Climatechange will lead to workers being exposed to more varied and extreme climates. Improvements in health and safety systems across the world will lead to greater protection of workers from hazards. This often involves protective clothing and equipment which in turn leads to greatly increased heatstress. Globalisation will involve a diversity of contexts, climates, cultures and populations. The principles of human response to heat will be similar across the world but specific populations will have specific requirements for the application of standards. Two additional standards that have not been discussed so far will provide additional support. These are ISO 12894 15) which provides methods for screening people to ensure only those fit for the work are exposed, and ISO 28803 16) which provides guidance on the application of standards for people with special requirements (defined as being outside of the scope of existing standards – not fit, young, male and healthy, for example). This is important as there are millions of so called vulnerable people in the world, including some people with disabilities, and these are the people who are mainly at risk in heat waves. Disability discrimination legislation correctly identifies that where reasonably practicable, working environments should be accessible to diverse populations. This is a challenge for futurestandards.
Health and productivity impact assessment of local climatechange on occupationalhealth
With the exposure-response relationships identified with the quantitative studies and local heat exposure estimates, it will be possible to calculate the future impact not only on individuals, but also at population level based on the estimated climatechange at a particular place. Additional input data required are the estimated future age distribu- tion and occupation distribution of the population of interest, and the extent to which they are working outdoors and/or indoors, with or without air condition- ing or other effective cooling technologies. The results are estimates of the current and futurehealth risks, the lost work hours due to reduced work capacity (a ‘trade-off’ between health risk and work productivity), and potential economic impacts as a function of the degree of climatechange at the locality.
Our impact assessment demonstrated the diversity and complexity of climatechangeimpacts on dairy cattle. We es- timated the order of magnitude of potential impacts of heatstress in the European dairy cattle husbandry system. How- ever, the presented impacts were estimated based on a variety of simplifications implying that further quantitative studies on the direct and indirect economic, environmental and eth- ical (i.e., animal welfare aspects) impacts are required. This includes, for example, research on the dependency of am- monia, methane and other pollutant emissions on the ambi- ent conditions (such as air temperature) as well as the build- ing design and management. Moreover, the relation between heat-stress-induced physiological and behavioral changes, health issues, and medical treatments must be investigated in more detail. In addition, scenarios for future adaptation (e.g., breeding, housing, feeding, acclimatization) and future milk yields and milk prices should be further developed and included in forthcoming studies. The same applies to the ac- cumulation of heatstressimpacts with increasing duration of heat load and differentiated by heatstress levels (e.g., mild, moderate, severe) and breed.
Human health is also vulnerable to climatechange and variability, one of the direct effects is human fatality and injuries caused by extreme climatic events; floods and landslides, and indirectly by determining transmission of vector and water born disease, changes in food availability and quality and quantity of water. According to WHO (2010) changes in pattern of temperature and precipitation as a result of climatechange have been claiming 150,000 lives annually for the past 30 years. The report identifies malaria, cholera, Rift Valley fever, typhoid, malnutrition, scabies and jiggers infestations diseases that are likely to be impacted by the changing climate. A malaria risk model based on altitude found that climatechange may increase the number of people at risk especially amongst the rural population by 36% to 89% by 2050 which translates to a direct cost estimated at USD 45 - 99M annually (SEI, 2009). High temperatures cause heatstress, heat stroke and also restrict outdoor activities. A study carried out by Egondi et al. (2012), revealed that high ambient temperatures are the cause of increased mortality affecting the young and the elderly. Unless appropriate adaptation measures are adopted based on future projection, mortality due to high ambient temperature is likely to increase.
Therefore due to these impacts, there is need for adequate institutional capacity strengthening and policy framework to address climatechangeimpacts through mitigation and adaptation strategies within the River Basin management Plan (RBMP) to tackle the possible hydrological vulnerabilities. This is because RBM recognizes the drainage basin as the logical management unit for integrated land and water. Therefore coordinating conservation, management and development of water, land and related resources across sectors within a given river basin is possible with a view of maximizing economic and social benefits derived from water resources in an equitable manner while preserving and, where necessary, restoring freshwater ecosystems (MWE 2013b). The overall goal of this study was to determine the water stress arising from the impacts of climatechange on hydro meteorological ecosystem, identify adaptation measures which can help alleviate water stress using the ArcGIS/SWAT and CPT models.
