FSW is a new technology, of solid state joining for similar and dissimilar metals (soft metals). FSW was invented and patented in 1991 by TWI (The Welding Institute) in UK. FSW is based on a simple concept, which is based on frictional heat generated between the work piece and the tool. Initially FSW was invented for joining Aluminum-Al (soft-metals), but now-a-days plastics are also joined through FSW. Importance of FSW: very ease of automation, less residual stresses, good mechanical properties in region of joining. FSW is widely used for several applications where it is important to keep the original characteristic of material.
M.V.R.Durga Prasad and Kiran Kumar Namala(1) did the parameter optimization for frictionstirwelding of dissimilar aluminium alloy AA5083 To AA6061 with processparameters as tool rotational speed , welding speed , and tool tilt angle by using Taguchis approach L9 array. The experimental study showed that the welding speed had the maximum influence on percentage elongation and effect of hardness at weld zone. The tool rotational speed had least influence on the percentage elongation and effect of hardness , the tool tilt angle has major influence and the welding speed has least influence on hardness at HAZ.
From the above literature study it is evident that there is a potential for FrictionStirWelding of aluminum alloys in various fields. FSW continues to be the subject of investigations and further development and improvements in the joining of aluminum alloys. Even many studies have been performed; there is still a considerable need to further examine existing and new combinations of processparameters such as tool rotational speed, traverse speed and tool tilt angle. Existing researches are constrained to the microstructure of weld joint. Hence an attempt has been made to explore the optimization of parameters of FSW. Experimental techniques that include statistical design of experiment, such as Taguchi method is considered to achieve an optimal solution. Study on various process parameter of FSW on 6061-T6 aluminum alloy was carried out on vertical milling machine.
FrictionStirWelding (FSW) was invented by Wayne Thomas at TWI (The Welding Institute), U.K in December 1991. Since then it has become a major joining process in the aerospace, railway and ship building industries especially in the fabrication of aluminium alloys and many other applications of commercial importance. The weldingparameters play a major role in deciding the joint characteristics of frictionstir welded joints. When these parameters are improperly configured or out of range for the equipment or materials, this can lead to a variety of problems. In the present work processparameters Rotational speed, feed and tool tilt angle were optimized that would give Maximum Ultimate tensile Strength (U.T.S) of Frictionstirwelding AL-6061 T6 alloy. The experimental design was carried out using response surface methodology-box behnken design and optimization using the synthesis 9 statistical software. KEYWORDS: FrictionStirWelding (FSW), Response Surface Methodology, Optimization, box behnken design
Abstract— Frictionstirwelding is a solid-state joining process that uses a non-consumable tool to join two facing work pieces without melting the work piece material. This is developed in Dec.1991 by The Welding Institute of UK using for Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, work pieces that could not welded by conventional types of welding and recently develop too much in different application because of economical and quality consideration. Modern types of tool developed recently for harder typed of materials work pieces like different type of steels. Also, different types of machines developed for this purpose. FSW can done by an ordinary CNC milling machine for small work pieces to professional single purpose robotic machine in orbital FSW in steel pipes welding in oil industries The process has been widely used in the aerospace, shipbuilding, automobile industries and in many applications of commercial importance. This is because of many of its advantages over the conventional welding techniques which include very low distortion, no fumes, no porosity or spatter, no consumables (no filler wire), no special surface treatment and no shielding gas requirements. FSW joints have improved mechanical properties and are free from porosity or blowholes compared to conventionally welded materials. In this project tapered cylindrical tool with three-sided re-entrant probe made of Tungstun Carbide (Wc) is used for the frictionstirwelding (FSW) of aluminium alloy HE30 – HE30 and test the mechanical properties of the welded joint by tensile test. Finally, we were compare mentioned mechanical properties and make conclusion. The result will help welding parameter optimization in frictionstirweldingprocess. Like rotational speed, depth of welding, travel speed, Tool Axial force, type of material, type of joint, work piece dimension, joint dimension, tool material and tool geometry. The detailed mathematical model is simulated by Minitab15. Experiments were conducted by varying rotational speed, transverse speed, and constant Axial force using L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. We analyzed the effect of these three parameters on tensile strength. In this investigation, an effective approach based on Taguchi method, has been developed to determine the optimum conditions leading to higher tensile strength. The present work aims at optimizing processparameters to achieve high tensile strength.
