Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) is defined as behavior that exceeds the formal role determined and is not mentioned in the job description. They are optional behavior, they are not considered in appreciation or judgment. Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior towards organizations (OCB) is all behavior that is targeted to benefit the organization as a whole or certain departments such as volunteering to attend events that benefit the company, avoid complaining at work and preserve available resources (Aly et al., 2016). According to Ghashghaeinia & Hafezi (2015), the main research conducted in the field of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior is more to identify the responsibilities or behaviors that employees have in the organization, but are often overlooked. In line with what was conveyed by Organ, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie (2005), the behavior of organizationalcitizenship (OCB) contributes to innovation, resource transformation, and adaptability in environments that require complex, team-oriented work, which ultimately increases efficiency and the effectiveness of the entire organization. OCB expresses the organization at its goals and values. This gives the organization's strength, motivation and resources and promotes the interests of the organization. OCB is an activity that is considered as a useful activity for the organization (Eisenberg, Davidova, & Kokina, 2018). It was reaffirmed by Jackson (2009), who described OCB as beneficial behavior for employees, which was not determined but occurred freely to help other people achieve existing tasks and organizational goals.
Wahyuni, et al. (2016), states that organizationalculture directly has a significant effect on the performance of local government officials. This means that a strong organizationalculture will trigger employees to think and behave according to organizational values including as professionalism, trust in co-workers, order and integration, so that the suitability of the culture formed in each employee is able improve its performance for the better. Bambang Sularso (2017), states that organizationalcommitment has a positive and significant effect on employee performance, meaning that the higher the organizationalcommitment wiil be followed by the increase in employee performance. Furthermore Muzakki, et al. (2017), states that OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) has a significant effect on employee performance, this is reflected in altruism which is always willing to help other colleagues, and sportmanship, namely completing work by finding the best solution, can be useful to support the achievement of organizational goals. Langton and Robbins (2006) state that successful organizations need employees who are able to tolerate coercion and work-related disturbances, provide performance that exceeds expectations, and volunteer for additional work. Indicators measuring organizationalcitizenshipbehavior in this study are sourced from Muzaki, et al. (2017), namely: (1) altruism, (2) conscientiousness, (3) sportmanship, (4) courtesy, and (5) civic virtue.
2 an organization. Organizations try to encourage commitment in their employees in order to achieve stability and avoid cost when employees leave.
When employees are satisfied with their job, they are committed and usually not tempted to look for other opportunities (Lok, Wang, Westwood & Crawford, 2007). According to Porter & Smith (1970) organizationalcommitment is achieved when the employee strongly beliefs in and accepts the organizational goals and values, when they are willing to do their utmost on behalf of the organization and when they are willing to stay with the organization. In this definition commitment is something more than submissive loyalty to an organization. It means that you have an active relationship with the organization in the sense that you are going beyond normal duties with the intention of adding to the well being of the organization. Commitment could be concluded not only from employees their experiences and opinions but also out of their actions. Job satisfaction is a set of feelings an individual has about his or her job (Robbins, 2005). In research done by Lawler (1992) his theory offers a theoretical connection between more instant positive emotions like satisfaction, and longer lasting feelings like commitment. As a concept commitment differs from job satisfaction. Commitment represents a general response to the whole organization, goals and values included. Job satisfaction only focuses on one’s job or certain aspects of the job; it emphasizes specific surroundings of a task where the employee executes his duties. Due to all these factors organizationalcommitment is more stable overtime, it is not influenced by day to day events (Porter et al, 1974) like job satisfaction which can quickly increase or decrease as a result of immediate reactions to different incidents or aspects of the work location. People tend to evaluate their jobs on the basis of factors that they find important (Sempane et al, 2002). If the employees get the salary, the working conditions, the recognition and the advancement they want, they will probably be more productive and will also stay with the organization (Mc Neese-Smith, 1997; Randeree & Chaudhry, 2012).
Anahtar Kelimeler: Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışları; Örgütsel Bağlılık; Örgüt
Kültürü; Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi
ABSTRACT: One of the examples of behavioral patterns of employees is positive
extra role behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine the direct and indirect effects of contextual and attitudinal factors by focusing on organizationalcitizenship, which is one of those behaviors. The data which were collected from 384 employees of a private bank by using a survey form including OrganizationalCitizenship Behaviors Scale, OrganizationalCulture Scale and OrganizationalCommitment Scale were analyzed with structural equation modeling technique. The findings of this study indicate that the clan and development tendencies predict conscientiousness and courtesy, and the development tendency predicts sportsmanship and civic virtue behaviors of the employees’ extra role behaviors. Moreover organizationalcommitment has a partial mediator role in all these processes.
