For this reason, some experts and scholars are deeply concerned and put forward countermeasures in their essays. The Teaching Syllabus for English Majors revised in 2000 regulates that “English majors should have some knowledge of Chineseculture; lay a strong foundation of Chinese language…know Chinese cultural tradition well…have strong communicative abilities in Chinese both orally and in written form.” What’s more, as is stated in the College English Curriculum Requirement, 1 college English is not only a language course that provide basic knowledge about English, but also a capacity enhancement course that helps students to broaden their horizons and learn about different cultures in the world. It not only serves as a tool, but also has humanistic values. When designing college English courses, therefore, it is necessary to take into full consideration the development of students’ cultural capacity and the teaching of knowledge about different cultures in the world. The detailed rules by the Examinations Board of CET-4 and CET-6 (2013) make adjustments that college students should develop the ability of introducing and translating materials related to Chineseculture into English.
consulted from January to September 2009 in order to ascertain the number of U.S. CIs. These sources included: Hanban’s website for a partial list of CIs, Wikipedia (the entry named “Confucius Institute”) for a partial list of CIs, Google search for news reports about U.S. CIs using Chinese and English key words such as “US Confucius Institute” and “美国孔子学院” (“U.S. Confucius Institute”), and the online journal Confucius Institutes maintained by Hanban. As a result, 55 U.S. CIs were identified by September 2009. Contact information was found for 53 CIs online, and the survey questionnaire was sent to these CIs’ directors or coordinators via e-mails. During September and October of 2009, two rounds of e-mail reminders were sent out in one-week intervals to encourage participation. Twen- ty-four CIs completed the questionnaire. Another two CIs indicated that they had nothing to report be- cause their programs had just started.
“Positive mental health education” is a concept put forward by Meng Wanjin in 2007, a professor of the Chinese academy of science education. The idea that absorbed the nutrition of positive psychology from the west emphasizes “Chinese outstanding traditional culture, focusing on the harmonious society, the happiness of people and high moral values establishment”, “advocating a positive attitude towards everything, treating all kinds of phenomena with a positive attitude, cultivating a positive attitude with positive life experience, acquiring positive emotional experience through positive ways, strengthening positive effects by using positive feedbacks, facing life with positive attitude even in misfortune, and never giving up in pursuing happiness. Positive psychological are the basis of a happy life, so we should keep optimistic mind .” As for the implementation of positive mental health education, Professor Meng has put forward six methods, one of which is “infiltration of the related subjects”. And “infiltration of the related subjects” contains three meanings: substantive infiltration, formal infiltration and content infiltration. Among them, “content infiltration refers to using the positive factors as much as possible when teaching students basic knowledge and skills, which will produce a positive effect on mental health education .”
Classifiers and measure words - Classifiers are commonly referred to as ‘measure words’, which provide measuring units for noun entities. However, a distinction between these two sets of words should be made. Tai and Wang (1990) defined classifiers as those that categorize “a class of nouns by picking out some salient perceptual properties, either physically or functionally based, which are permanently associated with the entities named by the class of nouns” (p.38) and measure words as those that do “not categorize but denote the quantity of the entity named by a noun” (p.38). This distinction in question has a cognitive basis, and it has been tested on syntactic grounds in Chinese grammar (Tai, 1994). First, while a classifier can be replaced by the general classifier ge without changing the meaning of the expression, a measure word cannot. Thus, the classifier zhang in yi zhang zhuozi ‘one table’ can be replaced by ge, especially in spoken Mandarin Chinese. In contrast, bang in yi bang rou ‘one pound of meat’ and qun in yi qun ren ‘a crowd of people’ cannot be substituted by ge without changing the meaning of the expressions. Second, the modifier marker de can be inserted between a measure word and its head noun but not between a classifier and its head noun (see also Cheng & Sybesma, 1998). Thus, while the expressions yi bang de rou ‘one pound of meat’ and yi qun de ren ‘a crowd of people’ are grammatical, the expression yi zhang de zhuozi is not. Besides, Allan’s (1977) early work on classifiers also proposed a similar definition in which “a classifier denotes some salient perceived or imputed characteristics of the entity to which an associated noun refers” (p. 285). In other words, a classifier is used to categorize some characteristics of the entities designated by the nouns and also play the function of categorizing nouns into classes, whereas a measure word is used to measure the quantity of an object or a collection of objects.
