Top PDF Optimization of Process Parameters on Friction Stir Welding of High Density Polypropylene Plate

Optimization of Process Parameters on Friction Stir Welding of High Density Polypropylene Plate

Optimization of Process Parameters on Friction Stir Welding of High Density Polypropylene Plate

FSW is a new technology, of solid state joining for similar and dissimilar metals (soft metals). FSW was invented and patented in 1991 by TWI (The Welding Institute) in UK. FSW is based on a simple concept, which is based on frictional heat generated between the work piece and the tool. Initially FSW was invented for joining Aluminum-Al (soft-metals), but now-a-days plastics are also joined through FSW. Importance of FSW: very ease of automation, less residual stresses, good mechanical properties in region of joining. FSW is widely used for several applications where it is important to keep the original characteristic of material.
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Optimization of Process Parameters for Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminium Alloy AA6061 to AA5183 using TOPSIS Technique

Optimization of Process Parameters for Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminium Alloy AA6061 to AA5183 using TOPSIS Technique

M.V.R.Durga Prasad and Kiran Kumar Namala(1) did the parameter optimization for friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminium alloy AA5083 To AA6061 with process parameters as tool rotational speed , welding speed , and tool tilt angle by using Taguchis approach L9 array. The experimental study showed that the welding speed had the maximum influence on percentage elongation and effect of hardness at weld zone. The tool rotational speed had least influence on the percentage elongation and effect of hardness , the tool tilt angle has major influence and the welding speed has least influence on hardness at HAZ.
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A CRITICAL REVIEW ON OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR WELDING

A CRITICAL REVIEW ON OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR WELDING

From the above literature study it is evident that there is a potential for Friction Stir Welding of aluminum alloys in various fields. FSW continues to be the subject of investigations and further development and improvements in the joining of aluminum alloys. Even many studies have been performed; there is still a considerable need to further examine existing and new combinations of process parameters such as tool rotational speed, traverse speed and tool tilt angle. Existing researches are constrained to the microstructure of weld joint. Hence an attempt has been made to explore the optimization of parameters of FSW. Experimental techniques that include statistical design of experiment, such as Taguchi method is considered to achieve an optimal solution. Study on various process parameter of FSW on 6061-T6 aluminum alloy was carried out on vertical milling machine.
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OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR FRICTION STIR WELDING ALUMINIUM 6061 USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR FRICTION STIR WELDING ALUMINIUM 6061 USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was invented by Wayne Thomas at TWI (The Welding Institute), U.K in December 1991. Since then it has become a major joining process in the aerospace, railway and ship building industries especially in the fabrication of aluminium alloys and many other applications of commercial importance. The welding parameters play a major role in deciding the joint characteristics of friction stir welded joints. When these parameters are improperly configured or out of range for the equipment or materials, this can lead to a variety of problems. In the present work process parameters Rotational speed, feed and tool tilt angle were optimized that would give Maximum Ultimate tensile Strength (U.T.S) of Friction stir welding AL-6061 T6 alloy. The experimental design was carried out using response surface methodology-box behnken design and optimization using the synthesis 9 statistical software. KEYWORDS: Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Response Surface Methodology, Optimization, box behnken design
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OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR WELDING FOR HE-30 ALUMINIUM ALLOY-A REVIEW

OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR WELDING FOR HE-30 ALUMINIUM ALLOY-A REVIEW

Abstract— Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process that uses a non-consumable tool to join two facing work pieces without melting the work piece material. This is developed in Dec.1991 by The Welding Institute of UK using for Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, work pieces that could not welded by conventional types of welding and recently develop too much in different application because of economical and quality consideration. Modern types of tool developed recently for harder typed of materials work pieces like different type of steels. Also, different types of machines developed for this purpose. FSW can done by an ordinary CNC milling machine for small work pieces to professional single purpose robotic machine in orbital FSW in steel pipes welding in oil industries The process has been widely used in the aerospace, shipbuilding, automobile industries and in many applications of commercial importance. This is because of many of its advantages over the conventional welding techniques which include very low distortion, no fumes, no porosity or spatter, no consumables (no filler wire), no special surface treatment and no shielding gas requirements. FSW joints have improved mechanical properties and are free from porosity or blowholes compared to conventionally welded materials. In this project tapered cylindrical tool with three-sided re-entrant probe made of Tungstun Carbide (Wc) is used for the friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium alloy HE30 – HE30 and test the mechanical properties of the welded joint by tensile test. Finally, we were compare mentioned mechanical properties and make conclusion. The result will help welding parameter optimization in friction stir welding process. Like rotational speed, depth of welding, travel speed, Tool Axial force, type of material, type of joint, work piece dimension, joint dimension, tool material and tool geometry. The detailed mathematical model is simulated by Minitab15. Experiments were conducted by varying rotational speed, transverse speed, and constant Axial force using L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. We analyzed the effect of these three parameters on tensile strength. In this investigation, an effective approach based on Taguchi method, has been developed to determine the optimum conditions leading to higher tensile strength. The present work aims at optimizing process parameters to achieve high tensile strength.
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Optimization of Process Parameters of Friction Stir Welding for Similar He 30 Aluminium Alloy

