As the examples in Figure 2 have illustrated, our corpus shows that oops is attested as an apology IFID when collocating with sorry and when appearing on its own. As for its specific apology functions, one may note that oops tends to diverge from the prototypical apology category by functioning as a face attack apology (as discussed above but see also example 5 in Figure 3) or by being of a more formulaic nature. This is illustrated by examples of bloggers apologising for typos or for using the wrong word, which could potentially be described as the written equivalents of slips of the tongue. At the same time, oops also seems to be serving additional discourse marking functions when acting as a formulaic apology (cf. Deutschmann’s (2003: 46) category of ‘formulaic apologies with added functions’). This is because oops tends to initiate a new section of a blog post or a comment that may require some degree of hedging in order to reduce the abruptness of the transition. This is shown in Figure 3, where oops introduces examples of rather minimal offences and functions as a routine apology in addition to beginning a new section of text. Thus, example 1 introduces the main body of a post after an introduction that turned out longer than intended, and oops in example 3 initiates a metapragmatic comment on the poster’s own language use.
Abstract This study addresses a familiar challenge in corpuspragmatic research: the search for functional phenomena in large electronic corpora. Speech acts are one area of research that falls into this functional domain and the question of how to identify them in corpora has occupied researchers over the past 20 years. This study focuses on apologies as a speech act that is characterised by a standard set of routine expressions, making it easier to search for with corpus linguistic tools. Nevertheless, even for a comparatively formulaic speech act, such as apologies, the polysemous nature of forms (cf. e.g. I am sorry vs. a sorry state) impacts the precision of the search output so that previous studies of smaller data samples had to resort to manual microanalysis. In this study, we introduce an innovative methodological approach that demonstrates how the combination of different types of collocational analysis can facilitate the study of speech acts in larger corpora. By first establishing a collocational profile for each of the Illocutionary Force Indicating Devices associated with apologies and then scrutinising their shared and unique collocates, unwanted hits can be discarded and the amount of manual intervention reduced. Thus, this article introduces new possibilities in the field of corpus-based speech act analysis and encourages the study of pragmatic phenomena in large corpora.
In our data, the cluster I just found your blog in combination with the comment initial position functions as a signal uncovering the otherwise “hidden manifestations” (Kohnen 2007) of the speech act of complimenting. According to Kohnen (2007: 140-141), one of the main problems in studying speech acts is that we usually do not have access to a full inventory of the forms in which a speech act may be attested and it is therefore particularly difficult to search for them in a corpus. While a corpus-based speech act study may focus on typical examples, such as sorry in the case of apologies, it will not be able to provide a complete picture of the speech act as it will naturally miss any insights into its attestations not using these routinized forms. In order to tackle this problem and gain access to further manifestations of a specific language function, Kohnen (2007: 141) suggests that analyses are to be based “on comparable text types or genres”. We would argue that, in addition to that, focusing on a particular position of attestation, such as the initial position in blog comments, offers new possibilities of uncovering forms functioning as a particular speech act. In our data, I just found your blog is a medium-specific means of initiating compliments which, together with the remaining clusters we have identified for this speech act, allows for the study of complimenting in a large corpus and renders a speech act that is otherwise difficult to search for more easily accessible.
Abstract—It is a challenging task to find important users from social media. In this paper, we propose an approach to identify prophetic bloggers by estimating bloggers’ prediction ability on buzzwords and categories. We conduct a time-series analysis on large-scale blogdata, which includes categoriz- ing a blogger into knowledgeable categories, identifying past buzzwords, analyzing a buzzword’s peak time content and growth period, and estimating a blogger’s prediction ability on a buzzword and on a category. Bloggers’ prediction ability on a buzzword is evaluated considering three factors: post earliness, content similarity and entry frequency. Bloggers’ prediction ability on a category is evaluated considering the buzzword coverage in that category. For calculating bloggers’ prediction ability on a category, we propose multiple formulas and compare the accuracy through experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can find prophetic bloggers on real-world blogdata.