process that uses a non-consumable tool to join two facing work pieces without melting the work piece material. This is developed in Dec.1991 by The Welding Institute of UK using for Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, work pieces that could not welded by conventional types of welding and recently develop too much in different application because of economical and quality consideration. Modern types of tool developed recently for harder typed of materials work pieces like different type of steels. Also, different types of machines developed for this purpose. FSW can done by an ordinary CNC milling machine for small work pieces to professional single purpose robotic machine in orbital FSW in steel pipes welding in oil industries The process has been widely used in the aerospace, shipbuilding, automobile industries and in many applications of commercial importance. This is because of many of its advantages over the conventional welding techniques which include very low distortion, no fumes, no porosity or spatter, no consumables (no filler wire), no special surface treatment and no shielding gas requirements. FSW joints have improved mechanical properties and are free from porosity or blowholes compared to conventionally welded materials. In this project tapered cylindrical tool with three- sided re-entrant probe made of Tungstun Carbide (Wc) is used for the frictionstirwelding (FSW) of aluminium alloy HE30 – HE30 and test the mechanical properties of the welded joint by tensile test. Finally, we were compare mentioned mechanical properties and make conclusion. The result will help welding parameter optimization in frictionstirweldingprocess. Like rotational speed, depth of welding, travel speed, Tool Axial force, type of material, type of joint, work piece dimension, joint dimension, tool material and tool geometry. The detailed mathematical model is simulated by Minitab15. Experiments were conducted by varying rotational speed, transverse speed, and constant Axial force using L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. We analyzed the effect of these three parameters on tensile strength. In this investigation, an effective approach based on Taguchi method, has been developed to determine the optimum conditions leading to higher tensile strength. The present work aims at optimizing processparameters to achieve high tensile strength.
S.Verma e t al (2017) studied the temperature distribution deriving FSW o f A lu minum 6082 alloy, the te mp distribution is captured using thermocouple during FSW of 6082 for varying this angle the ma x te mp is attained on when tilt angle in 2° rotation speed 600 rpm well 30sec. M.V.R.Durga Prasad, Kiran Kumar Namal (2018) performed frict ion stir we lding on AA5083 and AA6063 to study the process parameter optimizat ion by ANOVA. The processparameters considered are rotation speed, weld ing speeds, and tilt angle. During their optimization, they find that welding speed has the major factor. The ma ximu m value of hardness at tool rotation speed 1200rp m, weld ing speed of 80mm/min and tilt angle of 0 °.
 P. K. Sahu, K. Kumari, S. Pal, and S. K. Pal, “Hybrid fuzzy-grey-Taguchi based multi weld quality optimization of Al/Cu dissimilar frictionstir welded joints,” Adv. Manuf., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 237–247, 2016.  N. Z. Khan, Z. A. Khan, and A. N. Siddiquee, “Effect of Shoulder Diameter to Pin Diameter (D/d) Ratio on Tensile Strength of FrictionStir Welded 6063 Aluminium Alloy,” Mater. Today Proc., vol. 2, no. 4–5, pp. 1450–1457, 2015.