Optimization of Process Parameters of Friction Stir Welding for Similar He 30 Aluminium Alloy

process that uses a non-consumable tool to join two facing work pieces without melting the work piece material. This is developed in Dec.1991 by The Welding Institute of UK using for Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, work pieces that could not welded by conventional types of welding and recently develop too much in different application because of economical and quality consideration. Modern types of tool developed recently for harder typed of materials work pieces like different type of steels. Also, different types of machines developed for this purpose. FSW can done by an ordinary CNC milling machine for small work pieces to professional single purpose robotic machine in orbital FSW in steel pipes welding in oil industries The process has been widely used in the aerospace, shipbuilding, automobile industries and in many applications of commercial importance. This is because of many of its advantages over the conventional welding techniques which include very low distortion, no fumes, no porosity or spatter, no consumables (no filler wire), no special surface treatment and no shielding gas requirements. FSW joints have improved mechanical properties and are free from porosity or blowholes compared to conventionally welded materials. In this project tapered cylindrical tool with three- sided re-entrant probe made of Tungstun Carbide (Wc) is used for the friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium alloy HE30 – HE30 and test the mechanical properties of the welded joint by tensile test. Finally, we were compare mentioned mechanical properties and make conclusion. The result will help welding parameter optimization in friction stir welding process. Like rotational speed, depth of welding, travel speed, Tool Axial force, type of material, type of joint, work piece dimension, joint dimension, tool material and tool geometry. The detailed mathematical model is simulated by Minitab15. Experiments were conducted by varying rotational speed, transverse speed, and constant Axial force using L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. We analyzed the effect of these three parameters on tensile strength. In this investigation, an effective approach based on Taguchi method, has been developed to determine the optimum conditions leading to higher tensile strength. The present work aims at optimizing process parameters to achieve high tensile strength.
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A Review on Optimization of the Process Parameters in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys (AA6082 and AA6105) by Taguchi Technique

A Review on Optimization of the Process Parameters in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys (AA6082 and AA6105) by Taguchi Technique

S.Verma e t al (2017) studied the temperature distribution deriving FSW o f A lu minum 6082 alloy, the te mp distribution is captured using thermocouple during FSW of 6082 for varying this angle the ma x te mp is attained on when tilt angle in 2° rotation speed 600 rpm well 30sec. M.V.R.Durga Prasad, Kiran Kumar Namal (2018) performed frict ion stir we lding on AA5083 and AA6063 to study the process parameter optimizat ion by ANOVA. The process parameters considered are rotation speed, weld ing speeds, and tilt angle. During their optimization, they find that welding speed has the major factor. The ma ximu m value of hardness at tool rotation speed 1200rp m, weld ing speed of 80mm/min and tilt angle of 0 °.
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An Experimental Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameters on Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar AA6061 T6 and AA6951 T6 using Taguchi Technique

An Experimental Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameters on Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar AA6061 T6 and AA6951 T6 using Taguchi Technique

[7] P. K. Sahu, K. Kumari, S. Pal, and S. K. Pal, “Hybrid fuzzy-grey-Taguchi based multi weld quality optimization of Al/Cu dissimilar friction stir welded joints,” Adv. Manuf., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 237–247, 2016. [8] N. Z. Khan, Z. A. Khan, and A. N. Siddiquee, “Effect of Shoulder Diameter to Pin Diameter (D/d) Ratio on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded 6063 Aluminium Alloy,” Mater. Today Proc., vol. 2, no. 4–5, pp. 1450–1457, 2015.