The HealthImpacts of ClimateChange: A Study of Cholera in Tanzania
Sara L. M. Trærup 1 , 2 * , Ramon Arigoni Ortiz 3 and Anil Markandya 3
Increased temperatures and changes in patterns of rainfall as a result of climatechange are widely recognized to entail serious consequences for human health, including the risk of diarrheal diseases. Indeed, there is strong evidence that temperature and rainfall patterns affect the disease pattern. This paper presents the first study that links the incidence of cholera to environmental and socioeconomic factors and uses that relationship to predict how climatechange will affect the incidence of cholera. Specifically, the paper integrates historical data on temperature and rainfall with the burden of disease from cholera in Tanzania, and uses socioeconomic data to control for impacts of general development on the risk of cholera. Based on these results we estimate the number and costs of additional cholera cases and deaths that can be attributed to climatechange by year 2030 in Tanzania. The analyses are based on primary data collected from the Ministry of Health, Tanzania, and the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. The result shows a significant relationship between cholera cases and temperature and predicts an increase in the initial risk ratio for cholera in Tanzania in the range of 23 to 51 percent for a 1 degree Celsius increase in annual mean temperature. The cost of reactive adaptation to cholera attributed to climatechangeimpacts by year 2030 in Tanzania is projected to be in the range of 0.02 to 0.09 percent of GDP for the lower and upper bounds respectively. Total costs, including loss of lives are estimated in the range of 1.4 to 7.8 percent of GDP by year 2030. Lastly, costs of additional cholera cases and deaths attributed to climatechangeimpacts in Tanzania by the year 2030 largely exceed the costs of preventive measures such as household chlorination.
We have shown that addressing the healthimpacts of climatechange in the Australian desert will involve working with how altered environmental, social and economic conditions interact with existing health conditions. We note that responding to the impacts of climatechange on health in the Australian desert will involve the active participation of a variety of interest groups ranging from local to state and federal governments and a range of public and private agencies, including those not traditionally defined as within the health sector. The modes of engagement required for this process need to be innovative, and will differ among regions on different trajectories. To this end, we have attempted a first classification of these trajectories. This classification may require considerable refinement; however, we emphasise, it suffices to show that some form of sensible disaggregation is required to make progress in this vast and under-resourced heartland of Australia.
7. McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum D, Kovats S, Edwards S, Wilkinson P, Wilson T et al. Global climatechange. In: Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murrgay CJL, editors. Comparative quantification of health risks: global regional burden of diseases due to selected major risk factors. Vol. 2. Chapter 20. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004. pp. 1543–649. 8. Patz JA, Gibbs HK, Foley JA, Rogers JV, Smith KR. Climate
Hoosiers’ furnaces use far more energy per year than their air conditioners or other space-cooling appliances. Because of that, minimum winter temperature is the most important factor influencing residential energy demand. Predicted changes in annual and seasonal temperatures and precipitation are readily available. However, there are other climate factors that also affect energy demand that are not readily available. For instance, higher wind speeds in spring and fall increase heating demands, but projections of these wind speeds are limited. Humidity, storm frequency, and storm intensity also influence residential energy demand, but these variables are not commonly available from futureclimate projections. Excluding changes in humidity (which is expected to increase throughout this century) from future residential demand projections is likely to cause an underestimation of demand for cooling.
The risk of flooding and its adverse healthimpacts are unevenly distributed in several ways. Those living in affordable housing and socio-economically disadvan- taged households are over-represented in areas at risk from coastal flooding . While these households are also exposed to riverine flooding, affluent households are particularly exposed to riverine flooding . Second, people with disabilities, chronic illness, young children or dependent on public transport can be more sensitive to flood risk. There is also evidence of gender differences in health outcomes related to exposure to flooding . Finally, the capacity of some groups to adapt or recover can be lower because of low incomes, lack of insurance or other reasons: uninsured losses to assets cannot be recovered and repeated exposure to flooding can deplete vulnerable households’ assets, ad- versely affect their health and make them more vulner- able in the future [50, 54]. People’ s tenure status and type of dwelling may also influence the outcomes they experience.