In this study, Vikas, Mandeep Singh  use Al 6063 T6 is used as working material. Processparameters rotatory speed, traverse speed and in order to find their impact on tensile strength, the axial force is varied. The test was scheduled in the Taguchi orthogonal array L9. S / N ratios analyze the best possible setting parameters and ANOVA determines the contribution from the input parameter. Al6063 alloy butt joint specification with threaded cylindrical pin by FSW technique was successfully developed. They use rotational speeds 850rpm, 1050rpm, 1200rpm, traverse speeds 40mm/min, 58mm/min, 78mm/min and axial forces are 4kN, 5kN, 6kN.The optimal combination for FSW processparameters is a spindle speed of 1200 rpm, a translational feed of 78mm / min, an axial load of 6 KN, which achieves maximum tensile strength. .The maximum contribution of translation feed was 81.31% and rotational velocity was 15.44% accompanied by axial force with minimal influence of 2.03% on tensile strength. B. Influence of Tool Pin Geometric shapes on FrictionStir Welded similar Aluminum Alloy Joints In this study, an effort was produced to evaluate the tensile strength under distinct tool pin geometries of comparable joints of FSW structural aluminum alloy plates. .The instrument pin geometries used in this investigation were triangular, rounded and hexagonal. In this case study, AA 6082-T6 sheets 200 mm X 80 mm X 8 mm were used. Based on ASTM-B557, the 19.05 mm wide and 158.57 mm2 cross sectional area were prepared.(refer fig. 2 Tensile Test sample) .Then tensile test was performed on UTM to define the tensile strength of 9 samples were welded using different pin profiles. .
Avinash P et al  to investigate the mechanical and structural properties of AA7075 T6 and AA2024 T3 dissimilar aluminium alloys, with thickness ratio 1.3, since both AA2024 T3 and AA7075 T6 are not weld able by fusion weldingprocess, FSW process is used to weld both of these dissimilar alloys. Defect-free, tailor weld blanks were produced on the plates of AA7075 and AA2024 T3 having thickness of 6.5mm and 5mm respectively. The processparameters employed in this study include the tool rotation and travel speeds. The FSW tool employed in this study was made using AISI H13 tempered steel with square pin profile having pin diameter of 5mm, concavity at pin start of 1mm and pin length of 4.85mm. The welded plates have been characterized for their mechanical and metallurgical properties. The effects of tool rotational speed and the welding speed on the joint performance were discussed. Experimental result shows a sound weld has been produced at medium rotational speed (1000rpm) and lower travel speed (80mm/min), uniform weldments
Frictionstirwelding(FSW) has emerged as a technology of widespread interest due to its numerous advantages, most important of which is its ability to weld generally unweldable alloys. Compared with number of the fusion welding processes that are routinely utilized for joining structural alloys, FSW is a solid state joining technique in which the material that is being welded below its melting point. Defect free welds with high mechanical properties have been made in a various aluminium alloys, even those previously thought to be not weldable. Porosity, hot cracking and alloy segregation defects will not get in the frictionstirweldingprocess. FSW produces good surface finish and need not required post weld cleaning . There have been a number of efforts to understand the effect of processparameters on microstructure formation and material flow behaviour, hence mechanical properties of frictionstir welded joints. The impact of some parameters such as rotational speed, traverse speed and tool tilt angle on weld properties is major topics for investigators[4-6].Taguchi design of experiment (DOE) is a powerful tool to find significant factor from many by conducting relatively few number of experiments, in any case, this design basically does not account for the interaction among processing parameters. In view of time and cost saving, occasionally these interactions are ignored. If compulsory, the missing interactions can be found by further conducting the required experiments.
Figure 6(c), shows the effect of axial force on joint efficiency of frictionstir welded AA7075- 10%wt.SiC composite joints. The lowest strength was obtained at axial load of 5 kN and 9 kN. The joint efficiency of composite joint was increased with increase in axial load up to a maximum load of 7 kN. Further increase in axial load decreased the tensile strength of the joint. During the FSW process, the rotation of tool produces a large amount of heat input which brings the metal to become very hot and plastic state. The axial force is more responsible for the plunge depth of the tool pin into the work piece . The joining of materials depends on the extrusion process by axial force and the rotation of tool pin which propeled the plasticized material. At a lower axial force (5 kN), the lowest frictional heat is generated which is not sufficient to generate a adequate plastic state. At a higher axial force (9 kN) the plunge depth of the tool into the work piece is higher which drastically decreases the strength [Ref 16]. The joint fabricated with an axial force (7 kN) produced a finer grain structure with uniform distribution of reinforcement particle in the stir zone and resulted higher joint efficiency value. Hence sufficient axial force is required to form good weld.