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Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters of Aluminium alloy AA7075 T6 by using Taguchi Method

Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters of Aluminium alloy AA7075 T6 by using Taguchi Method

In this study, Vikas, Mandeep Singh [6] use Al 6063 T6 is used as working material. Process parameters rotatory speed, traverse speed and in order to find their impact on tensile strength, the axial force is varied. The test was scheduled in the Taguchi orthogonal array L9. S / N ratios analyze the best possible setting parameters and ANOVA determines the contribution from the input parameter. Al6063 alloy butt joint specification with threaded cylindrical pin by FSW technique was successfully developed. They use rotational speeds 850rpm, 1050rpm, 1200rpm, traverse speeds 40mm/min, 58mm/min, 78mm/min and axial forces are 4kN, 5kN, 6kN.The optimal combination for FSW process parameters is a spindle speed of 1200 rpm, a translational feed of 78mm / min, an axial load of 6 KN, which achieves maximum tensile strength. .The maximum contribution of translation feed was 81.31% and rotational velocity was 15.44% accompanied by axial force with minimal influence of 2.03% on tensile strength. B. Influence of Tool Pin Geometric shapes on Friction Stir Welded similar Aluminum Alloy Joints In this study, an effort was produced to evaluate the tensile strength under distinct tool pin geometries of comparable joints of FSW structural aluminum alloy plates. .The instrument pin geometries used in this investigation were triangular, rounded and hexagonal. In this case study, AA 6082-T6 sheets 200 mm X 80 mm X 8 mm were used. Based on ASTM-B557, the 19.05 mm wide and 158.57 mm2 cross sectional area were prepared.(refer fig. 2 Tensile Test sample) .Then tensile test was performed on UTM to define the tensile strength of 9 samples were welded using different pin profiles. .
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Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters for Welding Aluminium Alloys

Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters for Welding Aluminium Alloys

Avinash P et al [10] to investigate the mechanical and structural properties of AA7075 T6 and AA2024 T3 dissimilar aluminium alloys, with thickness ratio 1.3, since both AA2024 T3 and AA7075 T6 are not weld able by fusion welding process, FSW process is used to weld both of these dissimilar alloys. Defect-free, tailor weld blanks were produced on the plates of AA7075 and AA2024 T3 having thickness of 6.5mm and 5mm respectively. The process parameters employed in this study include the tool rotation and travel speeds. The FSW tool employed in this study was made using AISI H13 tempered steel with square pin profile having pin diameter of 5mm, concavity at pin start of 1mm and pin length of 4.85mm. The welded plates have been characterized for their mechanical and metallurgical properties. The effects of tool rotational speed and the welding speed on the joint performance were discussed. Experimental result shows a sound weld has been produced at medium rotational speed (1000rpm) and lower travel speed (80mm/min), uniform weldments
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Optimization of Process Parameters in Friction Stir welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys (AA5083 and AA6061) Using Taguchi Technique

Optimization of Process Parameters in Friction Stir welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys (AA5083 and AA6061) Using Taguchi Technique

Friction stir welding(FSW) has emerged as a technology of widespread interest due to its numerous advantages, most important of which is its ability to weld generally unweldable alloys[1]. Compared with number of the fusion welding processes that are routinely utilized for joining structural alloys, FSW is a solid state joining technique in which the material that is being welded below its melting point[2]. Defect free welds with high mechanical properties have been made in a various aluminium alloys, even those previously thought to be not weldable. Porosity, hot cracking and alloy segregation defects will not get in the friction stir welding process. FSW produces good surface finish and need not required post weld cleaning [3]. There have been a number of efforts to understand the effect of process parameters on microstructure formation and material flow behaviour, hence mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints. The impact of some parameters such as rotational speed, traverse speed and tool tilt angle on weld properties is major topics for investigators[4-6].Taguchi design of experiment (DOE) is a powerful tool to find significant factor from many by conducting relatively few number of experiments, in any case, this design basically does not account for the interaction among processing parameters. In view of time and cost saving, occasionally these interactions are ignored. If compulsory, the missing interactions can be found by further conducting the required experiments.
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Optimization of Process Parameters for Friction Stir Welding AA7075/10%wt.SiC Fabricated Composite

Optimization of Process Parameters for Friction Stir Welding AA7075/10%wt.SiC Fabricated Composite

Figure 6(c), shows the effect of axial force on joint efficiency of friction stir welded AA7075- 10%wt.SiC composite joints. The lowest strength was obtained at axial load of 5 kN and 9 kN. The joint efficiency of composite joint was increased with increase in axial load up to a maximum load of 7 kN. Further increase in axial load decreased the tensile strength of the joint. During the FSW process, the rotation of tool produces a large amount of heat input which brings the metal to become very hot and plastic state. The axial force is more responsible for the plunge depth of the tool pin into the work piece [15]. The joining of materials depends on the extrusion process by axial force and the rotation of tool pin which propeled the plasticized material. At a lower axial force (5 kN), the lowest frictional heat is generated which is not sufficient to generate a adequate plastic state. At a higher axial force (9 kN) the plunge depth of the tool into the work piece is higher which drastically decreases the strength [Ref 16]. The joint fabricated with an axial force (7 kN) produced a finer grain structure with uniform distribution of reinforcement particle in the stir zone and resulted higher joint efficiency value. Hence sufficient axial force is required to form good weld.
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Process Parameters Optimization of Aa2024 Alloy Friction Stir Welding using Taguchi’s Technique