Organization is generally believed that excellence should strive to achieve individual performance as high, because basically individual performance affects the performance of the team or work group and ultimately affect the performance of the organization as a whole. Therefore, to pursue and improve the performance of individuals required culture, job satisfaction, commitment and sportsmanship behavior of the individual. This study examines how much influence organizationalculture, job satisfaction, organizationalcommitment and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) to organizational performance. The study population was employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in East Java Province shoe-ranking supervisor to manager. The sampling technique used is a collection of sample (stratified cluster sampling) samples totaling 174 respondents. Selection of sample areas is based on the areas that have the potential for industrial development (industrial district). Results of this study indicate that organizationalculture and job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment affect organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB). Organizationalcommitment and OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) effect on organizational performance. Simultaneously organizationalculture, job satisfaction, organizationalcommitment and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB affects organizational performance.
aggregate can improve the effectiveness of organizational functions . Organizations in general believe that to achieve excellence must seek the highest individual performance, because basically individual performance affects the performance of a team or work group and ultimately affects overall organizational performance. OCB is an individual voluntary behavior that is not directly related to the compensation system but contributes to the effectiveness of the organization. In other words, OCB is the behavior of an employee not because of the demands of his duty but rather based on his volunteerism . OCB indicators are as follows: 1 Altruism 2. Courtesy, 3. Conscientiousness 4. Civic Virtue, 5 Sportsmanship.  Some factors that are thought to influence OCB include: Organizationalcommitment Perceptions of leadership and organizational support,  , person organization fit  Job satisfaction
The same research of European Journal of Business and Management, “The Effect of OrganizationalCulture, OrganizationalCommitment on the Employee Performance Trough OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior,” by Hironimus Efendi Mandi (2019:34) states that, “Organizational cultural values and high commitment in the organization will increase the organizationalcitizenship behavior. Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior is formed from strong cultural values in the form of teamwork, building solidarity, and helping fellow coworkers who often experience difficulties in carrying out their duties. Besides a good citizenshipbehavior is formed from the commitment of employees and confidence in the goals of the organization, as well as obedience and loyalty to the orders given by the leadership.”
says that the concept of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior originally developed by Barnard in 1938 as "the desire to work together", then there is the concept of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, the behavior shown by employees in formal organizations. Usually, it is indicated through the job description that it is responsible so that the good and bad staff can be determined thoroughly by the job description. This is called role- behavior. However, to support the success of tasks within the organization, employees are expected to work not in their respective tasks, but they are required to work extra roles over their formal job description (extra-role behaviors). This is called organizationalcitizenshipbehavior.
Perceived organizational support can be defined as how much organization appreciate employee contributions and care about employees (Colakuglu et al., 2010). Colakuglu et al., (2010) shows that individuals feel their organization is supportive when the respect recieved is fair, employees have a voice in decision- making, and their supervision is supportive (Robbin and Judge, 2008:103). Perceptions of organizational support can give employees positive attitudes or behaviors, when employees are positive attitudes then this can also help achieve the goals of the organization as a whole. Perceptions of organizational support affect employee satisfaction, when employees believe that their welfare is supported by the organization will cause employee job satisfaction.
The result of the regression analyses reveal that, of the five hypotheses proposed, four are supported. Specifically, the effects of job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment on organizationalcitizenshipbehavior are significant. This finding is consistent with the prior research (Moorman, Niehoff, & Organ, 1993; Nadiri & Tanova, 2010). Furthermore, the effect of job satisfaction on turnover intentions is significant. This finding is consonant with the study findings of Karatepe and Uludag (2007). However, surprisingly, the study found no significant evidence between organizationalcommitment and turnover intentions. This evidence is contrary to the findings of Karatepe and Uludag (2007) and Cropanzano and Byrne (2000). It is known that frontline employees are confronted with many adverse circumstances in hotels in Northern Cyprus. These are lack of training, empowerment problems, insufficient salary, long hours, inflexible working conditions, work overload, burnout, work and family conflict, etc. (Karatepe & Uludag, 2008; Karatepe & Uludag, 2007; Karatepe et al., 2006). Thus, it is plausible to state that many factors may adversely influence the commitment of employees in an organization. These influences may lower the levels of commitment of frontline employees without, hence, incapable of lowering the levels of turnover intentions. To investigate this gap, antecedents of organizationalcommitment should be incorporated into future research. In addition, job satisfaction was a strong predictor of turnover intentions in the first step of the regression analysis (β= 0.72, t=