ABSTRACT: Within this research study, Taguchi system of style of experimental was utilized to assess the impact of some weldingprocessparameters of sound state welding techniques like rotational speed(spinning velocity), travel speed in addition to pin profile on Tensile Strength (UTS), microhardness in addition to effect strength of FrictionStir Welded (FSW) 2024 light weight aluminum alloy joint. An orthogonal array of L9 design was actually employed for experimental trials and also Signal to noise proportion( S/N) values for each process specifications was computed. Based upon the S/N review the optimal level of process specifications was actually decided on as 1120 revoltions per minute, 25 mm/min and also Cylinder pin with Flutes( CWF) for best Tensile Strength and also micro Hardness. The ideal degree of processparameters for Impact toughness was actually pinpointed as 1120rpm,31.5 mm/min and also Tapered Cylindrical pin account( Drawback). Depending on to Analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was seen that the task of spinning, travel velocity and also pin geometry was 37.31, 64.84 and 1.13 per-cent effect on Ultimate tensile strength, 34.16, 51.28 and 0.58 per-cent impact on micro Hardness as well as 50.10, 43.7 and 6.2 percent influence on Influence Toughness of joint respectively. Eventually based upon FSW guidelines a model was actually created for tensile strength, Micro Hardness and Toughness values. The results were confirmed by further experiments, which yield the experimented values as 349.83 MPa for tensile strength, 114.26 Hardness and 7.8kJ Impact strength.
Koilraj et al., (2012) in their work, optimization of processparameters of frictionstirwelding of dissimilar aluminium alloys (copper, aluminium and magnesium alloys)using Taguchi technique (Taguchi L16 orthogonal design of experiments), considered parameters rotational speed, traverse speed, tool geometry and ratio between tool and shoulder diameter and pin diameter for optimization to investigate tensile strength of the joint. The results were analysed with the help of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and concluded that optimum levels of tool rotational speed is 700 rpm, traverse speed is 15mm/min , ratio between tool shoulder diameter and pin diameter is 3, pin tool profile is cylindrical threaded and finally frictionstirwelding produces satisfactory butt welds. Yahya Bozkurt (2012) has done work on optimization of frictionstirweldingprocessparameters to achieve maximum tensile strength in the polyethylene slab. Three processparameters, tool rotational speeds, tool traverse speed, and tilt angle of the tool were identified for optimization. The material taken for study is highdensity polyethylene sheet which is a thermoplastic to determine weldingprocessparameters on ultimate tensile strength of the weld for good joint efficiency. The optimization technique applied is Taguch‟s L9 orthogonal array, signal to noise ratio and ANOVA. The results depicted are tool rotational speed of 3000rpm contributes 73.85% to the overall weldingparameters for the weld strength and the tool tilt angle has least contribution. Elatharasan et al (2013) in their research study, experimental analysis of processparameters of frictionstirwelding and its optimization.