Process Parameters Optimization of Aa2024 Alloy Friction Stir Welding using Taguchi’s Technique

ABSTRACT: Within this research study, Taguchi system of style of experimental was utilized to assess the impact of some welding process parameters of sound state welding techniques like rotational speed(spinning velocity), travel speed in addition to pin profile on Tensile Strength (UTS), microhardness in addition to effect strength of Friction Stir Welded (FSW) 2024 light weight aluminum alloy joint. An orthogonal array of L9 design was actually employed for experimental trials and also Signal to noise proportion( S/N) values for each process specifications was computed. Based upon the S/N review the optimal level of process specifications was actually decided on as 1120 revoltions per minute, 25 mm/min and also Cylinder pin with Flutes( CWF) for best Tensile Strength and also micro Hardness. The ideal degree of process parameters for Impact toughness was actually pinpointed as 1120rpm,31.5 mm/min and also Tapered Cylindrical pin account( Drawback). Depending on to Analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was seen that the task of spinning, travel velocity and also pin geometry was 37.31, 64.84 and 1.13 per-cent effect on Ultimate tensile strength, 34.16, 51.28 and 0.58 per-cent impact on micro Hardness as well as 50.10, 43.7 and 6.2 percent influence on Influence Toughness of joint respectively. Eventually based upon FSW guidelines a model was actually created for tensile strength, Micro Hardness and Toughness values. The results were confirmed by further experiments, which yield the experimented values as 349.83 MPa for tensile strength, 114.26 Hardness and 7.8kJ Impact strength.
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A REVIEW PAPER ON FRICTION STIR WELDING – PROCESS

A REVIEW PAPER ON FRICTION STIR WELDING – PROCESS

Koilraj et al., (2012) in their work, optimization of process parameters of friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys (copper, aluminium and magnesium alloys)using Taguchi technique (Taguchi L16 orthogonal design of experiments), considered parameters rotational speed, traverse speed, tool geometry and ratio between tool and shoulder diameter and pin diameter for optimization to investigate tensile strength of the joint. The results were analysed with the help of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and concluded that optimum levels of tool rotational speed is 700 rpm, traverse speed is 15mm/min , ratio between tool shoulder diameter and pin diameter is 3, pin tool profile is cylindrical threaded and finally friction stir welding produces satisfactory butt welds. Yahya Bozkurt (2012) has done work on optimization of friction stir welding process parameters to achieve maximum tensile strength in the polyethylene slab. Three process parameters, tool rotational speeds, tool traverse speed, and tilt angle of the tool were identified for optimization. The material taken for study is high density polyethylene sheet which is a thermoplastic to determine welding process parameters on ultimate tensile strength of the weld for good joint efficiency. The optimization technique applied is Taguch‟s L9 orthogonal array, signal to noise ratio and ANOVA. The results depicted are tool rotational speed of 3000rpm contributes 73.85% to the overall welding parameters for the weld strength and the tool tilt angle has least contribution. Elatharasan et al (2013) in their research study, experimental analysis of process parameters of friction stir welding and its optimization.
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Identifying friction stir welding process parameters through coupled numerical and experimental analysis

Identifying friction stir welding process parameters through coupled numerical and experimental analysis

Taking advantage of high performance cluster parallel computing and the commercial Finite Element software ABAQUS python codes, the Finite Element Method was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimization to obtain the best value for the thermal input (heat from a moving heat source simulating friction stir welding) and thermal fi lm coef fi cient (between the workpiece and support plate). By using the predicted parameters from one set of experiment results, the temperature distribution at other points are predicted and found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The heat input predicted is also similar to that obtained in Refs. [4], in which a general inverse method is used. The optimization pro- cedure presented in this paper performs the parameter identi fi ca- tion automatically and could be extended to include the complex features of the welding tool. As the temperature history plays a very important part of the microstructure in welded zones, this
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Modeling and optimization of friction stir welding parameters in joining 5086 H32 aluminium alloy.