attitude reduces perceptions of organizational politics in (LMX) theory [37, 1] supported the need for a more the organization. While transactional leadership style who impartial relationship between leaders and members and has influencing characteristics enhance the political the idea of fair treatment of the individual. The present environment in the organization [84, 58]. study is examined the relationship between leadership Many past studies support our hypothesis that styles, performance, organizationalcommitment and OCB organizational politics has negative influence on in the presence of organizational politics. The findings of organizationalcommitment, OCB and performance of the the study revealed that organizational politics is a employees [69, 17]. These results have so much mediator between leadership styles on one hand and implications e.g. low level of citizenshipbehavior can commitment, performance and OCB on other hand beyond damage the ability of the organization to perform better the direct relationship between leadership styles and services for the citizens. That is why all the organizations other variables as discussed previously in literature. that are economically not much strong for its employees According to this study, transformational leadership benefit its employees by applying transformational may structure an environment that is less political and this leadership styles in order to reduce the levels of ultimately have a positive effect on the performance, organization politics. Such leadership may increase the citizenship and commitment level of the employees. Such employee’s commitment, performance and OCB towards an environment motivates the employees for better their organizations. performance, more commitment towards their organization Research Limitations and Implications: This study
Repeated social interactions may also help employees to know each other’s differences better, and thus understand that different people have different personalities (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998). Consequently, strong social interactions make employees less sensitive to the downsides of interpersonal conflict, because they help them to better understand the nature of such conflict, and hence the emergence of negative feelings and subsequent withdrawal from positive attitudes towards the organization should be subdued. Evidence of this buffering role of social interaction is found in a study by Ilies et al (2011), who find that social interaction buffers the effect of interpersonal conflict on negative affect, a construct that is akin, though not identical, to affective commitment.
Commitment is a combination of confidence and the motivational beliefs and enthusiasm of an employee as well as the development of the employee over the tasks it handles (Blanchard, 1991). Luthans, (2006) states organizationalcommitment is an attitude that reflects employees' loyalty to the organization. It is also an ongoing process whereby members convey their concern to the organization, success and sustainable progress as well.The style of leadership has been found to influence the affective and normative commitment of followers (Muthia, 2015). Tourigny, (2001) servant leadership is significantly related to the commitment of his followers, as leaders influence followers to produce higher performance and contribute to achieving organizational goals. Commitment developed by Meyer, Allen and Smith, (1993) to measure affective commitment and normative commitment. Servant leadership has an effect on follower commitment so that its performance is an important responsibility. Direct leadership affects team effectiveness (DeRue, Nahrgang, Wellman and Humphrey, 2011; Piccolo et al., 2012; Baldacchino et al., 2017).
The third groups of respondents (teachers, staff administration, and students) have different perceptions toward school organizationalcommitment variable. It is known from the difference of the value obtained in each of the indicators of each respondent. The teachers as respondent obtain a value higher than groups of respondent staffs administration, and students distinction variable value the school organization commitment is due to the difference in the perception of each the group of respondents. Where the results of observation and interview on the group of teachers have a strong stance toward the organization and happy to be involved in the activities of the organization, that is happy to be a member of the organization, teach students to disciplined, and there is a feeling of worry to leave school. The results of this study are in line with the results of research conducted by Nugroho (2013) stating that the positive effect of school organizationalcommitment, and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior significantly to teachers. According to Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979) the high value the school organizationalcommitment in member organizations are influenced also by factors of individual characteristics, characteristics of the organization, and work experience. Furthermore, research conducted by Davoudi and Kiarasih (2012) concluded that affective, sustainable, and normative commitment had a positive and significant effect on organizationalcitizenshipbehavior.
The finding of the second hypothesis result is that OCB has a direct and positive effect on service quality. Based on these findings it can be concluded that service quality is directly influenced positively by OCB. Increasing OCB will result in improved service quality. The results of this study are in line with the opinions of several experts including Robbins and Judge, who stated that organizations that have employees who have good OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior will have better performance than other organizations, so they can be expected to show high service quality in the form of behavior reliable in the job, responsive to needs, provide a assurance of trust, and empathize with customers. The same opinion was said by Djati in his research on administrative or administrative employees and students from six private universities in Surabaya who had more than 5,000 students, that OCB had a positive effect on service quality so as to provide satisfaction to customers at several universities in East Java (Djati, 2011: 18). The results of the study show that the quality of service provided by administrative employees to private university students in Surabaya is good. In addition, the results showed that moral, commitment, and motivation significantly affected OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior which subsequently affected service quality.
