The decline in forest cover of deforestation has been recognized as a long-standing issue, which has been concerned globally since the early 1970s (Köthke et al., 2013). Historically, all theories of deforestation, however, have been just initially developed since early 1990s, when global environmental negotiation has found its momentum. It reflects that manifesting a certain theory is a long process passing through history. Complexity of deforestation might also contribute to make this process relatively long. Reviewing theories of deforestation enables us to draw an essential motivation of all of them, which is to address environmental degradations in forestry sector caused by deforestation, namely biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emission. By revealing and classifying direct and indirect factors leading to deforestation, policy makers is able to focus more on some strategic variables framed within proximate and underlying theory. EKC for deforestation provides a basic awareness of environmental damages during the development processes. It examines some policy alternatives to deal with environmental impacts. Time dimension is the focus of forest transition theory emphasizing that the unexpected deforestation or forest decline trend should be shifted towards forest recovery or reforestation trend. Land rent for deforestation theory is a spatial economic perspective elucidating how land use for forests competes with other land uses. Those theories offer different basic idea and point of view on deforestation. They offer different framework and approach of deforestation. Those theories, however, bring a similar important message, which is to address forest cover loss.
the immiserization theory. This theory postulates that the poor tend to extract more their natural resources to meet their needs,
resulting in expanding deforestation (Myers, 1993; Walker, 1993). Furthermore, Angelsen (2007) divides this explanation into two drivers, local villagers and outsiders.
Scholars and decision makers have concerned about demographic factor. Since global warming is believed as the anthropogenic problem, more attention is paid to this aspect. A well-known hypothesis is the Malthusian perspective seeing that increasing population will cause more pressure on forests (Palo, 1994). In economic point of view, more population means higher demand for agricultural products. Those effects will incentivize people to expand agricultural activities into forest areas. However, adverse impact of population growth is expected under the Boserup effect arguing that more population mean more creativity, ideas, and technology leading to less pressure on forests (Bilsborrow & Geores, 1994). It is possible also, that increasing population in rural areas may be followed by rural-to-urban migration leaving more land to be forested.
observed in different types of groups, the con- cept of ethnocentrism is originally developed to refer to allegiance to national or ethnic group identities (Brewer, 2007). According to Phinney, Horenczyk, Liebkind and Vedder (2001), nation- al identity involves attitudes and the feeling of belonging toward a larger social group, such as country or nation. On the other hand, ethnic identity is mostly seen as an important element of the overall national identity. Ethnic identity refers to an individual’s sense of self in terms of membership to a particular ethnicity, which implies beliefs about common ancestry and sharing one or more of the following elements: religion, culture, language, kinship and place of origin (Phinney, 1990). The ingroup biases that accompany the awareness of national be- longing may be considered as the driving force behind the phenomenon of consumer ethno- centrism (Verlegh, 1999). Within a social identity tradition, ethnocentrism is primarily seen as a preference for the ingroup over outgroup, re- ferring to positive ingroup biases and arguing against equating those ingroup biases with outgroup negativity (Bizumic & Duckitt, 2012). In line with the social identity theory, the studies on consumer ethnocentrism in most cases refer to ingroup favouritism, rather than to outgroup negativism. Consumer ethnocentrism has been confirmed as a stronger predictor of consumer preferences towards domestic products than towards imported alternatives (Balabanis & Dia- mantopoulos, 2004).