English, as a lingua franca, teaching in an additive context in China generally won’t cause serious identity confusion in most cases as some may have worried. However, it's still necessary to cultivate students with traditional Chineseculture in college English class in the process of global culture hybridisation. This is decided by the nature of language teaching and learning as home culture is an indispensable part of one’s ICC. It is also the requirement of the new era in the context of Outreaching Strategy. What’s more, it helps to keep our cultural confidence in intercultural communication. Although there are some opponents who prioritize the linguistic and instrumental value of English, the importance of intercultural language teaching and learning has been recognized by most scholars and policy makers. Nevertheless, in practice, college English teaching is still mostly focusing on linguistic skills and various problems exist in integrating home culture in college English curriculum. All of these prevent the effectiveness of improving students’ ICC, but the difficulties are not invincible. By given the opportunity to compare their home culture with that of the others, students may greatly develop their intercultural awareness and ICC. And that is one of the most important objectives of college Englisheducation.
With the increasing frequency of communication between so many countries around the world, the culture of a country can be exported during cross-cultural communication (Warren, 2017). It can also continuously improve the scope and influence of culture through cross-cultural communication. In general, cross-cultural communication skills include many aspects related to both the culture and language (Na, 2011). Although in the development of Englisheducation in China, EFL teachers recognize the importance of developing cross-cultural communicative competence (Ren, 2019). However, due to the traditional teaching thinking, EFL teachers only care about the cultivation of the language competence of second language learners, but they have weakened the learning of culture (Song, &Lin, 2018). As a result, many English learners in China do not know quite enough about the cultural connotation of their first language, nor can they learn the language in depth. Influenced by the traditional thinking of EFL teachers (Sun & James & Hu & Ng, 2017), the English teaching goals and assessment standards of many Chinese schools do not involve cross-cultural communicative competence. The cultivation and
Chinese excellent traditional cultureeducation course as a generaleducation course contributes to training personality traits of skilled students, expanding their scope of knowledge, enhancing their sense of social responsibility and sense of mission and continuously enriching them with the culture content which adapts the era. Such generaleducation with rich connotation is not just a kind of course setting, but also an educational thought. Meanwhile, it is also a kind of educational view, educational concept and educational state. The thought of Confucian school which is close to generaleducation mainly includes two aspects. On the one hand, in terms of cultivation direction, gentlemen, “sages” or “scholars” own complete personality—the unity of knowledge and practice, connection of learning and thinking, wisdom, benevolence and braveness; on the other hand, in terms of educational content, “erudition” is required, and extensiveness and connection are valued (Zhang, 2006). For modern vocational and technical education, it should give students all-round education and training, and educational contents contain professional education and non-professional education, with the purpose of cultivating human freedom, harmony and integrated development. Li Manli applied “ideal type” method to preliminarily construct the concept of generaleducation from three perspectives: nature, purpose and content. With regard to the nature, generaleducation is a constituent part of higher education and it is also non-professional education that all college students should receive. About the purpose, generaleducation aims to cultivate social people and national citizens with comprehensive development who takes active part in social life and own the sense of social responsibility. As for the content, generaleducation is an extensive, non-professional and non-utilitarian education of elementary knowledge, skill and attitude (Cai, 2004). Chinese excellent traditional education course as generaleducation can teach skilled students how to think, learn and analyze problems in a comprehensive manner, promote their wisdom and loyalty, and contributes to improving happiness index.
consists of three parts: the first is level 1 to 4 including 4,200 words; the second is level 5 to 6 with another 1,300 words and the third is level after 6 with another 1,000 words, so the total is about 6,500. The establishment of Chinese College English Syllabus Word List was based on the 6,000-word-frequency word list from the corpus of JiaoDa English for Science and Technology, Collins, Longman and Oxford dictionaries (Editors of Chinese College English Syllabus Word List, 1999). As the guideline of Chinese college English vocabulary teaching, Chinese College English Syllabus Word List is of importance in the aspects of college English teaching, college English tests and textbook compilation. College English teaching, however, was innovated since the issue of the Requirements of College English Teaching by Chinese Ministry of Education in 2007. Chinese college English teaching is more and more centering on the learners’ needs and changing from teaching English for general purposes to for academic purposes. In this case, it is significant to investigate whether Chinese College English Syllabus Word List can still meet the requirements of academic learning of the college students or not.