bezuinigingen voor de zorg", n.d.). Applying a green roof would mean input of more finances for most of the retirement homes. Additionally only a few municipalities give subsidies for green roofs. Another reason could be that some retirement homes were built in earlier years when green roofs were not known or not deviated from the standard. It is expected however that the implementation of a green roof would have higher health advantages than on most other buildings. Green roofs proved to have a positive effect on the indoor climate, even in very warm weather. If retirement homes would implement green roofs, extreme temperatures in summer would have less effect on the indoor temperature and could thus possibly lower the chance on heatstress among residents. Increased vegetation surrounding a retirement home is difficult to measure. The advantages of placing more vegetation nearby a retirement home are not only aesthetic, but could also affect temperature in summer periods by providing shade and blocking warm winds. It could therefore decrease the risk of heatstress. A disadvantage however could be during heavy storms; trees could fall and form a risk. The last adaptation measure, increased surface water, could be very useful to store excessive rainwater. It however does not seem to be a good measure to prevent heatstress, since it enhances the UHI effect at night and could affect the humidity indoor. One of the retirement homes had constructed surface waters within a range of 5 metres. Even though the surface water could increase the risk of heatstress at night by enhancing the UHI effect, the retirement home did not see heatstress as a current nor a future problem.
improving local ownership as well as more inclusive development partnerships . It was established in 1996 and is a voluntary network of countries, areas and organizations, dedicated to the promotion of public health surveillance and response in the Pacific. The core mem- bers are the 22 Ministries and Departments of Health in the Pacific Island countries and territories, and whose authority or consensus guides its work . The PPHSN is further supported by allied bodies — regional and international agencies, training institutions, laborator- ies, and other partners who can supplement the network with technical expertise, and in-kind and financial sup- port. A Coordinating Body (CB) is drawn from each of these two groups, and consists of seven core and five al- lied body members. The CB membership is rotated in a staggered manner, with membership voted or endorsed by network and CB members. Three members are per- manent (SPC, WHO and the Fiji National University), and one (SPC) has been designated Focal Point. The additional two allied members of the current CB are PIHOA and CDC.
When examining the consequences of current and futureclimatechange, it is important to look at effects on food sources and prey populations as well as those on the predator organism. I believe it is vital to examine any research that has been conducted regarding irregularities in prey populations in the past as well as note any current research. Each sea turtle species has a unique diet and life history, so researching current prey availability is case-specific. Over this past summer, I was able to conduct my own project examining the sponge populations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. I observed major bleaching events, which could have been caused by various factors including temperature increase due to El Niño, increased sedimentation from the Río Térraba, or ocean acidification. As my study in Costa Rica suggests, I believe it is important to monitor current local prey populations for each of the seven sea turtle species in their respective foraging zones, as climatechange, overfishing, and acidification affect each habitat differently.
of preterm birth hazard, the data show that surpassing historical temperature percentiles in each city resulted in an adverse birth outcome of some kind across all studies. The length of exposure varied from a one-day impact to cumulative exposures of consecutive days or days spread over the course of a month. Even with heterogeneity in exposure lengths, heat waves and increased ambient heat load were correlated with the prevalence or risk of adverse birth outcomes. Initial adverse birth outcomes may be triggered at a critical temperature threshold and subsequent cumulative heat exposure brought on by the duration of the event are likely associated with increasing morbidity in susceptible groups. The risk for adverse outcomes at a specific temperature will not be uniform in other climates, as mean temperature and humidity may vary dramatically between climates. The women in these studies were adapted to the temperatures typical of their respective climates, and heat waves represented significant deviations from their climate norms. Heat morbidity thresholds are less extensively studied than mortality thresholds and may vary regionally [ 28 ]. The issue of acclimatization is further exaggerated by the timing of heat exposures, wherein heat waves earlier in the warm season may trigger adverse outcomes more readily than at the end of season after acclimatization has taken place [ 23 ]. Regardless of the relative warmth of the climate, excessive heat exposure resulted in adverse birth outcomes across the majority of studies in this review.
Coastal areas are important assets for Italy, with many economic activities such as tourism, agriculture, industries here localised. Coastal zones are also subjected to significant anthropic pressures, which make them more vulnerable to the impacts of climatechange, in particular, sea level rise (SLR) and an increased incidence of extreme weather events. Loss of valuable land due to SLR is one of the major impacts of climatechange, even though tectonic movements do, to some extent, mitigate the impacts 2 . Together with land, infrastructures and ecosystems may be lost to SLR, or damaged because of increased coastal erosion or extreme weather events. Extremely hot temperatures are likely to displace summer tourism away from coastal areas, and this trend is likely to be exacerbated by increasing shortage of water resources. The sea temperature is expected to increase, leading to northward shift of biodiversity and commercially valuable species (EEA, 2005), or invasion by alien species.
