razlozi za organizacijom informacija preživjeli i zaoštrili se, unatoč korjenitim promjenama u novom informacijskom univerzumu. Naime, napravljen je pomak prema umrežavanju u svrhu osiguranja pristupa informacijama prelaskom na više baza podataka i dokumenata u elektroničkoj formi. Organizacija informacija se manifestirala kroz internet i web na globalnoj razini, što znači da je mogućnost pristupa golemoj količini informacija omogućena korisniku, što povećava izazov pronalaženja i otkrivanja primjerene relevantne informacije. Temeljna svrha organizacije informacija je i u današnjem okruženju usmjerena na pronalaženje i otkrivanje izvora. Jedan od nositelja tih aktivnosti je knjižnična zajednica, te je izuzetno važan nositelj ako imamo u vidu njenu drugu tradiciju u osiguravanju pristupa informacijama kroz rigoroznu i strogu primjenu načela organizacije. Otvoreni su novi putevi istraživanja i razvoja uporabom automatizacije u okviru sustava za organizaciju informacija i njihovog pronalaženja i pretraživanja. Prema autorici Arlene Taylor koja je napisala knjigu The organisation of information, „to je dovelo čak do strukturalnih disciplinarnih pomaka u istraživačkim taborima
Achieving semantic interoperability in the digitalinformation environment is severely impeded by the adoption of different terminology sets and subject schemes within online services and collections. Variation in the way they are applied serves to compound the issue further. The result is that users are unable to cross search multiple sources, cross- disciplinary and cross-sectoral material simultaneously. In order to make life easier for users, therefore, and increase their ability to retrieve a greater proportion of information relevant to their needs with no additional effort, it is essential to encourage compatibility between terminologies.
There are already many systems, standards and recommendations in place for the provision of metadata. How can LIS professionals cope with the amount of information produced which needs cataloguing? How can the general user be encouraged to learn about these standards? Should these standards be changed to encompass e-science technologies to facilitate its uptake? How can the LIS professional learn what is best for using e-science? What can the LIS professional give back to e-science regarding the management and organisation of large scale datasets?
Lack of Awareness
Many studies have found that a lack of awareness is associated with lower use of electronic collections (Ibrahim 2004; Said, 2006; Warraich, 2007; Bashir, 2008). Hussain (2006) explores the perception of LIS professionals regarding digital libraries. He found the low IT literacy rate in Pakistan to be a barrier to digital libraries (pp. 50-56). Sadique (2005) found that lack of awareness about Information Resource Center (IRC) in PUL and low digital literacy were the main causes of lower use of electronic services. In a similar vein, a low level of understanding and awareness of available sources and services by the science and technology teachers of Punjab University limit the use of information systems
In 2006, UNESCO, Institute of Statistics, carried out a pilot survey of academic and public libraries (UNESCO, 2006c). Because school libraries were not included in this survey, UNESCO was contacted via E-mail (Mr. Georges Boade and later Mr. Simon Ellis, the project leader) and asked why school libraries had been excluded. Mr. Boade replied that although school libraries are important libraries, past UIS experience confirmed that there are many problems in the collection of data about libraries at national level. UIS carried out the pilot survey of academic and public libraries in a relatively small number of countries, in order to see whether or not there are signs of improvement in data availability in these kinds of libraries, but unfortunately this is not the case. However Boade concluded by saying that thanks to this recent small survey, UIS is able to evaluate the challenges which would have to be faced in data collection for all countries and for all types of libraries. Contact was then sought with the UNESCO project leader, Mr. Simon Ellis. Once more, the importance of the inclusion of school libraries in international surveys was reiterated. Ellis was informed that a number of national school library associations are now holding national online surveys resulting in new statistics on school libraries at national level in some countries. Ellis replied that while he shares enthusiasm for school libraries and agrees on their importance, UIS collects data which is likely to be available for the majority of countries in the world. While it may well be that some OECD countries now have such statistics, he does not believe that the majority of non-OECD countries have such (reliable) data. Ellis concluded that ‘the indicators would likely suggest that, where libraries exist in schools, the majority of pupils, controlled by literacy rates, do indeed use school libraries. Equally we would be able to judge number of volumes but not relevance to school curricula. ...’ Problems in collecting reliable qualitative data have also been encountered during this research at European level.