A 'not so shallow' parser for collocational analysis A "not so shallow" parser for collocational analysis Basili R (*), M T Pazienza (*), P Velardi (?) (*) D i p a r t i m e n t o I n g e g n e r i a[.]
As described in Section 2, there are correlations in per- ceptions of personality traits and this leads to correlations in the annotated data. This leads us to hypothesize that we can increase the prediction accuracy of extraversion and leadership using other personality traits. To test this hypothesis, we have conducted experiments on the ELEA corpus as summarized in Table 6. We use five personality and five leadership traits as different tasks to jointly learn prediction models and use them with nine different clas- sifiers. Since only leadership and extraversion traits cor- relate highly with the features, we extracted in the ELEA dataset, we observe and report prediction performances only on those two traits. We further include experiments with MRMR and MTDA feature selection approaches to search for the best performing learner combination. We observe that the best accuracies are 78.4% for extraver- sion and 72.6% for leadership, displaying a 2% increase from the baseline results. The results demonstrate that in comparison to the baseline methods, the regularized regression-based methods do not benefit from the uti- lized feature selection and preprocessing approaches. This can be explained away by the fact that contrary to single- task methods, these classifiers have the ability to utilize features that are only useful for some tasks and are detri- mental to others. The best results are obtained using the
Formally, stance markers are notoriously difficult to specify in advance because unlike some other categories, they are not confined to traditional areas of grammar, morphology or vocabulary, but to all of these as well as to longer chunks or even whole sentences. As has already been mentioned, some stance expressions are easily identifiable as such (perhaps, surely, must, I don ’ t know) because they are elements that always and unambiguously express speak- ers ’ assessments. There are other constructions, however, that may not be thought of as stance markers in the first place since they are parts of lexical items such as -able/ible as in doable, drinkable, possible, but all of them come with a possibility judgement. The utterances in (1) – (4) below are all examples of advice of some sort, which can be expressed in a number of different ways. From the point of view of the words used to express the recommendations, some such utterances contain words that express a ‘request’ or ‘recommendation’, such as I suggest (1) and (2) and I recommend in (4), while (3) has no clear indication in terms of the individual words. In addition, the use of the past tense in (1) and (3) is an indication of distancing or toning down the speaker ’ s accountability. (1) I would suggest that you left your house before the end of this month. (2) I suggest that you leave your house before the end of the month. (3) This wine should drink well within the next couple of years.
We now introduce the celebrated Law of Quadratic Reciprocity. First proved by Gauss in 1795, the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity allows one to quickly decide whether or not an integer is a square modulo an odd prime. Its proof, which we will state but not prove, is difficult. According to Gauss, “[The proof] tortured me for the whole year and eluded my most strenuous efforts before, finally, I got the proof...” .
Building this second testbed from the ground up has provided us with a rare opportunity to evaluate our previous design principles and lessons. Throughout this process we also identified a set of new lessons, and extension of existing design principles. This paper revisits our existing work and highlights where lessons remain valid, where they are now considered less critical, and which (in practice) are a challenge to follow. We show that diversity, scalability and complexity are key principles for a testbed. However, data capture and safety are a matter of context. Through the combination of our old and new lessons we hope that groups who embark on their own ICS testbed projects can gain from our experience and this blueprint for building testbeds.
This project was approved by the ethics committee which governs JCU‟s research procedures. It is classified as a Category One project which necessitated that the research follow guidelines to ensure that it would not involve significant psychological distress or physical discomfort to participants. Similarly, it could not use deception. (See Appendix A for a copy of Ethics approval.) To adhere to these guidelines, all participation had to be voluntary with no direct solicitation from the researcher. This ensured that no person suffered psychological stress from a perception that an investigation of their business was being sought. An Informed Consent form needed to be signed before any participation began and, before signing, participants were informed of the nature of the research, of their rights to withdraw at any time, and also details of where they could lodge a complaint if necessary. To avoid psychological distress, no questions were ever asked regarding income, home ownership, business registration or taxation. Similarly, participants were guaranteed confidentiality. In order to protect participant confidentiality, all data has been kept in a secured location (to be destroyed after five years), and none of the participant‟s names or the names of their businesses have been revealed. Participants have been given pseudonyms in the thesis and, in cases where they might have been identifiable through the nature of their occupations, the occupations have been modified and placed inside square brackets.
