4 Ontologies in TraditionalChineseMedicineTraditionalChineseMedicine is a complete and complex system of medicine and its effectiveness is supported by thousands of scientific studies (Zhou et al., 2004). Along with the development of information technology and growth of Internet, large number of medical databases have emerged. The large amount of ambiguous and polysemous terminologies causes problems for those who wish to search and use the information in the different databases. Semantic Web technologies, which are based on ontologies, can be utilized to address the challenges of TCM knowledge management and to integrate heterogeneous relational databases from both TCM and Western Medicine (Yu, 2008). ‘Ontology’ is the term used to refer to the shared understanding of some domain of interest, and it can be used as a unifying framework to solve the problems caused by ambiguous terms (Uschold, 1996). A simplified model of ontology functions and dimensions are visualized in Figure 3. An ontology is a formal representation of
For the future development of TCM, raw materials must be produced in a sustainable way. Cultivation under good agricultural practice (GAP) should be the goal [78,79]. The scientific principles of daodi should be also considered – Daodi medicinal materials are those produced and assem- bled in specific geographic regions with designated natural conditions and ecological environment, with particular attention to cultivation technique, harvesting and process- ing, and thus regarded as superior in quality and effects as compared to materials of the same species obtained from other regions . The identity and pharmaceutical quality of herbal medicinal products must be controlled in Europe and China according to the pharmacopoeia standards . Due to the complex chemical composition of TCM drugs and many sources of variations that could lead to batch- to-batch inconsistency, classical quality control measures such as those applied to purified chemical drugs are often not suited to ensure quality of TCM materials and products. Sometimes DNA based methods may be needed for unambiguous authentication , but do not yield any information on the qualitative and quantitative chemical profiles. In order to focus not only on single quality marker compounds, more holistic concepts need to be developed such as metabolic fingerprinting [83,84]. Incorporating state-of-the-art analytical methodologies, including liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS), for chemical characterisation and chemical fingerprinting, differential cellular gene expression for bioresponse fingerprinting and animal pharmacology for in-vivo valid- ation, PhytomicsQC, a proprietary comprehensive platform for quality control of botanical drugs was developed to ensure batch-to-batch consistency of a standardised TCM formula PHY906 W . The FP7 GP-TCM Consortium have recognised authentication and quality control of re- search materials used in clinical, animal and in-vitro studies as an area that needs urgent improvement and have developed a checklist and good practice guidelines [67,86]. Funding bodies, journals, academia and commer- cial suppliers must collaborate closely to address this fun- damental issue. Post-harvest treatment and processing (paozhi) are common features in Chinese herbal medicine. In order to provide plant material of consistent quality, these processes need to be scientifically investigated and standard operating procedures and specific endpoints need to be defined and implemented .
The research on the evaluation method of the curative effect of traditionalChinesemedicine is an urgent problem related to the better understanding and acceptance of traditionalChinesemedicine by people inside and outside the industry and at home and abroad . At present, new pneumonia is rampant all over the world. Patients can suffer respiratory failure or even death within a very short period of time after infection, which makes people afraid of the word virus. With the continuous changes of pathogen spectrum and the transformation of medical mode, the curative effect of traditionalChinesemedicine comprehensive therapy on new pneumonia is gradually widely recognized. The new pneumonia corresponds to the “pneumonia asthma cough” of traditionalChinesemedicine and belongs to the category of acute febrile diseases of traditionalChinesemedicine . Syndrome differentiation and treatment is the greatest feature and advantage of traditionalChinesemedicine, and is the main means to grasp the main causes and pathogenesis of diseases in various stages. The clinical manifestations of viral pneumonia mainly include headache, fever, dry cough, systemic ache and lung infiltration. Viral pneumonia is not only related to the virulence of the virus and the route of infection, but also closely related to the patient's age and immune function . Clinical treatment data show that traditionalChinesemedicine is effective in treating this disease. Through clinical and experimental research on new pneumonia, it is hoped that a characteristic treatment method with traditionalChinesemedicine can be explored.
Wallnöfer’s text goes into the fundamentals of Chinesemedicine, detailing Ying and Yang, their properties, and their role in the body. There are diagrams of the organs, and information on their role in the body according to Chinesemedicine. The 5 elements are also discussed. This is a good source for diagnosis using pulse, which is one of several methods of diagnosis. There is also a long list of medicinal herbs, and information on preparing prescriptions and treatments. The book also gives a chapter to the development of Chinesemedicine. I believe that some parts of this book draw from very old Chinesemedicine, and thus is outdated by relatively more modern, however still applicable to my paper.