The aim of this paper is to give an overview of DigitalLibrary, the challenges and changing role of library professionals in the field of library and information science , and to show how these changes have influenced service aspects. The information and communication technologies have made life easier for library users as they get information at their fingertips in the electronic form instead of books, journals and other printed material.
There is always a cost in its creation, its production, and its dissemination. Digital libraries introduce new and uncertain economic realities and relationships into libraries. Where the costs of accessing information were once hidden to patrons, the digital era is likely to require customers who will be required to pay fees for access to digital services and collections. The major obstacle is digitization. Digitization is very cost intensive. Especially when one goes single handed toward digitization. For digitization to succeed in the developing countries, the socio-economic conditions have to strong to a digitallibrary.
4. Translation of literary works to audio content in indigenous language: with the advent of information technology, many youths are more interested in digitalinformation contents (DIC) than the analogue information contents (AIC). In line with this, library and information professionals can take proactive and pragmatic steps in translating literary works written in English to indigenous language either in written form or audio content. The audio content can be easily uploaded in various social media for the people to download to their devices and listen to at their own convenient. According to Benson, Okere & Nwauwa (2016), the school libraries with copyright permission from authors can help in the translation of literary works into our indigenous languages. They further posit that when this is done, the Nigerian child could now have access to such works and read it in the mother tongue.
information and communication technologies present new opportunities and challenges for libraries in general and special libraries in particular. There is a general agreement that special libraries are passing through a phase of dramatic changes due to the ongoing challenges being posed by information and communication technologies. Accordingly, they are challenged to explore new ways to accept and implement the changes made be IT to be fit enough to serve the experts, scientists, and research workers, who always demand specialised services perfectly, faultlessly, and accurately. Most scientific information today is available in a variety of formats such as CDs, DVD, Internet web sites, etc, which requires knowledge of specialised information handling techniques. Therefore, qualified well-trained staff and modern technological equipments should be available to boost technical procedures and services to an effective level and to enhance and foster productivity and expansion of research activity. It can be assumed that special libraries in developing countries need to modernise and implement their ICTs infrastructure and articulate information policies that assure the exploitation of information resources to the optimum to increase national productivity by utilising the information infrastructure. Improving IT education and research environment may be expected to create new business and facilitate industrial research. This in turn will foster related human development and enhance the total economy. Seeing the importance of today's technology and its capability for improving library services in addition to realising the recommendation of the World summit on information society (WSIS,2005) regarding exploiting modern ICT to foster productivity and expansion of research activity, the researcher come to the decision to build a low cost digitallibrary for the National Oil Corporation as a module .
There is no doubt that there are many different views in the literature as to the actual nature of digital libraries. This paper does not intend to provide a comprehensive collection of definitions of the digitallibrary, but rather a number of representative definitions. A variety of terms are still used interchangeably worldwide such as electronic library, hybrid library, library without walls, cyber library, virtual library etc. Arms (2000) views digital libraries as “managed collection of information with associated services, where the information is stored in digital formats and accessible over a network”. Witten (2003) defines the digitallibrary as a focused collection of digital objects, including text, video, and audio along with methods for access and retrieval, and for selection, organisation and maintenance of the collection. The digitallibrary federation (DLF) define digital libraries as “organisations that provide the resources, including the specialised staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities." According to jeng (2006) a digitallibrary in the 21 st century has the following characteristics:
The above review of the literature and discussions with librarians from our African partner countries confirmed that LIS curricula were not keeping up-to-date with the developments in the area of ICT and digital technology. Between 2008 and 2012 INASP had facilitated several workshops as a small component within its larger Library Development programme. It was partly as a result of the outcomes of these workshops that the decision was taken to expand the activity into a separate, discrete programme of activity within SRKS with its own budget and programme outputs. Some of the issues encountered during the workshops included:
Information literacy education for students, even information literacy courses included in the curricula, is an established task of university libraries. Academic libraries have a very strong status in the information literacy education, but one-shots do not accomplish the main goals of information literacy. The task of developing information-literate students is too large to leave to the librarians alone. Information literacy instruction should be extended beyond the libraries and media centers and into a synergistic environment [Witt & Dickinson 2004, 84]. Enlisting faculty in the cause of information literacy is the key to putting it on the academic agenda. [Badke 2017, 67.] Supervisors form the most valued, most frequent and inﬂuential academic contacts for doctoral students (British Library & JISC, 2012, 60 ; Delaney & Bates 2018, 79). Information literacy is connected to the very core of the academia: critical thinking. It must not be just mechanical information seeking skills, but it must equip students with critical thinking skills to deﬁne, consider, solve, embrace, and champion the ethical, political, social, and cultural opportunities and dilemmas that are presented to them in the digital age [Hoffmann & Wallace 2013, 547]. To develop into a skilled information handler takes the entire course of a student’s education. In fact, in many ways, in our era of information glut, becoming informationable actually is the education. [Badke 2017, 67.] And in order to model the information process for their students, it is important for teachers to reﬂect on their own use of information in professional learning [Williams & Coles 2007, 204].