Initially discussed in the context of global environmental change induced by human activities (Turner II et al., 1990), the classification of driving forces of deforestation under this theory becomes well-established. However, the terminology of underlying, which was termed as the driving force, was introduced in 1992 in an article by Meyer & Turner II (1992) published in Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. The authors broadly covered global land-use and land cover change; and forest cover change or deforestation is one of global land cover changes. They classified factors driving global land-use/cover change into the proximate and the underlying sources. In the case of tree cover change, they indicate some direct sources, such as land clearing, ranching, timber extraction, and fuelwood extraction, whereas the underlying factors could be population growth, economic development, socio-cultural or technological change. Implicitly, this approach was applied to analyze the case of deforestation in Philippine/Southeast Asia (Kummer & Turner II, 1994). Currently, this framework, then, has been developed further by forest scholars (Angelsen & Kaimowitz, 1999; Contreras-Hermosilla, 2000; Geist & Lambin, 2001, 2002; Kaimowitz & Angelsen, 1998). Briefly, the proximate cause is defined as human activities that directly change the physical environment reflected in land cover, which is formed by underlying driving force, the indirect factor. The proximate factor is the near-final or the final human
Other economists have conducted studies on the impact of one or more of Porter’s five forces on the industry, showing how to analyze decomposed elements of the model. A significant part of the research is linked with the topic of barriers to entry. McAfee, Mialon and Williams focus on legal aspects of barriers and possible antitrust litigations as one of the factors shaping the profitability and timing of new competitors’ entry . Two kinds of barriers are specified: primary (costs constituting a barrier on their own) and ancillary (reinforcing other barriers if they are present). Some researchers analyzed the sources of entry barriers and their significance using empirical evidence from chosen industries. Lieberman after examining data from chemical firms claimed that excessive capacity, in theory one of such sources, is in reality quite rare and ineffective . Its effectiveness is undercut in industries with high market growth, low producer concentration and low capital requirements.
In order to simplify the concept of asset pricing, it needs to give a snapshot of the literature and a brief overview of perspectives in the field in addition with to describe what it is meant by an asset. The assets, financial or nonfinancial, will be defined as generating risky future pay offs distributed over time. Pricing of an asset can be seen as the present value of the pay offs or cash flows discounted for risk and time lags. However, the difficulties coming from discounting process is to determine the relevant factors that affect the pay offs. Navigating the market signals and inferring their impacts on the pay offs are the main task of asset pricing and required to implement the strategic implications. It is highly important in decision making process at the firm level and also at the macro level. When we consider “asset” pricing we often have in mind stock prices. However, asset pricing in general also applies to other financial assets, for instance, bonds and derivatives, to non-financial assets such as gold, real estate. Models that are developed in the field of asset pricing shares the positive versus normative tension present in the rest of economics. When we consider a model 1 by which we predict the future, we usually rely on the underlining assumptions behind it. If the underlining assumptions are true after evaluation process of normative tests, their predictions should be true which can be examined through positives tests. However, what we do is in fact not more than putting everything in one simplified settings.
The summary of studies presented in Table 1 also suggests that the lower-order dimensions of TEI may be differentially implicated in achievement. For example, Rodeiro et al. (2012) found that the self-control and self-motivation dimensions of TEI were moderately predictive of achievement. These findings broadly accord with the earlier theorizing about the motivational processes triggered by self-control and self-motivation dispositions underlying the link between TEI and achievement. On the contrary, these researchers reported that the sociability dimension of TEI was virtually unrelated to achievement (Rodeiro et al., 2012). Furthermore, Saklofske et al. (2012) obtained a small negative coefficient for the association of sociability (operationalized via the interpersonal subscale of the EQ-i) with achievement. These results are somewhat consistent with the theorizing above regarding the potentially divergent effects of TEI on achievement.
A review of work by Postmodern Class Analysis scholars suggests that only a small number study, in a strongly empirical but theoretically informed sense, the dynamics of the workplaces – see for example Hillard’s work on industry and organizational change (1998, 2004); van der Veen’s work on prostitution (2001), Curtis’s work on higher education (2001) and Gibson-Graham & O’Neill analysis of multi-national corporations (2001). CMS, in some contrast, attends directly to the dynamics and problematics of ‘understanding’, knowledge and practice ‘immediately inside the production process’ and includes a strong empirical dimension to this work.
leadership had on those taking on these roles emerged in the research reviewed, but generally this was not the focus of the research. More focus in this area might, among other things, provide the beginnings of a teacher leadership professional learning trajectory for increased leadership capacity.