The acupoint application of TCM takes advantage of the direct and indirect effects of drugs to produce certain acupoint stimulations. Subsequently, specific active ingredients pass through the skin to reach deep into the acupoints where they are transported via meridians to either treat the origins or circulate in the body. As such, these ingredients regulate meridians and organs to generate pharmacological effects and systemic outcomes, thereby achieving the therapeutic goal of strengthening the vital qi to eliminate pathogenic factors, reinforce deficiencies, and reduce excessiveness. Chinesemedicine patching or magnetic patching can facilitate this approach. The former treatment uses an herbal application to treat vomiting. The latter involves the adoption of magnetic discs in which a magnetic field produces a lasting positive stimulation to a specific acupoint. The magnetic approach can yield similar curative effects to those of needling but avoids the pain and labor-intensiveness of acupuncture. In other words, it has satisfactory efficacy, a low cost, and is easy to administer; thus, it is a classical model of treating internal diseases with external methods.
Bibliometrics refers to the quantitative analysis of all knowledge carriers by mathematical and statistical methods. VOS viewer is a free bibliometric analysis software developed by Nees Jan van Eck and Ludo Waltman of Leiden University in the Netherlands to construct and view bibliometric maps, which can draw scientific maps of various fields. It has been applied to the analysis of document information in many natural sciences. Compared with other Bibliometrics software, VOS viewer pays special attention to the graphical representation of bibliometrics map .
Y.Y. Cai is multi-disciplinarily educated with a BSc, in Mathematics, a MSc, in Computing and a PhD in Engineering. He has about 15 years experience of research and development in Life Science and Information Technology. His career spectrum covers from software engineer to biomedical R&D specialist to university professor. Currently, he is a lecturer with the Informatics Group in the School of Mechanical and Production Engineering at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. He has been teaching various subjects in Computational Biology, Computer Graphics, Visualization and Virtual Reality, and Computer-aided Design at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He is program director of the Strategic Research Program for Virtual Reality and Soft Computing, and deputy director of NTU’s Centre for Advanced Numerical Engineering Simulations. He has been collaborating with Singapore’s National Medical Research Council in developing medical informatics system. He has published about 70 technical papers in several peer-reviewed international journals and conferences. He is member of ISCB (International Society for Computational Biology) and ACM (SIGGRAPH).
In recent years, Europe, the US, Japan, South Korea and many other developed countries and regions have adopted modern research methods and techniques to increase the development of traditional botanical drugs, the screening and confirmation of active ingredients, the establishment of international advanced quality stand- ards and the development of new formulations . Most domestic Chinese enterprises and research insti- tutes make relatively less investment in the R&D of TCM. Insufficient R&D investment leads to a lack of competi- tiveness of the enterprise products. Chemical drugs and biological products enjoy obvious competitive advan- tages, seriously affecting the growth rate of the market share of TCM. TCM products feature more impurity or low purity and a lack of innovation in dosage forms; tra- ditional dosage forms still hold a dominant position. The development and application of quick-acting, long-term, efficient and convenient emergency dosage forms and other new dosage forms are still in the beginning stage. The production and application of new pharmaceutical excipients are insufficient and have a large gap with the mainstream trend of international drugs, directly affect- ing the competitiveness of TCM in the international mar- ket .