Modeling and optimization of friction stir welding parameters in joining 5086 H32 aluminium alloy.

alloy joints, namely tool rotational speed (N), tilt angle (A), pin prole (P ), welding speed (S), tool hardness (H), and diameter of tool shoulder (D), were identied based on their dominance and availability in experimental setup. The working range of the pa- rameters was selected through review of the literature and trial experiments [17]. Six factor-ve levels half fraction Central Composite Design (CCD) was chosen for Design Of Experiments (DOE). Table 3 shows the process parameters and their respective levels. The lower and upper levels of each parameter were coded as 2:37 and +2:37, while other three equidistant levels were coded as +1, 0, and 1. The selected DOE, consisting of 12 star points, 8 center points, and 32 fractional factorial design points (2 6 =2 = 32), was
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OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR WELDED AA6082 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR WELDED AA6082 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

Friction stir welding (FSW)) is a new innovative solid state joining technique for joining Similar and dissimilar metals which has been used in aerospace, rail, automotive and marine industries. This paper optimized the effect of the welding parameters on 5 mm thick AA 6082 aluminum plates. The process parameters are optimized by using ANOVA technique based as L8 orthogonal Array. Experiments have been conducted based on three process parameters, namely, the tool rotation speed, welding speed and plunge speed at two different levels. Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percentage elongation and Impact strength has been predicted for the optimum welding parameters and their percentage of contribution in producing a better joint is calculated by applying analysis of variance. The results indicate that the tool rotational speed, welding speed and plunge speed are the significant parameters in deciding the strengths and percentage elongation.
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Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters of Al 6061 and Al 7075 Using GRA

Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters of Al 6061 and Al 7075 Using GRA

Friction stir welding (FSW) is proved as a promising welding technology for joining dissimilar aluminium alloys. Aluminium alloys are used extensively within the aerospace industry for applications such as fuselage and wing skin panels due to their high strength to weight ratio. Therefore, an effort is made to optimize the process parameters of FSW using Al 6061 and Al 7075 alloys by the Minitab 16 program in order to enhance tensile properties such as elongation (E), yield stress (YS), and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Grey relational analysis (GRA) based on the Taguchi method is applied using two factors tool rotational speeds (TRS) and welding speed (WS) with four levels. Results show that the variables, namely the tool rotation speed and welding speed have a significant effect on yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and elongation. Results also show that the Taguchi based grey relational approach improved properties of output response of welded Al 6061 and Al 7075 aluminum alloys.
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Optimization of friction stir welding parameters for improved corrosion resistance of AA2219 aluminum alloy joints

Optimization of friction stir welding parameters for improved corrosion resistance of AA2219 aluminum alloy joints

In many industrial applications steels are readily replaced by nonferrous alloys and aluminium alloys. Some of these materials combine mechanical strength comparable with that of structural steels and low weight. While production of aluminium alloy component is not very complex, joining of these materials can sometimes cause serious problems. The friction stir welding, as a solid state joining technique, can be used to settle the problems appearing in joining of these ma- terials, in which the joined material is plasticized by heat generated by friction between the surface of the plate and the contact surface of a special tool. The tool is composed of two main parts: shoulder and pin. The shoulder is responsible for generating the heat and containing the plasticized material in the weld zone, while the pin mixes the material of the com- ponents to be welded, thus creating a joint. This allows for producing defect-free welds characterized by good mechanical properties. However, the material flow behaviour is predomi- nantly influenced by the FSW tool profiles, FSW tool di- mensions and FSW process parameters [22].
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Optimization of Welding Parameters for Friction Stir Lap Welding of AA6061 T6 Alloy

Optimization of Welding Parameters for Friction Stir Lap Welding of AA6061 T6 Alloy

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is currently used in many aircraft and aerospace sheet metal structures involving lap joints and there has been growing interest in recent years in utilizing this process for joining aluminum alloys. In this paper, Friction Stir Lap Welding (FSLW) of the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy was carried out to obtain the optimum welding condition for maximum shear strength where the rotational speed, axial load, and welding speed were taken as process parameters. An L-9 orthogonal array, a Taguchi Method with con- sideration of three levels and three factors was designed and executed for conducting trials. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio were employed to investigate the influence of different welding parame- ters on the shear strength and obtain the optimum parameters. The Fish- er-Test was also implemented to find the design parameter which had the most important effect on the characteristic of quality. The results indicated that the tool rotational speed had the maximum percentage contribution (51%) on the response (shear strength) followed by the welding speed (38%) and the axial load (8%) while the percentage of error was 3%. However, to confirm the main effects for the means and S/N ratios of the experiment, theoretical shear strength values were computed to predict the tensile strength. The maximum shear strength of 60 MPa was achieved and the effec- tiveness of the method was confirmed. The optimum parameter combinations that provided higher shear strength were: rotational speed of 1200 rpm, weld- ing speed of 45 mm/min and the axial load of 11.5 kN.
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