The sources can also be divided into groups – those already consulted those yet to be consulted, and such. Care should also be taken that the entire publication detail is recorded and saved. Apart from this, in case the researcher needs to go back to any particular reference, it is easy if he records other additional information like the URL or the library call number. This ensures easy access and helps avoid confusion. At the same time, enough care should be taken in evaluating the reliability of the material. Sometimes the material can be based on some incorrect information and or the author’s knowledge might be limited. The author’s views may be biased. All these have to be weighed against the researcher’s own knowledge and intelligence before incorporating the ideas in his research. Focus should be on the ‘authority’, ‘accuracy’ and ‘currency’ of the sources. Articles taken from a peer reviewed journal ensures good quality as these journals go in for expert comments on the papers before publishing them. Thus, the researcher can be confident on the accuracy and authority of such papers. The publication date of the article tells the researcher if the author has updated his knowledge with the latest developments in his field. Eventually, the working bibliography thus prepared will become the list of works cited by removing the additional information (like the library call number) and arranging the list in an alphabetical order by the name of the author. A thorough reading of the resources thus collected enables the researcher has a rough outline of the actual research paper.
Case studies can be classified into a single case or multiple cases; a single case provides all needed information about research question from one organization. In a single case, information and data from one unit is enough to achieve the aims of the research. Mul- tiple case studies require data from more one unite to achieve research objectives. Sunders et al.  defined a single case as “A single case is often used where it repre- sents a critical case or, alternatively, an extreme or unique case”, also noted that multi- ple cases used more than one case to compare whether the findings of the first case oc- cur in other cases. Yin , claims that single case is more relevant if:
In addition to the study designs described in Table 2, other experimental designs include repeated measure- ment designs, factorial designs, and “early escape” in RCT. In a repeated measurement study, multiple obser- vations of response variables are taken from each partici- pant, allowing for within-subject comparisons and increasing the number of data points . In what is es- sentially a four arm RCT, factorial design involves double randomization in which two comparisons are made concurrently as if conducting two simultaneous studies in the same patient population with the assump- tion that there is no interaction between the two treat- ments (i.e. the biologic effect of the first intervention is not mediated or modified by the second intervention) . The benefit of a factorial design is that it allows in- vestigators to answer two research questions within the same trial. Applicable to various trial designs, in “early escape” designs patients can withdraw from the trial ei- ther by choice or if they meet a priori criteria listed in the protocol, possibly leading to enhanced retention and power . A prospective inception cohort is another relevant study design of interest but is non- experimental. In this design, cohort inception takes place at the time of medical diagnosis or start of treatment, allowing researchers to establish temporality among study variables, such as baseline confounders and
This Second Edition offers broad coverage, ranging from a basic discussion of the roles and responsibilities of the scientist (or client) and the illustrator to the most current technological advances in the field. It includes new chapters on basic computer graphics, murals, model building, illustrating molecules, astronomy, 3D modeling, and earth sciences. The hundreds of tools and materials that the illustrator uses are examined here, with specific recommendations for surfaces, media, drawing tools, propping materials, measuring devices, and more. Real-world guidance, best practices, and helpful tips support the text, as well as information on innovative applications unique to scientific illustration.
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Q methodology allows the participants to give a view that reflects their subjectivity. No other methods capture the essence of what the participants feel about a topic from collective voices, while at the same time identifying subtle differences between some of these voices. You can also do your Q study online and you would still generate your statements in the same way and run your analysis the same; the only difference is in the delivery of your Q statements. Many people have created their own online programs that try to map the paper version, but often they are limited in the number of statements that they can use, because of the size of the screen. However, there is an online version that is freely available, that does not restrict the number of statements. This application is the WebQ program which can be found on the Q method page (just type Q method page into Google). You enter your statements into the program and show how many statements are to be placed in each column (in the same way you design your Q grid manually) and the program will then present them to your participants in a linear fashion. It will look different to your participants than the usual Q grid, but they will be sorting the statements in the same way.
Data Collected from social media can sometimes not be generalized since respondents might have replied to the query without proper understanding of the importance of the research. In order to avoid challenges and opportunities arising from such situations, a very careful research design is required with clear research objectives and questions and the appropriate selection of analytical tools. If initial findings are statistically significant then they should be verified using at least one more distinct additional dataset which has been collected at a different time, using different methods, or on a different platform. If not, it may be necessary to reduce the scope of a study or reframe its central hypothesis to address a more specific aspect of human behavior on a given platform.
One such was developed by the missionary Thomas Fulton Cummings (1863–1942) in 1916. Cummings wrote several language learning manuals that were intended for English foreign resident language students in India. His method is an acknowledged adaptation of Prendergast’s, with the addition of Sweet’s phonetic approach. In Cummings’s autobiographical remarks included in the preface, a litany of different personal language learning experiences is detailed by the author. Cummings notes that the traditional approaches to language tuition in school for various languages had failed to produce results for him, while self-tuition with Prendergast’s method resulted in an improvement in both his own language learning, and subsequently, his language teaching success. Cummings employed Prendergast’s method of repeating whole sentences that included the full range of parts of speech and grammatical forms from the beginning, referring to it as “the slip method” in his own manuals for the learning of various Indian vernacular languages. However, the complaint regarding the poor material in the language manuals made by Rosenthal, mentioned above, was echoed by Cummings. In his annotated bibliography of significant language learning books, Prendergast’s Handbook is noted to be “excellent in theory, poor in applications in manuals” (Cummings 1916: 100).