Finally as noted in the results, no research was found in the body of literature reviewed that examined the impact of teacher leaders on student learning. This stood out within the literature, particularly because a commitment to student learning is articulated in the ways that most define teacher leadership, including how we defined it for the purposes of this research. To be clear, we acknowledge that there is research linking overall school leadership and student learning (e.g., Leithwood & Jantzi, 2008; Leithwood, Patten, & Jantzi, 2010; Ma & Klinger, 2000; Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008). However, there were no studies in the pieces of literature included in this review specifically linking teacher leadership to student learning, even though York-Barr and Duke (2004) identified this as a need in 2004, and the educational climate has shifted towards an increased focus on accountability for student learning. Although it has been recognized that there are inherent problems associated with documenting the ‘value-added’ by teachers (or in this case, teacher leaders; e.g., Ballou & Springer, 2015), the lack of data on this matter has the potential to adversely impact educational policy. Therefore, we urge researchers to investigate possible correlations between teacher leadership specifically and student learning through either methodologies like those employed in establishing the link between overall school leadership and student learning (e.g., Leithwood & Jantzi, 2008; Leithwood, et al., 2010; Ma & Klinger, 2000; Robinson, et al., 2008) or by exploring methodologies more relevant and specifically tied to the explicit roles articulated for teacher leaders. Given the political emphasis on accountability, we believe that teacher leadership can be no more than a passing fad unless empirical research can support the value of teacher leadership in terms of student learning.
Australia, Canada, Brazil, Germany, Mexico, Turkey and France, no empiricalstudies of this type (as far as the authors are aware) have been conducted outside the United States. There is an obvious requirement to examine the usefulness of EVA ® vis-à-vis traditional financial statement measures in an alternative institutional milieu. A second direction is to follow Biddle’s et al. (1997, 303) suggestion that “an avenue for future research suggested by the findings of this study is to examine more closely which components of EVA ® and earnings contribute to, or subtract from, information content”. Put differently, given that EVA ® consists of nearly 160 potential changes to accounting figures grouped across adjustments to accounting measures of operating profits and capital, there is the requirement to quantify the contribution of these sub-components to overall firm performance.
However, many theoreticalstudies have shown that there are several mechanisms that justify significantly different growth rates among economies (Lucas, 1988; Romer, 1990), which is also confirmed by empirical evidence (Quah, 1996; Gwartney and Lawson, 1997). Endogenous growth theory specifies no diminishing returns in the production function and thus, any factor that affects the level of technology also affects the long term growth rate of the economy (Romer, 1986; Barro, 1990; Rebelo, 1991). Psarianos (2002) identifies three main distortions that may lead to a sub optimal steady state rate of growth of output by the decentralized allocation of resources in this framework, as follows: (a) A weakening of the incentive to invest in R&D due to the probability of monopoly rents that reward successful innovators not being realized, (b) The inefficient allocation of capital goods in the production process due to the monopolistic pricing of those goods, and (c) The inability of the market to reward researchers for the reduction in the cost of future technological advancements that follows the expansion of current knowledge. Therefore, there is room for fiscal policy to
Furthermore, other studies also were devoted to correcting statistical and econometric flaws in previous works and extant empirical literature. The studies found out that Environmental Kuznets curve is highly dependent on functional forms and that omitted variables could also tend to affect the shape of the curve. This is consistent with the works of (Hilton and Davidson, 1998), Harbaugh et al (1998), Koop and Tole (1998), Galeotti and Lanza (1999) etc.
The trade models developed Ramstetter were interesting because they separated the impact of FDI from the impact of domestic investment. However, the application of the models to developing countries, although having better theoretical support, yielded some unexpected results. First, model mis- specification still remained unsolved since relative prices were not taken into account. Second, the existence of serial correlation in some of the estimations made them statistically less reliable. Third, the type of lag structure embodied for investment variables was not direct. As was mentioned before, they used weighted averages rather than lagging investment variables. Therefore, these studies were not sufficient to capture the full effect of FDI on the trade performance of host countries. Moreover, the time period studied by these authors was not long enough to suggest a persistent long run economic relationship. Finally, the estimation results that were obtained through OLS might be spurious and t-statistics and F-tests might be invalid, since the variables concerned were not checked as to whether they were stationary or not.