As it has been mentioned, language learning is not confined to learning of the four skills only , vocabulary and grammar and the linguistic code of the language but the culture and context in which it will be used. For instance, if one goes to teach the Chinese learners, one has to be aware of Chineseculture or else they will be misunderstood. If some one comes to teach at Hyderabad, they need to be acquainted with the local culture. In Hyderabad, it is generally, asked as a gesture of greetings whether one has had one‟s food. The same is not the case in the North of India. If one asks “ Have you had your food? The other person might feel offended. He might think why he has been asked about his food habits. Once an Indian student invited by a family in the U.K. to have dinner. It was a special occasion. Good food was offered. While having food, the student was offered to have some more. The student had the habit of saying „no‟ as a matter of politeness. So he said, “No, thank you” expecting that they would ask him again. They offered him different dishes but every time he said „No, Thank You.” In the U.K. they go by what you say and don‟t ask you again and again. So he was not given any food for the second time. As a result he was half- fed and came back hungry. To explain the cultural variation it is said in Odia, “ Eka deshara boli ,anya deshara gali” meaning “One nation‟s language could be the another‟s taboo!” The above mentioned incident happened to the student on a social occasion. This kind of problem can also occur in our classroom. A teacher may come across certain objects or practices of culture, about which they may not be aware of. They need to be aware of some of these as they have to interact with others in the teaching learning process. Certain texts though written in English, might have such cultural elements. A teacher has to be aware of them. Hence there been stress on cultural aspects in language teaching these days.
that students lack practical ability. If students learn English simply to find a job and earn a graduation credit, their enthusiasm to learn English will be greatly reduced. And they will be bored to learn English, which leads to the reduction of English practical ability. Second, Cultivate students' sentiments and improve their cultural literacy. Generaleducation is designed to enable students to acquire a high degree of understanding, tolerance and the pursuit of an elegant life through learning. Therefore, the study of English should incorporate the customs of western culture and the relevant contents of cultural differences at home and abroad to enhance students' cultural accomplishment. Third, Enhance English interdisciplinary knowledge learning. The goal of generaleducation is to achieve the all-round development. In actual English communication, it needs not only English professional knowledge but also the knowledge in other fields. This requires that diversified subject knowledge must be integrated into the English curriculum so as to broaden students' knowledge.
Opened in August 2012, this school is the first 100% dedicated Mandarin language immersion school in this state. It is a two-way immersion or dual language immersion—strong additive bilingual education program, with bilingualism and biliteracy as the goal of the school. It initially served grades PK-2, and has gone up to a grade level each year in the past three years. It is currently serving students from PK through 5th-grade, and working to develop a middle school immersion curriculum in the coming years. With the approval of a multi-million funding for a new building and campus, its ultimate goal is expanding to serve PK through the 8th grade. As stated on the school website, its vision is “to immerse students in a culture-rich environment that allows them to become balanced bi- cultural and bi-literate citizens for the global economy.”
The course is designed to spread some general knowledge of Chinese traditional culture by means of knowledge input as well as speech output. Undergraduates at any level can take the course only if they hold interest in Chineseculture spreading and have desire to enhance their English spoken ability. In the 16 weeks, 2 teaching hours per week, the students may globally learn parts of Chinese traditional culture, ranging from Chinese festivals, Confucianism, the great four inventions, calligraphy art, traditional Chinese medicine to operas, tea culture, Chinese food, Chinese Kung Fu, dragon culture, etc.. In each teaching period, lexical chunks like idioms, phrases, fixed expressions, sentence patterns, and lexical items would be summarized, laid out and then emphasized. Students are expected to use them to make a dialogue or presentation based on a Chineseculture topic.
Language is the most important tool of human communication, and it is a variety of expressions for people to communicate. Language is one of the important characteristics of the nation, which preserves and transmits the achievements of human civilization. In general, every nation has its own language. Language is a medium for people to exchange ideas. It affects politics, economy, society, science, technology, and culture itself. Language as a cultural phenomenon is constantly developing.
Since the turn of the 20 th century, especially after the May Fourth Movement in 1919, the pace of direct learning from the West increased rapidly. In the early 20 th century the influence of the West had penetrated into every aspect of Chineseculture including visual arts education, visual arts and generaleducation. At the same time, the flow of such an enormous amount of Western ideas worried many Chinese intellectuals who found it a threat to Chinese cultural traditions. As well, there were concerns also about the blind adoption of Western ideas or the quality of the Chinese studies of Western knowledge. In today‟s sense, all these concerns are equivalent to the notions of Globalization and Glocality.