The professional challenges in work environment have been ascertained based on 10 variables as shown in Table x. The opinions were obtained in a five point scale such as Strongly disagree, Disagree, No opinion, Agree and Strongly Agree. The mean and standard deviation were calculated based on opinion. The ranks were assigned based on mean and standard deviation. The responses were compared between gender The mean and standard deviation were calculated. The ranks were assigned based on mean and standard deviation. The responses, mean, standard deviation and rank were shown in Table8. The first preference were indicated as other than the nine variables thus selected. It is followed by Organisation development and training. The least preference was indicated to employee engagement and followed by leadership. The mean value ranges between 3.41 and 3.96 which indicated that all the variables were agreed by the LIS professionals. The standard deviation lies between
The library services are more frequently being used by students, research scholars and faculty members. The digitallibrary services have been providing great opportunities to serve the users who represent the growth and development of any academic institution. Libraries are an integral part of any education system and libraries known as repositories of knowledge (Mahajan 2005). Most of quality research is being carried out in universities, therefore, academic libraries need to be remained up to date and bring innovation for serving users. In digital age academic libraries has a significant role to play in information sharing. Nowadays, libraries are not a stockpile of collection but they have changed service orientation from analogue to digital. Now libraries have automated systems to support smooth access of library collection through OPAC (online public access catalogue) systems. Academic libraries have main objective to disseminate the knowledge to give best services to its users. The libraries have been upgrading their services to provide quality literature in the formats convenient to users [Pandey and Misra 2014]. Academic libraries have been focusing on enhancing the value of library resources, services, teaching, and research to help in improving the academic status of their respective institute. The libraries are effectively addressing information needs of users by effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility of resources, observing usability of library system, analyzing usage qualitatively to assess satisfaction on library system [Brindley 2009]. Therefore, it is essential to accommodate following components, highlighted in Fig.1, while creating any digitallibrary.
Following its advent, the power of the citizen brand of journalism has been tested in different places and situations. “The 2004 Indonesian Boxing Day Tsunami, the July 2005 London Bombing and the 2007 Virginia Tech disasters are cited in many research studies as examples where audiences on the ground took photographs, text and voice messages and eye witness accounts which told the ‘story’ in ways that almost eclipsed the traditional way of reporting news” ( www.theopennewsroom.com ). Other instances that quickly come to mind are the Arab Spring, the Occupy Wall Street Movement, the 2013 military takeover of power in Egypt and the attendant protests, 2012 elections in the United States and Ghana, just to mention a few. In each of the instances, ordinary citizens gathered information, including action pictures from scenes of incidents, and uploaded to the Internet for global consumption, within split seconds.