Taking advantage of high performance cluster parallel computing and the commercial Finite Element software ABAQUS python codes, the Finite Element Method was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimization to obtain the best value for the thermal input (heat from a moving heat source simulating frictionstirwelding) and thermal ﬁ lm coef ﬁ cient (between the workpiece and support plate). By using the predicted parameters from one set of experiment results, the temperature distribution at other points are predicted and found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The heat input predicted is also similar to that obtained in Refs. , in which a general inverse method is used. The optimization pro- cedure presented in this paper performs the parameter identi ﬁ ca- tion automatically and could be extended to include the complex features of the welding tool. As the temperature history plays a very important part of the microstructure in welded zones, this
alloy joints, namely tool rotational speed (N), tilt angle (A), pin prole (P ), welding speed (S), tool hardness (H), and diameter of tool shoulder (D), were identied based on their dominance and availability in experimental setup. The working range of the pa- rameters was selected through review of the literature and trial experiments . Six factor-ve levels half fraction Central Composite Design (CCD) was chosen for Design Of Experiments (DOE). Table 3 shows the processparameters and their respective levels. The lower and upper levels of each parameter were coded as 2:37 and +2:37, while other three equidistant levels were coded as +1, 0, and 1. The selected DOE, consisting of 12 star points, 8 center points, and 32 fractional factorial design points (2 6 =2 = 32), was
Frictionstirwelding (FSW)) is a new innovative solid state joining technique for joining Similar and dissimilar metals which has been used in aerospace, rail, automotive and marine industries. This paper optimized the effect of the weldingparameters on 5 mm thick AA 6082 aluminum plates. The processparameters are optimized by using ANOVA technique based as L8 orthogonal Array. Experiments have been conducted based on three processparameters, namely, the tool rotation speed, welding speed and plunge speed at two different levels. Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percentage elongation and Impact strength has been predicted for the optimum weldingparameters and their percentage of contribution in producing a better joint is calculated by applying analysis of variance. The results indicate that the tool rotational speed, welding speed and plunge speed are the significant parameters in deciding the strengths and percentage elongation.
Frictionstirwelding (FSW) is proved as a promising welding technology for joining dissimilar aluminium alloys. Aluminium alloys are used extensively within the aerospace industry for applications such as fuselage and wing skin panels due to their high strength to weight ratio. Therefore, an effort is made to optimize the processparameters of FSW using Al 6061 and Al 7075 alloys by the Minitab 16 program in order to enhance tensile properties such as elongation (E), yield stress (YS), and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Grey relational analysis (GRA) based on the Taguchi method is applied using two factors tool rotational speeds (TRS) and welding speed (WS) with four levels. Results show that the variables, namely the tool rotation speed and welding speed have a significant effect on yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and elongation. Results also show that the Taguchi based grey relational approach improved properties of output response of welded Al 6061 and Al 7075 aluminum alloys.
In many industrial applications steels are readily replaced by nonferrous alloys and aluminium alloys. Some of these materials combine mechanical strength comparable with that of structural steels and low weight. While production of aluminium alloy component is not very complex, joining of these materials can sometimes cause serious problems. The frictionstirwelding, as a solid state joining technique, can be used to settle the problems appearing in joining of these ma- terials, in which the joined material is plasticized by heat generated by friction between the surface of the plate and the contact surface of a special tool. The tool is composed of two main parts: shoulder and pin. The shoulder is responsible for generating the heat and containing the plasticized material in the weld zone, while the pin mixes the material of the com- ponents to be welded, thus creating a joint. This allows for producing defect-free welds characterized by good mechanical properties. However, the material flow behaviour is predomi- nantly influenced by the FSW tool profiles, FSW tool di- mensions and FSW processparameters .
FrictionStirWelding (FSW) is currently used in many aircraft and aerospace sheet metal structures involving lap joints and there has been growing interest in recent years in utilizing this process for joining aluminum alloys. In this paper, FrictionStir Lap Welding (FSLW) of the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy was carried out to obtain the optimum welding condition for maximum shear strength where the rotational speed, axial load, and welding speed were taken as processparameters. An L-9 orthogonal array, a Taguchi Method with con- sideration of three levels and three factors was designed and executed for conducting trials. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio were employed to investigate the influence of different welding parame- ters on the shear strength and obtain the optimum parameters. The Fish- er-Test was also implemented to find the design parameter which had the most important effect on the characteristic of quality. The results indicated that the tool rotational speed had the maximum percentage contribution (51%) on the response (shear strength) followed by the welding speed (38%) and the axial load (8%) while the percentage of error was 3%. However, to confirm the main effects for the means and S/N ratios of the experiment, theoretical shear strength values were computed to predict the tensile strength. The maximum shear strength of 60 MPa was achieved and the effec- tiveness of the method was confirmed. The optimum parameter combinations that provided higher shear strength were: rotational speed of 1200 rpm, weld- ing speed of 45 mm/min and the axial load of 11.5 kN.