ternational Obesity Task Force standers. Obesity risk knowledge-10 scale was used to assess knowledge level among female adolescents. Results: The preva- lence of overweight and obesity among female adolescents were 34.9% and 12.5% respectively. Knowledge about health risk associated with obesity among female adolescents was low. Ninety five percent of participant had low to moderate knowledge about health risk associated with obesity. Conclu- sions: Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Jordanian female adoles- cents was high. Overweight and obesity is a serious public health problem among female adolescents in Jordan.
As urbanization increases the incidence of overweight and obesity also increases. Prominent risk factors like sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating habits, fast food culture and poor physical activity patterns are the hallmark factors of urbanization contributing to increased obesity. We observed a nonlinear trend in the overweight category among different age groups with the highest proportion of participants being overweight in the age group of 28 to 37. Similar trends were observed in the obese category where majority of the study participants (35.3%) were in the age group of 48 to 57. Similar trend was observed in a study conducted in Lebanon. 15 UAE
the different social economic level between the urban areas and rural areas in China. As reported in the previous results, the urban women were more likely to have a high level of education, an occupation, high family income, few family residents and marriage at an older age when compared with rural women. These different urban-rural social economic levels could lead to different urban- rural lifestyle and dietary pattern. As pointed out in the previous studies, the dietary pattern shifted away from high-carbohydrate diets toward high-fat, high energy- density foods as income improved, particularly in the low- and middle-income group [28–30]. This phenomenon was worse in Chinese rural women. As reported from the Chinese National Nutritional Survey in 1982 and in 2002, the daily dietary fat intake increased 33g for Chinese rural women (17g for urban women) during the 20 years, and the increments of daily dietary meat and animal oil were 46 g and 0.9g (42 g and decrement of 0.2g for urban women), respectively . Moreover, the available evidences also suggested that higher income indicated more chance of accessing the healthier diet [16, 32]. However, for Chinese rural population, although the increasing family income allows them to access more food, they spend more money on high-fat and high-energy foods rather than on a healthier diet . That’s why there was a negative association between high family income and overweight/obesity for urban women, but a positive association for rural women. In addition, this urban-rural disparity of overweight/obesity may also be a result of
The last few decades have seen a dramatic rise in the prevalence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. Being overweight or obese as a child poses considerable long-term risks, particularly for cardiovascular health. Historically, obesity was a disease of affluence. Today, both adults and children from lower socio-economic backgrounds tend to be more overweight in high-income settings. In this paper, I present analysis of three research questions using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a cohort of children born in the south west of England in 1991/2. Firstly, I review two previously published papers examining i) the age at which socio- economic inequalities in adiposity emerge and ii) socio-economic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors when the participants were age 10 years. And finally, I present new findings on the tracking of overweight/obesity across childhood and adolescence, and whether this differs across socio-economic groups. The findings show that socio-economic differences in adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors emerge at a much earlier age than in older generations. If children are overweight/obese at age 7, there is a low probability that they will return to a healthy weight by age 15, and this probability is lower in low socio-economic groups. Together, these findings suggest an urgent need to prevent obesity at an early age, particularly amongst disadvantaged groups, in order to prevent wide socio-economic differences in cardiovascular health in later life.
The study was approved by the Ethics Commit- tee of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. After obtaining informed consent from volunteers, they were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire consisting of age, sex, marital status, history of parental obesity, smoking, pari- ty, ethnicity and educational level was filled for each person. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), as well as abdominal and waist circumference were measured in each participant. The inclusion criteria were the age (≥20) and the participant’s belonging to the urban population. Pregnant women and homeless people were ex- cluded.
In this study, a high risk of overweight/obesity among unemployed men was also recognized. Unemployed subjects may have lower opportuni- ties for physical activity and, on the other side, may have irregular eating patterns (54). Unlike other studies, there was no connection between education and obesity in this study (49, 55-58). Among men, nonsmokers were also more likely to be overweight or obese and abdominally obese than the others. The smoking-BMI connection may be due to the effect of smoking on physio- logical processes that cause the changes in appe- tite, food choices, and basal metabolic rates (BMR) (59).