Assessing the pathways through which climatechangeimpacts undernutrition is, without doubt, a complex and daunting chal- lenge but is one that must be addressed. The impact of climate/ weather variability on crop yields has been documented and widely acknowledged, as have the direct impacts of crop yields on childhood undernutrition, especially acute undernutrition. Cur- rent evidence, although limited, does suggest a strong link be- tween weather variables and childhood stunting. However, very few studies based on primary data investigate the proportion of the total number of stunted children that can be attributed to climate/weather variability. Further, few studies attempt to in- vestigate the proportion of morbidity and mortality in children under age 5 y that is directly or indirectly attributable to un- dernutrition at a household level, probably because of the com- plexities of sociodemographic and economic factors and, more importantly, because long-term, reliable data are not available. The main challenge to date remains establishing the causality of an association. Existing methods for analysis may require review- ing. Although both the WHO and the IPCC report malnutrition as the most significant impact of climatechange on health, current evidence in the field is inconsistent, addresses a limited set of variables, and therefore is inadequate.
Climate scenarios were constructed (Osborn et al. 2014) by pattern-scaling output from 21 of the climate models in the CMIP3 set (Meehl et al. 2007a: Supplementary Table 2) to match the changes in global mean temperature projected under the four SRES emissions scenarios A1b, A2, B1 and B2. These global temperature changes were estimated using the MAGICC4.2 simple climate model with parameters appropriate to each climate model (Meehl et al. 2007b: Supplementary Fig. 1a). Pattern-scaling was used rather than simply constructing climate scenarios directly from climate model output partly to better separate out the effects of underlying climatechange and internal climatic variability, and partly to allow scenarios to be constructed for all combinations of climate model and emissions scenario. Rescaled changes in mean monthly climate variables (and year to year variability in monthly precipitation) were applied to the CRU TS3.0 0.5×0.5 o 1961-1990 climatology (Harris et al. 2014) using the delta method to create perturbed 30-year time series representing conditions around 2020, 2050 and 2080 (Osborn et al. 2014). The terrestrial ecosystem and soil carbon impact models require transient climate scenarios, and these were produced by repeating the CRU 1961-1990 time series and rescaling to construct time series from 1991 to 2100 using gradually increasing global mean temperatures (Osborn et al. 2014). Pattern-scaling makes assumptions about the relation- ship between rate of forcing and the spatial pattern of change, which have been demonstrated to be broadly appropriate for the averaged climate indicators used here (e.g. Tebaldi and Arblaster 2014), but which do constitute caveats to the quantitative interpretation of results.
Climatechange is the burning issue of the current world because it is considered to be one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts expected on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, natural resources and physical infrastructure. The Ethiopians, who live in the high lands, are engaged in mass actively in the combat against climatechange. This fight against climatechange is indicated by the people’s involvement in soil and water conservation practices, which helps to maintain the existing climate as well as to accommodate favorable climate to the country, intending on minimizing the negative impacts of it. The objective of the present study was to examine the social, economic and environmental impacts of climatechange based on their degree of existence and trends the impacts, to identify the adaptation strategies and mitigation measures and to find out the challenges to the adoption of those coping mechanisms of the pastoralists. To achieve these objectives descriptive survey method was employed and data was collected from 175 respondents using questionnaire and interviews. The identification and examination of the social, economic and environmental impacts of climatechange is indicating that as they have likely occurrence, highly affecting the social, economic and environmental conditions of the pastoralists, besides the increasing trend of these impacts on the livelihood of the pastoralists. However, the pastoralists are unlikely practising the coping mechanisms due to their social, economic and political challenges.
B.2 Alternative Specifications with Daily Data
Figure B.3 considers additional specifications for the Texas WC results. For comparison, graph A of Figure B.3 displays the original estimates with three-day claim rates as the dependent variable. The regression underlying graph A controls for day fixed effects, year-month-MSA fixed effects, precipitation indicator variables, and high temperature and precipitation indicator variables for each of the previous two days and subsequent two days. The year-month-MSA fixed effects in this main specification allow each MSA to have a different baseline claim rate in each year and month combination and thus account for MSA-specific shocks that are correlated with temperature. These shocks could arise from chance, which in principle should not hinder the empirical strategy even absent the year-month-MSA fixed effects, or from temperature affecting economic conditions, which could lead to more or less work being done in hot or cold months. Two potential concerns arise with the inclusion of these controls. First, one may be interested in temperature’s effects on health through its effect on economic conditions. That is, a heat wave or cold wave reducing agricultural yields and therefore lowering injuries for an entire season because fewer workers are needed is an indirect effect of extreme temperatures on occupationalhealth that may be important to document. Second, the year-month-MSA fixed effects may absorb the effect of multiple hot or cold days occurring together in a particular month, which could be problematic if multiple days of extreme temperatures have interactive effects.