Quality control and standardisation of Chinese herbal medicine
For the future development of TCM, raw materials must be produced in a sustainable way. Cultivation under good agricultural practice (GAP) should be the goal [78,79]. The scientific principles of daodi should be also considered – Daodi medicinal materials are those produced and assem- bled in specific geographic regions with designated natural conditions and ecological environment, with particular attention to cultivation technique, harvesting and process- ing, and thus regarded as superior in quality and effects as compared to materials of the same species obtained from other regions . The identity and pharmaceutical quality of herbal medicinal products must be controlled in Europe and China according to the pharmacopoeia standards . Due to the complex chemical composition of TCM drugs and many sources of variations that could lead to batch- to-batch inconsistency, classical quality control measures such as those applied to purified chemical drugs are often not suited to ensure quality of TCM materials and products. Sometimes DNA based methods may be needed for unambiguous authentication , but do not yield any information on the qualitative and quantitative chemical profiles. In order to focus not only on single quality marker compounds, more holistic concepts need to be developed such as metabolic fingerprinting [83,84]. Incorporating state-of-the-art analytical methodologies, including liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS), for chemical characterisation and chemical fingerprinting, differential cellular gene expression for bioresponse fingerprinting and animal pharmacology for in-vivo valid- ation, PhytomicsQC, a proprietary comprehensive platform for quality control of botanical drugs was developed to ensure batch-to-batch consistency of a standardised TCM
Figure 2. Appreciative inquiry 4-D process for SabahTCM
Discovery phase in this project was the planning on the project. Data collection and verification were done in this phase. The analysis of existing software was also done to complement the database. Qualitative approach is primarily exploratory research which is used to uncover the trends in thoughts and opinions which dive deeper into the problems . Meanwhile the quantitative approach adopts experimental and computational method. Here, the data of TCM were collected from multiple sources. The sources of the data were the online reference, articles in the magazine, and the printed version of manual books that are published by various organizations. After collecting the data, all the data were referred to the expert, either the Herbalist, TraditionalChinese Pharmacist, TraditionalChinese Physician, or those who have experiences and skills in using the TCM. The way to validate the data was through questionnaires and interviews. For the dream phase, the flows of the system were the outcome. The storyboard and all the diagrams were done here. For the design phase in this project, the user interface showed the results, the data was integrated into the database, while multiple version of languages was added into the system. In addition, a forum was developed. For the destiny phase in this project, the evaluation was taken. The methodology of the evaluation was using the meCUE questionnaire which was to evaluate the key aspects of the user’s experience.
DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2019.82004 43 Chinese Studies tion given in the inspection from the perspective of phenomenology philosophy and the aspect of the structure of consciousness rather than study the behavior of consciousness from the material level of the natural science. Phenomenology, a popular philosophical trend of thought in the West in the 20th century, which was founded by Husserl, the German philosopher, is a strict philosophical me- thod based on direct intuition and essential understanding (Ni, 2000). Phenom- enology founded by Husserl, as a philosophical method based on intuition and essential knowledge, adheres to the motto of “returning to things themselves”, which guides us back to the objective object of intention. This article aims to discuss a CMP’s course of thinking and consciousness during the inspection us- ing some methods and conclusions of “phenomenology of occurrence” in the late stage of his academic career.
6. The grade for a independed study course is Pass or Fail. When Independent Study is allowed, the student is required to make arrangements through the administration with the instructor of the course. The subject material and evaluation methods must meet those set forth in the established Course Outline, including examinations, projects and/or term pa- pers. Periodic meetings between the student and instructor are required, and the actual contact hours shall not be less than one-third of the total didactic hours normally required for the course. The student must document the amount of time spent on each educational activity, including meeting time with the teacher, and the total hours must be at least three times the amount of hours awarded for the class. (E.g., one credit requires forty-five hours of instructional activity.) Students in need of Independent Study can set up a meeting with the Academic Dean to obtain the application form.
Food is similar to medicinal products in that they are classified in terms of their effects on the body. Qualities for determining the therapeutic effect are: taste, smell, temperature effect, colour and consistency of the food. These characteristics stimulate and nourish the internal organs. Furthermore, the preparation has an influence on the healing effect: for example, a steamed vegetable has a lesser warming effect on the body as one baked in the oven. A special feature is that the taste of the food has a direct, strengthening effect on associated organs: acid stimulates the liver, bitter the heart, sweet the spleen and pancreas, sharp the lungs, salt the kidneys, etc. And since the energetic classification of food fits into the diagnostic and therapeutic system of Chinesemedicine, dietetics can be effectively combined with other therapeutic methods such as acupuncture and medicinal therapy.
many in the MSM profession resist any CAM adulteration. Furthermore, other mechanisms, such as regulation and malpractice litigation, can assist CAM groups in developing their professional identities by requiring a theoretical consistency across their healthcare practices. The definitions of CAM in licensing law should not only help patients to identify the treatment methods of CAM practitioners, but also ensure that the CAM services and MSM modalities provided are theoretically consistent. In order for doctors to offer more services in a competitive health care market, expanded scopes of practice and competitive forces can provide strong incentives for MSM physicians and CAM providers alike to explain the operational processes of CAM therapies in the human body.