The miniaturization that has resulted leaves us to wonder about its limits. Com- plete systems now appear on wafers thousands of times smaller than the single ele- ment of earlier networks. New designs and systems surface weekly. The engineer be- comes more and more limited in his or her knowledge of the broad range of advances— it is difficult enough simply to stay abreast of the changes in one area of research or development. We have also reached a point at which the primary purpose of the con- tainer is simply to provide some means of handling the device or system and to pro- vide a mechanism for attachment to the remainder of the network. Miniaturization appears to be limited by three factors (each of which will be addressed in this text): the quality of the semiconductor material itself, the network design technique, and the limits of the manufacturing and processing equipment.
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Whenever you refer to information in the text of your paper you must give credit to the author of that information. It does not matter if you reword the information; you must still give credit because it is not your research and/or your idea. If you don't give credit, you have plagiarized. This is not only unethical but also against the law. So, what is an in-text citation? An in-text citation allows you to refer to the work of others in your paper and includes a combination of a signal phrase and parenthetical reference. The parenthetical reference is a set of parentheses that appears in your paper next to the information you have taken from one of your sources and usually includes an author’s last name and the page on which you found the information. Occasionally, other situations arise and you may have to vary the information in the citation. Signal phrases transition readers smoothly into a quotation, summary or paraphrase.
Most of the discussion about ethics in tourism has focused on the ethics of tourism practice and the actions of tourists and tourism developers, planners, and businesses (see Fennell, 2006). Very little attention has been paid to research ethics in the writings of tour- ism academics (Botterill and Platenkamp, 2012; MacCannell, 2012; Moscardo, 2010). This could be attributed in part to the multidisciplinary nature of the field, with tourism researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, and geography guided by the various ethical codes and principles existing within these disciplines. The landscape of tourism research training is changing, however, with a significant increase in doctoral studies where tourism is considered the discipline. This raises the question of where these researchers find their ethical frameworks (Moscardo, 2010). The lack of apparent interest in tourism research ethics could also be attributed to a tourism-centric bias where researchers focus solely on what is happening within the established tourism literature rather than also maintaining connections with trends in the wider academic literature (Melissen and Koens, 2016; Moscardo, 2014). It is also possible that some tour- ism researchers follow their respective institutional regulations with regard to research ethics, assuming no need for critical discussion of ethical issues beyond these institutional requirements. Such critical discussion, however, does exist outside these regulations and beyond tourism, and it offers notes of caution, challenges, and suggestions for conducting more ethical tourism research.
consider ‘How actually are research findings represented in the media?’ Hammersley responds to this question through the case of mass media reporting of the findings of Gillborn and Gipps’ (1996) research on educational achievement of ethnic groups in Britain. Hammersley compares Gillborn and Gipp’s review and their subsequent press release with the content of radio, television and newspaper reports. Accordingly, the text proceeds through five chapters to analyse whether, or not, there was a case of media distortion in reporting the Gillborn and Gipps’ study. Whilst these are Hammersley’s substantive concerns, his text also asks us to rethink the relationship between ‘facts’ and values as, through his Weberian frame, he brackets out the issue of values until the final chapter. Thus, in the Epilogue, Hammersley explores the underlying value framework guiding his research.
. Demographics, including age, gender, race, date of diagnosis, and surgical resection, and tumor variables, in- cluding tumor size, location of the primary tumor, and grade, were queried. Tumor size was evaluated by CS tumor size 2004, and node status was evaluated by CS lymph nodes 2004 and “Regional nodes positive (1988+).” All subjects had cytological or pathological confirmation of invasive IPMN. Only cases collected from 2000 to 2016 were included. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 18 years or older than 100 years. Subjects were ex- cluded if they had no pathological or cytological confirm- ation and/or no follow-up information. Subjects were also excluded if they had insufficient information on the ana- tomical relationship of tumors to the surrounding vessels (as used in the 7thedition). Subjects who had incomplete information to allow restaging per the AJCC 7th and 8th stages were excluded from the study. For the consideration of accurate staging, patients were excluded if they were unresected or had unknown information of surgical resec- tion. Tumors were graded according to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma (high grade, undifferentiated and poorly differentiated; intermediate grade, moderate differentiated; low grade, well-differentiated). The study was approved by the local institutional review board.
The fear of many in the information security industry is that this provision could be interpreted and used to prosecute individuals carrying out commonly applied security practices. For example, a penetration test is a service performed by information security professionals where an individual or team attempts to break or slip by access control mechanisms. Security classes are offered to teach people how these attacks take place so they can understand what countermeasures are appropriate and why. Sometimes people are hired to break these mechanisms before they are deployed into a production environ- ment or go to market to uncover flaws and missed vulnerabilities. That sounds great: hack my stuff before I sell it. But how will people learn how to hack, crack, and uncover vulner- abilities and flaws if the DMCA indicates that classes, seminars, and the like cannot be conducted to teach the security professionals these skills? The DMCA provides an ex- plicit exemption allowing “encryption research” for identifying the flaws and vulnerabili- ties of encryption technologies. It also provides for an exception for engaging in an act of security testing (if the act does not infringe on copyrighted works or violate applicable law such as the CFAA), but does not contain a broader exemption covering a variety of other activities that information security professionals might engage in. Yep, as you pull one string, three more show up. Again, you see why it’s important for information secu- rity professionals to have a fair degree of familiarity with these laws to avoid missteps.