In South Asia countries main emphasis is laid on traditional aspects, cataloguing and classification dominate the curriculum. Library management, information source and services also are equally popular in the region. LIS syllabi are quite old and need to be restructured with redefined objectives to accommodate emerging changes in libraries, IT in libraries and expectation of users. Though the courses are designated as library and information science, there is little or no element of information science in the programme. Any attempts to change or development of curricular and service attitude seem to be lacking throughout the region. Literature available from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh it is evident that realized the necessity to change. Moreover the course content of the region is not meeting the requirement of the emerging job opportunities in the multinational companies. The core course area is still struck to classification, cataloguing, indexing and vocabulary control, the emerging themes, information science, knowledge management, e- learning, ICT application, application of network in teaching, search technique, library marketing have not been adequately included in the curricula. In reality there is lack of consistency between LIS-education and practice. Analysis of course content reveals that LIS programme in South Asia concentrate mainly on training students to manage a library by providing in-depth knowledge of traditional library practice. Trainees are provided with basic knowledge level of traditional library practices. In India and Pakistan options to specialize subject is provided. In India master programme are provide with a choice of bibliography and literature in humanities, social science, natural science, medical, agricultural, engineering and special libraries. Another option given is to select dissertation topic or any one form
study revealed that in the paper-based condition, students changed the mission order, either firstly performing those missions they perceived as easier or according to a personal strategy. Moreover, students could read all items on the paper glossary at once, possibly getting more information for identifying the mission target. This could be one of the reasons why, in the paper-based condition, students completed the challenge in less time and with less errors. We are now exploring new ways to give Explore!’s users more flexibility in problem-solving strategies and to provide more navigational hints. For example, we are implementing a context/task-aware help, whereby when the user activates the Oracle, the system provides appropriate indications based not only on the current mission, but also on the user position, provided by a GPS, and on task related knowledge, describing, for instance, similarities to other places. We have also started to place virtual sound sources at various locations at the site (e.g. noise from people at the market, crackling of the fire at the furnace, etc.) to increase the number of cues available for problem solving. Sound is also expected to enhance the overall user experience by helping users to become immersed in the role-play game.
2. Pretraživanje informacija
Pretraživanje informacija (engl. information retrieval – IR) glavno je područje istraživanja informacijske znanosti, a procesi koji se odvijaju tijekom pretraživanja nastoje se proučiti i razumjeti kako bi bilo moguće konstruirati sustave pretraživanja koji olakšavaju učinkovitu komunikaciju i prijenos informacija između sustava i korisnika. 1 Hrvatska enciklopedija definira pretraživanje informacija kao „... traženje i izdvajanje nekoga podatka iz velikoga skupa pohranjenih podataka, npr. iz teksta, proračunske tablice, baze podataka, zbirke, kataloga, kazala, sekundarnoga dokumenta. Kod računalnih sustava provodi se zadavanjem upita (engl. query), obično jedne ključne riječi ili više njih, sintagme ili sl. Jedna od najvažnijih primjena danas je na internetu, gdje se na osnovi ključnih riječi pretražuju dokumenti u obliku mrežnih stranica.“ 2 Iako danas pretraživanje informacija vežemo uz internet i računalnu tehnologiju, ustvari je riječ o disciplina koja postoji dugi niz godina. Čovječanstvo je počelo organizirati informacije za kasniju upotrebu i pretraživanje prije otprilike 4000 godina. Sakupljali su, organizirali i indeksirali glinene pločice, svitke papirusa te knjige. 3 Najraniji računalni sustavi pretraživanja stvoreni su krajem 1940-ih, a bili su nadahnuti pionirskim inovacijama prve polovice 20. stoljeća. 4 Sam termin skovao je Calvin Mooers 1950-ih godina, a jednu od definicija pretraživanja informacija dao je Gerard Salton, pionir u području pretraživanju informacija i jedna od vodećih ličnosti od 1960-ih do 1990-ih. Definirao je pretraživanje informacija kao područje koje se bavi strukturom, analizom, organizacijom, pohranom i pretraživanjem informacija. Iako je od nastanka ove definicije tehnologija značajno napredovala, ona je i dalje točna i odgovarajuća jer je termin „informacija“ jako širok i općenit, a pretraživanje informacija obuhvaća različite tipove informacija i aplikacija povezanih s pretraživanjem. 5