of their followers by increasing the level of intrinsic value associated with achieving goals; emphasizing the relationship between the efforts of their followers and the attainment of goals; and demonstrate a higher level of personal commitment to share vision / mission and organizational goals. Transformational leaders can increase their followers' commitment by providing inspiration, encouraging followers' involvement in work, and supporting followers' self-development (Avolio et al., 2004). Porter (2015) found that transformational leadership has effect on organizationalcommitment. In addition, McMurray, Pirola-Merlo, Sarros, & Islam (2010) in employees working in Social Enterprise shows that transformational leadership positively affects organizationalcommitment. However, Podsakoff et al. (2006) argue that transactional leadership also can contribute to generating work attitudes. SE has two missions, commercial and social (Smith et al., 2012). According to the context of SE, it needs leaders who can achieve these two missions. Transactional leaders will explain their expectation to, and reward the achievement of their subordinates. Meyer & Allen (1993) explain that experience in work that can give alignment to expectations will increase organizationalcommitment. Thus, it can be argued that the individual who gets the award in accordance with his/her performance will increase his/her affective commitment. Podsakoff et al. (2006) found that transactional leadership was positively associated with organizationalcommitment. Furthermore, study of Tarsik, Kassim, & Nasharudin (2014) found that transactional leadership positively correlates with organizationalcommitment.
This study was prompted by the substantial international body of theory and research that has emphasized the vital importance of organizationalculture and organizationalcommitment, and the fact that there has been no research in Nigeria on the relationship between these concepts. Some of the biggest challenges for developing theories with cross-cultural relevance come in the area of organizational studies. Differences in behavior, work values, and culture have been studied by many researchers in many different countries. Several frameworks have proven useful for understanding cultural differences and have helped to establish some relatively universal dimensions (e.g. individualism) that can be useful in understanding differences across national cultures  and organizationalculture. But few researchers have attempted to understand the impacts that employees’ involvement in decision making, organizations ability to adapt to their environment, employees’ identification with organizational mission have in influence employees’ commitment to the organization.
Abstract: This study aims at analyzing the influence of Procedural Justice, and Organizational Climate on OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) by mediating Employee Engagement. Survey methods with questionnaires were used as data collection techniques. Structural Equation Modeling was used as the data analysis technique. The results showed that organizational climate and employee engagement have a positive and significant effect on OCB; procedural justice and organizational climate have a positive and significant effect on employee engagement, while procedural justice has no significant influence on organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, which means rejecting the hypothesis in this study. Organizational climate is the dominant variable in influencing organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, therefor special attention and improvement must be made by management.
The psychological characteristics of employees are directly or indirectly influenced by organizationalculture which may be include OCB in recent years (Stamper and Van Dyne 2001). The attention in management literature and psychology has increased. The agency treats organizationalbehavior as arbitrary individual behavior and cannot be directly and explicitly declared through a formal organizational certification system, which generally increases the efficiency of the organization. Arbitrary means that behavior is not a labor responsibility or role, and it is not a commitment to recruit an employee, but an elective, and if it is not implemented, it will not be punished (Podsakoff et al., 2000). These actions lead to beneficial and beneficial behaviors to the organization by maintaining emotional and societal support, and are not yet completed at the time of application” (taxation in 2004). OCBs “behaviors are practical behavior, useful behavior and social behaviors (Alotaibi 2001). Graham (1991) suggest an OCB model and recognized three elements, “organizational obedience, organizational loyalty; and organizational association”.
the OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior can be apply by all the Bernama TV employees within the organization and how it can give an impact to the Bernama TV’s employees in terms of their behavior and attitude. The aim is also to see which affective commitment should the organization and the employees in Bernama TV focus more or change. A comparison between Bernama TV Management Team and Bernama TV Production Team will be done in order to observe the similarities as well as the differences in terms of their behavior and attitude towards to achieve good OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB). As ground work of this thesis theories regarding the behavior and attitude will be used and which dimension (occupational stress, organizationalcommitment – affective and job satisfaction) that the employees Bernama TV always used within the organization. The research question is based on the purpose with this study and is stated as follows: “. Is dimension of Occupational Stress, organizationalcommitment (affective), job satisfaction effect the dimension of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB)”. In order to conduct this study, the researcher have observe all the possibility dimension that may give big impact of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) towards Bernama TV employees behavior. Although Bernama TV is a well-known company that have emerged since 2 years ago, but still lack of the employees performance because of thei employees behavior and attitude rather than to have spirit of self belonging. The researcher really want to know which dimension (base on occupational stress, organizationalcommitment – affective, and job satisfaction) may build the organizationalcitizenshipbehavior and which one they should focus more or change. Besides of observing the Bernama TV employees behavior and their attitude, the researcher have come out those theories based on the previous researcher that have been done by other researcher. Lots of searching of journals, articles, books also from the internet, lots of reading in order to understand the concept of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior, behavior, commitment related behavior and commitment related attitude so that the researcher theory cannot be misinterpreted and also the study are reliable and valid.