unaware of persuasive intent. Participants of the current study are likely to have had some awareness of persuasive intent, because smartphone-related contents had a noticeable share (21 %) in the narrative of the high fluency blog. According to Slater & Rouner (2002), unobtrusiveness is achieved by narrating in a manner so compelling, that awareness on the persuasive intent fades in the background. It is likely, that high narrative fluency makes a narrative compelling and it is corroborated, that narrative fluency induces a sole attentional focus on creating the experience of narrative presence (which defines narrative absorption). This allows the conclusion, that narrative fluency may be responsible for unobtrusiveness of persuasive subtexts. In other words, highly fluent narratives may even have a considerable share of persuasive subtexts without arousing any resistance, because attentional resources are already consumed by comprehending the narrative. Taking the results of the current study to establish a first rough estimate of a good proportion of narrative subtext, one fifth on the total blog content may be a good starting point. In the current study, one fifth has proven to be not a bad proportion, because although the manipulation has been found to be of only modest strength, the effect size of narrative fluency on blog branding effectiveness was found to be large (d = 0.83). That means that the persuasive potential of the implicated share of persuasive subtext on total blog content was good as well and that allows recommending one fifth as a heuristically good share. However, blog marketing management is advised to realize a higher level of narrative fluency than realized in the current study, to improve unobtrusiveness and persuasiveness. The narrative fluency of a stealth marketing intervention should be high to secure that a blogversation is a blogversation and no overt blogvertorial, because high narrative fluency reduces awareness for the persuasive intend of a blog marketing intervention.
Second, it was found that there was a significant difference in recognition between bloggers and Chinese netizens. If you look at the detailed characteristics, blog posts and comments can play a similar role to the news of the newspaper, and the contents posted on blogs can affect the thoughts and opinions of many people. The blogger's role in the blogosphere, such as pointing out problems such as absurdity and irritation, and showing them to the world, showed that Korean netizens are more aware than Chinese netizens. On the other hand, it is revealed that China's netizens have a higher perception than bloggers in Korea, in that they perceive blog activities as a responsibility to convey accurate facts to readers who visit blogs. In particular, Korean and Chinese netizens are perceiving blogs as a form of media. As a result, the netizens in Korea showed a higher positive perception of the journalistic role of the blog than the Chinese netizens. However, as the results of Yu and Lee, it is interpreted that Chinese netizens' perception of role of blog journalism is relatively low compared to Korean and US netizens. However, the results of research on blog use motives, usage patterns and journalistic role perceptions show that blog use in personal dimension is mainstream, but it seems to be lack of social participatory use motive perception. In this context, blog journalistic role Recognition is also lacking.
The variation in so-prefaced turn and topic transitions by eminent sport psychologists would surprise many in the sport psychology community where the expert- novice paradigm holds a commanding theoretical position. Thus experts are conceptualised as displaying more consistent, higher-level performance. Therefore many in the sport psychology community would approach Virtual Sport Psychology: Three Approaches to Sport Psychology Consulting (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Petitpas, 2000) anticipating seeing less variability in practitioner‟s micro-skills and some differences on the larger canvas of therapeutic orientation. Instead, the three sport psychologists display three different methods for closing the reason for the sport psychology consultation sequence. A fine-grained analysis of this sport psychologist-client talk show them exploiting the local organisation of talk to advance the conversation by adjusting the allocated responsibilities for achieving a particular interactional task. Different so-prefaced methods were useful for maintaining orderly talk and achieving the reasons for the consultation sequence.
We combined several data sets with different an- notation scheme and different genres and train an emotional deep model to classify emotion. Our re- sults indicate that semantic and syntactic contex- tual features are beneficial to complex and state- of-the-art deep models for emotion detection and classification. We show that our model is able to classify non-emotion (others) with high accuracy. In future we want to improve our model to be able to distinguish between emotion classes in a more sufficient way. It is possible that hierarchical bi- directional GRU model can be beneficial, since these models compute history and future sequence while training the model.