The character 襁 qiang is recorded in the following ancient literatures. Lunyu·Zilu 论语·子路 wrote: “Now, when these things obtain, people from all quarters will come to him, bearing their children on their backs what need has he of a knowledge of husbandry 夫如是，则四方之民，襁负其子而至矣，焉用稼?” (Confucius, 2011: p. 214). Mozi·minggui xia 墨子·明鬼下 recorded: “Bao is still small and in his swaddle-clothes 鲍幼弱， 在荷襁之中.” (Mohists, 2015: p. 247). In the mean time, the character 襁 qiang is recorded in the radical 衤 section of book Shuowen, explained as a band to carry the infant, pronunciation given as the onset of 衣 with final of 强 qiang 襁，负儿衣，从衣强声 (Xu, 1963: p. 170). This has proved that 襁 qiang is a pho- non-semantic compounds character (xingsheng 形声字), hence is a kind of cloth. Li Shan’s 李善 (630 AD-689AD) annotation about Wenxuan·bowu zhi 文选·博物志 has explained 襁: “a weaved cloth with a width about 2.4 metres (There are two measurements in Tang Dynasty. Here we prefer dachi 大尺 instead of xiaochi 小尺, 1 cun = 0.29 metres (Wu, 1992)) of a length of about 3.9 metres, used to bind the infant on the back. 襁，织缕为之，广八寸，长丈二，以约小儿于背上.” (Xiao, 1986: p. 1372). From which we can draw a conclusion that 襁 qiang is a special nursing cloth to bind and carry infant on the back. In addition, in Chineseculture red symbolizes joy, as a result, a red band (襁 qiang) is usually used to wrap the infant, as in Figure 1.
Chinese tea has long been famous on the international stage, and Europe is the main export market. Chinese tea is connected with Chineseculture of a quiet and healthy way of life. But due to information blockade, industry standards, export policies and other factors, Chinese tea has always been difficult to have a big break- through in the field of export. Prices have been in a weak position. The cross-border e-commerce can change the current situation of Chinese tea export .
Because long-term exposure to Western music affects the perception of melodies (e.g., Lynch & Eilers, 1992; Lynch et al., 1990, 1991; Trainor & Trehub, 1992; Trehub et al., 1999), we expected that the influence of tone redundancy on adults’ performance would vary as a function of the convention- ality of the stimulus context. Although standard melodies with greater redun- dancy were expected to facilitate the detection of subtle changes, overlearning of Western musical structures might reduce the relevance of redundancy in uncon- ventional contexts. As active participants in their musical culture, preschool children are also likely to be sensitive to the frequency of commonly occurring musical structures, unlike 9-month-olds (Experiment 1). Nonetheless, despite 5- and 6-year-old children’s implicit knowledge of some musical features (Cuddy & Badertscher, 1987; Trainor & Trehub, 1994), their knowledge of Western mu- sical structures remains limited (Krumhansl & Keil, 1982; Trainor & Trehub, 1994). We considered it unlikely, then, that the unconventional stimulus contexts of the present experiment would attenuate the effects of redundancy as much for children as they would for adults.
limitation of this project is that only 10 teachers were interviewed and observed during the data collection process. The limited number of participants does not represent a large body of generaleducation teachers. This PD is meant to be given to a particular group of teachers; therefore, the results of this doctoral project study cannot be applied at a larger scale because the results may be different. Additionally, school leaders who may provide this PD may not be knowledgeable in ESL pedagogy; therefore, they might need to hire an outsider who is knowledgeable in ESL pedagogy to effectively conduct this PD. With the budget cuts, many school leaders may not have the funds to pay an outside specialist to provide a meaningful and effective PD. This PD was created with the purpose to be implemented at the beginning of the school year and teachers may see this as an extra item added to the beginning of the year’s agenda. The school district expects teachers to complete 40 hours of PD and adding this PD can create conflicts with district’s PD schedule. Teachers may not be willing to buy-in to this PD because they may feel that this is extra work they have to do. If teachers are not willing to learn, this PD may not be as effective as it should be.
Ten major delusions in understanding challenges of teaching the “Physical Culture” generaleducation school subject in the system of the general secondary education in Russia have already been presented. Widely their dis- similated, as among both practitioners, well as researchers, scientists and scholars, having concerned with the school physical culture challenges, has a very negative impact on the performance by this school subject of their educa- tional functions and its effectiveness. These are the delusions on the issues: the inclusion of the main motive of the “Physical Culture” school subject in the number of the basic generaleducation disciplines and its main purpose in the general system of the generaleducation; on the values of volume and the intensity of physical activity in the classroom; on the place and the role of physical culture school subject at the lesson in the general system of the forms of the schoolchildren physical education in schools; on the role and the methods of teaching the theoretical section of the program; on the priority directions of the content of the training sessions in schools; on the essence comprehen- sion of the educational orientation of the physical culture lessens; on the place and the role of the special knowledge of sports in its content and the methodological foundations of their teaching, the ratio of the motive and cognitive components in its content; on the major reason of the low efficiency of the schoolchildren physical education; on the role of the independent and self – studies of the physical exercises; on the main factor, having conditioned the leading role of the physical culture lesson in the system of the physical education forms; on the strategy and tactics of the challenges solving recreational and health – improving nature. The presented above delusions are completely discredited the existing system of the generaleducation in the field of the physical culture. Moreover, they are led to the conclusion, that the full of value generaleducation on this school subject, as in Russia, well as in the most other countries of Europe and the World is virtually absent.