Furthermore, clinical trials are the most common clinical research practice in western healthcare industry. It helps improve the diagnosis, treatment and management of people with diseases (NIH 2014). It is able to explore the benefits, detriments and effectiveness of any medical treatment by following strict scientific standards to protect trial participants and the integrity of research. In contrast, TCM knowledge is directly accumulated from daily clinical practices (Zhou 2010). Clinical practice with synthesised treatment based on syndrome differentiation is the core basis of TCM clinical evaluation and clinical study. With the high volume of clinical data available in TCM, the lack of systematic and standardised research processes will hold up TCM development. To support the development of a more complete and cohesive understanding of TCM, adopting wet/dry research methods to examine and analyse this huge amount of clinical data is crucial (Zhou 2010).
China was able to develop a high-quality, centrally directed and subsidized public health program that reached the whole population since the 1955, largely because traditionalChinesemedicine was incorporated (Sivin 16-9). Considering the boundaries of China’s national wealth, this kind of development was a success because acupuncture and native herbal medicine, two of the main methods of treatment in traditionalChinesemedicine, are very inexpensive compared to western medicine. Additionally, medical workers in China have found that the combination of traditionalChinesemedicine and modern western medicine is not only often simpler and more economical, but also can produce quicker and better results in terms of patient outcomes (Ho, and Lisowski 53). In fact, traditionalChinesemedicine alone treats over fifty percent of patients in China (Ma, and Henderson 187-222). Thus, if even a fraction of American patients were treated completely with traditionalChinesemedicine, there would be great cost savings. While this may seem unrealistic, established western medicine is actually perceived by many users to have become highly impersonal, bureaucratic, and needlessly expensive (Tyler 2). Oftentimes, there is a demand for the newest and best technology to be available to treat disease, while in many cases these patients would not need to pay for the use of this expensive equipment if preventive measures had been taken before the onset of the disease. TraditionalChinese
Yao Zheng Zhi Jue, 小儿药证直诀), completed in the year 1119 by Qian
Yi, also recorded the diagnosis by observing the face and eyes. The four masters in the Jin–Yuan period (115–1368) expressed distinctive points in diagnosis and treatment: Liu Wan-su emphasized the role of pathogenesis, Zhang Cong-zheng differential diagnosis, Li Dong-yuan combination of the four diagnostic methods and Zhu Dan-xi external manifestations.
Pestilence, 温疫论) that the cause of pestilence was different from the
six abnormal climatic factors comprising of wind, cold, summer-heat, dampness, and so on. He believed that it is a special pathogenic factor in the natural world and that the channel of infection by pestilence is through the mouth and nose. All of these great contributions have revealed, from theory to practice, the causes of pestilence and warm disease, as well as their routes of transmission. In the Qing Dynasty, Ye Tianshi and Wu Jutong established the theories and methods for the treatment of warm disease based on syndrome differentiation and cen- tered on “wei, qi, ying and blood” and the “triple energizer.” In such a way, the theory of warm disease was further developed and became self-consistent in etiology, pathogenesis or treatment based on syn- drome differentiation. Moreover, Wang Qingren wrote Yi Li Gai Cuo (Corrections on Medical Errors, 医林改错). In this book, he rectified some errors in a number of medical classics with regard to the human
the data collected by the four diagnostic methods (inspection, auscultation and olfaction, inquiring, and palpation) should be analyzed according to the properties and changing laws of mu- tual generation and subjugation, extreme subjugation, and counter subjugation of the Five Elements theory. For example, a blue complexion accompanied with a preference for food of a sour taste and a wiry pulse, suggests liver disease. A flushed face accompanied by a bitter taste in the mouth and a forceful pulse suggests heart disease with the symptom-complex of hear-fire flaring up. A patient with insufficient spleen qi may have a blue complexion implying wood's (i.e., liver) extreme subjugation of earth (i.e., spleen). If a patient is suffering from heart trouble and has a dark complexion, it may be explained as water (i.e., kidney) subjugating fire.
In the light of the recent scientific achievements, the field that can verify this theory in medicine is genetics. The results of the Human Genome Project with the development of methods for isolation of the specific genes, their sequencing and location in the respective chromosomes, and the made connections to genetic diseases, provide interesting data in support of the Theory of the Five Elements. This is discussed further in Section 3 of this article.