In another extension of contemporary research, we examine the effects of the perspectives adopted by the narratives (Winterbottom, Bekker, Conner, & Mooney, 2008). Our results reveal that the point of view in a narrative blog post significantly explains empathy with the narrator, which affects perceived integrity. In other words, consumers confronted with an apology by the responsible violator exhibit more empathy and integrity perceptions than those confronted with the company’s spokesperson. As expected, this linkage remains robust in markets characterized by high levels of competitive intensity. A narrative offered by the focal employee produces such empathy – is so transporting – that consumers restore integrity perceptions, despite content that blatantly mentions an alternative option for service. Consumers who feel empathy for the responsible employee become transported into his or her narrative and therefore have fewer cognitive resources available to draw on their prior beliefs and interpret what the high competitive intensity is suggesting.
Abstract: Severe asthma constitutes illness in a relatively small proportion of all patients with asthma, but it is a major public health problem – with considerable effect on morbidity, mortality, as well as a high burden on health care resources. Regardless of effective treatments being widely available and the existence of treatment guidelines, a large population of severe asthma cases remain uncontrolled. Achieving and maintaining asthma control in this group of patients is, therefore, of utmost importance. The recognition of distinct inflammatory phenotypes within this population has driven the development of targeted biological therapies – particularly, selective targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). It is noteworthy that in approximately 50% of these patients, there is strong evidence of the pathogenic role of T helper type-2 (Th2) cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, orchestrating the eosinophilic and allergic inflammatory processes. Among the recently developed antiasthma biologic drugs, the mAb dupilumab is very promising given its ability to inhibit the biological effects of both IL-4 and IL-13. In this review, we focused on IL-4 and IL-13, as these interleukins are considered to play a key role in the pathophysiology of asthma, and on dupilumab, an anti-IL-4 receptor human mAb, as a forthcoming treatment for uncontrolled severe asthma in the near future.
Semantic Interpretation of Pragmatic Clues Connectives, Modal Verbs, and Indirect Speech Acts S e m a n t i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Pragmatic C l u e s C o n n e c t i v e s , Modal Verbs, a[.]
The sheer scale of the information processed helps define Big Data systems. Data at rest in big data can be orders of larger magnitudes than traditional datasets, which requires more professional techniques to store. Hadoop distributed file system and new Cluster management algorithms become more prominent as they break tasks into smaller pieces and become important.
Set theoretic methods are essentially aimed at uncovering the necessity and sufficiency relationships within the data (Rihoux & Marx, 2013). From the broader inquiry on the influence of apologies on identity change, I derived a research question that specifically addresses such relationships, "what configurations of accusation, event, and apology characteristics are necessary and/or sufficient for a reference to organizational identity in corporate public apologies?" Necessity indicates a case where the outcome is a subset of a condition, one that would be present in all the cases where the outcome is present (Schneider & Wagemann, 2012: 72). As such, relationships of necessity need to be investigated first in a separate analysis (Schneider & Wagemann, 2010). To this end I conducted a necessity analysis using the fs/QCA software for each condition in the model. In analyzing the consistency of necessity, instead of the condition it is the outcome that may have a potential subset relationship with the condition, therefore the results are interpreted like the results of a coverage analysis for conditions: In my data, the necessity analysis indicated that for the absence of the outcome of "reference to organizational identity" in the apology, the absence of "health hazard" showed a consistency of 0.85, or that in 11 out of 13 cases with a negative outcome, "health hazard" also had a negative value. This condition presents the highest consistency of necessity, but still remains below the ≥ 0.9 benchmark for the consistency of a necessary condition (Greckhamer, 2016). As a result, I concluded that the analyses revealed no necessity relations in the data, and that (the presence or absence of) none of the conditions in the analysis was necessary for (the presence or absence of) the outcome.