The strength of the present study is that measurements of all anthropometric variables (height, weight, and WC) and ALT were conducted among more than 2000 population-based elementary schoolchildren. However, there are some potential limitations to this study. First, the present study was based on a cross-sectional design. Therefore, a causal relationship between anthropometric measurements and ALT levels was not determined. Sec- ond, the correlation coefficients between anthropometric measurements and ALT levels in the obesity group were based on a relatively small sample size compared with the overweight group and the non-overweight/obesity group, especially among girls. Therefore, the results need to be verified in a larger population. Third, subjects in our study were from one town in Japan. Thus, it might be difficult to generalize these results to other populations. Finally, al- though the relationship between anthropometric variables and ALT levels was analyzed separately for sex because sex was reported to be associated with ALT levels in other studies [22, 23], the possibility of residual confounding ex- ists. For example, information regarding alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which are known risk factors for elevated ALT levels [31, 32], was not obtained in our study. How- ever, the law prohibits minors under 20 years of age from drinking alcohol in Japan . In addition, Tanaka et al. reported that the prevalence of HBV among schoolchil- dren was less than 0.05 %, while that of HCV among
Similar prevalence was reported by Saraswathi et al., among children aged 13-17 yrs in Mysore (8.75%) and by Jalaja Kumari et al , in Guntur. But higher prevalence of about 14% and 22% was seen by Chhatwal J et al , in Punjab and Sharma A et al , in Delhi respectively. This difference in prevalence indicates a strong influence of nutritional habits and lifestyle pattern on overweight and obesity found in children. An increasing trend of prevalence of obesity with the age of children was seen which was similar to studies by S Kumar et al., in Davengere  and by P Mahajan et al., in Puducherry . Higher prevalence of obesity in the pubertal age group might be due to increased adipose tissue and overall bodyweight in children during puberty. No much difference was seen in the prevalence of obesity between girls and boys in the present study. Similar situation was observed by Bharathi D R et al , in 31 middle-schools and high-schools of Wardha city. Most of the studies done in Davengere  and Mysore  have reported higher prevalence of obesity among girls than boys. But prevalence of obesity was higher in boys as compared to girls in Punjab . The difference in results might be due to difference in age group of the study subjects selected for the study and the methodology used for the survey. Children in nuclear families showed higher prevalence of obesity in the present study. A study in Puducherry  revealed that students who belong to family size up to four showed a risk of having overweight/obesity 1.68 times that of students of
The data pertaining with the demographic variables of respondents included age, sex, religion, education, types of family, total number of family members, father's occupation, mother's occupation , parent's monthly income, place of resident, obesity in family, pocket money. Data was analyzed using the descriptive statistics and represented in the form of frequency and percentage.
Information about maternal factors was collected through a self-report questionnaire taken home by chil- dren. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires and return them within a period of two weeks. The information requested included maternal age in years, maternal education level (whether the mother completed primary school, middle school, high school, college or above), maternal smoking (never, one or less cigarette per day, 1–5 cigarettes per day, 6 or more per day) ma- ternal drinking (never, 1–2 drinks per day, ≥3 drinks per day), pre-pregnancy weight in kg, maternal weight before delivery in kg, breastfeeding status (never, less than 4 months, 4–5 months, 6 month and above). Child related factors including birth weight in grams, age, gestational age (preterm/full-term), gender (male/female) were also recorded. Paternal factors including age, education level, smoking, drinking, height and weight were as well col- lected and information about family monthly income was completed by parents by use of the same questionnaire.
chronic diseases. Similar condition was also re- ported in Malacca, Malaysia which showed that the high amount of coconut milk consumption had resulted in young patients having early heart disease, hypertension and kidney disease (4). However, the evidence-based Malaysian food towards long-term chronic diseases still remains unclear. Low fruits and vegetable consumption by the children are another pressing matter. Even among Malaysian adults, the consumption of fruits is still low and the beneficial food is not included in the top ten daily consumed foods (5). Among 34 countries across five WHO Regions that participated in the Global School-based Stu- dent Health Survey (GSHS) (6), only 23.8% of boys and 15.4% of girls aged 13 to 15 yr were classified as physically active which majority of the children did not meet the physical activity recommendations (7). This GSHS study was conducted between year 2003 to 2007 and in- volved a total of 72845 children from American regions (Argentina, Cayman Islands, Chile, Co- lombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Saint Lucia, Saint Vin- cent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela), African regions (Bot- swana, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Namibia, Sene- gal, Seychelles, Uganda, UR Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), Eastern Mediterranean regions (Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, and United Arab Emirates), South-East Asia regions (India, Indonesia and Myanmar) and Western Pacific regions (China and Philippines). It is worrisome as the children will become more sedentary as they get older (8). Un- healthy dietary practices with lack of physical ac- tivity may have been contributed to the children to become at risk of being overweight and obese (9). In addition, obese children tend to become obese adolescents and obese adults at later age. Over- weight and obesity determinants among children are critical issues that need to be investigated in order to prevent undesirable weight-related health conditions in individuals and in the society. Nutrition education has been recognized as a crucial component in any programs and interven- tions related to health promotion and disease prevention (10). Nutrition education delivered to
The current study among Ardabil university girl students showed that according to the WHR, 78 students (39%) have central obesity which from them 24(30.8%) were in age 21 year. According to the BMI, 14 students (7%) have overweight and 3 students (1.5%) had obesity. Hemmati and et al in a study showed that in high school girls in Urmia the rate of underweight, overweight and obesity were 2.9%, 20.5% and 10.9%, respectively which in compare with our study results, the prevalence of underweight was higher than our study but the rate of overweight and obesity in the present study was lower than Urmia study. 7
In this context, within MERCOSUR, Brazil has had a prominent position in fighting excess weight epidemic in the region. Using surveillance actions, with data collected annually from Brazilian Health Ministry by VIGITEL (the Portuguese acronym for Risk and Protective Factors Surveillance for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Inter- views), a methodological and scientific system sampling done annually by phone calls, although not the best way, to be subject to multiple biases, shows a satisfactory estimate of the prevalence in the population to so-called risk factors since the year 2006 . The survey reveals that being overweight affects 52.5% of the adult population in the country, significant growth compared with the 2006 data, when the index was 43%, with an increase of 23% over the last nine years. Excess weight tends to increase with age. Among young people is 38% and among people 45 - 64 years old, 61%. The result also indicated the presence of obesity in 17.9% of the study population, with an increase in prevalence since 2006. However, demonstrating for the past three years, no significant increases.