vague" and that it "means no more than respect for per- sons or their autonomy". Macklin's paper in the British Medical Journal in 2003 generated responses arguing for and against the utility of dignity http://bmj.bmjjour nals.com/cgi/content/full/327/7429/1419. If Macklin is correct in saying that dignity equates with respect for per- sons or their autonomy then it seems plausible that the additional terminology of dignity is not necessary and we should simply demand that people are treated with respect. Without an analysis of respect  this is less than helpful. However, from our review of the literature and interdisciplinary discussions, we would argue that dignity is fundamentally concerned with claims of worth or value, with behaviour that justifies such claims and with treat- ment by others that shows appropriate respect: dignity is thus not reducible merely to autonomy or to respect. Fur- ther, the negative implications of dignity can be avoided and it serves an important function in nursing ethics and is then a necessary and appropriate nursing value. 5. What promotes and diminishes dignity in practice? Learning from empirical findings A dialectical relationship between theoretical analysis and empiricalstudies in relation to dignity, and the underla- bouring role of philosophy, is, arguably, particularly important in relation to the care of older people. In dis- cussing how sociological theory informs their empirical study, Calnan et al  argue that:
pastuović (2012) indicates that there are very different opinions about the croa- tian education system quality, from extremely bad to very positive, which lead him to conclusion that only objective indicators can be considered as indicators of quality, namely: knowledge tests. however, pastuović (2012) emphasizes, how tests of knowl- edge results cannot be the only indicators of quality, they can affect the rational man- agement of educational policy. To assess the education system quality, there are some essential indicators: 1) the average national results achieved on international tests in mathematics, science, and reading; 2) the level of equality in educational achieve- ments between certain schools and the national average; 3) the size of socioeconomic impact on academic achievement. pastuović (2012) further explains that the more the achievements of certain schools are closer to the national average and the smaller the impact of economic, social, and cultural status of families on educational attain- ment, the education system is better. To assess the education system quality in croa- tia, lowther (2004) based on the following indicators: 1) quantitative indicators such as enrolment rates, literacy rates, electronic literacy, number of classes, government expenditure in education; 2) the results of empirical research made on a sample of 300 croatian companies whose aim was to found out if the croatian education sys- tem creates necessary knowledge and skills for the current needs of the economy; 3) qualitative studies, particularly the oecd Reviews of national policies for education, where he compares the croatian education system with other countries.
encouraging questions and participation in decision mak- ing about management, as well as discussion of emotions and feelings . These interventions produced positive psychological outcomes in 26 of 35 trials (e.g., reduced anxiety and depression, enhanced quality of life, and well- being) and positive physical outcomes in 11 of 25 trials (e.g., reduced pain and improved functional status). Inter- estingly, PtDA studies with or without coaching focused more on educational and decision-related proximal out- comes than on psychological outcomes. Generally, PtDA studies have included some secondary psychological mea- sures, such as anxiety, and found no difference. This is sometimes interpreted along the lines of “ decision support does not psychologically harm patients ” , which would pre- sumably be occurring if it increased anxiety . However, broader literature on coaching (outside of PtDAs) suggests psychological benefits such as reductions in anxiety . Further research is needed to understand the impact of coaching delivered with PtDAs on psychological outcomes.
Studies have shown that, higher welfare benefits in some local jurisdictions compared to others have a great impact on welfare migrations. And as a result it leads to a race to the bottom outcome in setting preferred levels of welfare benefits by local jurisdictions. To address this phenomenon most countries introduced welfare reforms. The introduction of the national guideline welfare norm in Norway led to the race to the bottom outcome in setting preferred levels of welfare benefits by local governments. This thesis evaluates the evidence of race to the bottom outcome triggered by the implementation of the national guideline welfare norm. Furthermore it investigates whether local authorities in Norway set their welfare benefits levels based on that of neighboring local authorities. These objectives were accomplished by undertaking a pre- and post-reform evaluation of the welfare benefits levels offered by municipalities in Norway. The study was based on secondary data on welfare benefits. Data on welfare benefits before the reform was derived from the study of Fiva (2009) while the post-reform data was derived from Statistics Norway (SSB) database on welfare benefit norms that different municipalities in Norway offered after the welfare reform was introduced.
Abstract: Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is a new aspect to be considered in organization in order to overcome work stress issues among employees. The critical study of PSC which build from the foundation of work of psychological safety and safety climate pioneered in 2010 by Maureen F. Dollard and Arnold B Bakker in Australia. The features of climate specifically expected to affect psychological health. New construct of PSC was defined as shared perception of organizational policies, practices and procedures to protect employees’ psychological safety and health. Previous studies stated that there are four main elements in PSC which are management commitment, management priority, management and employee participation involvement in stress prevention and organizational communication. It is believed that PSC could be a potential contributor in achieving organization’s aim for more positive psychological health environment among employees. Therefore, this paper aims to explicate the theoretical development of PSC and identify the impact on work stress among employees.
Azevedo et al., (2010) after a thorough review of theoretical literature have identified some gaps in the research agenda. In general, this research does not study the direct and net effect of IPR on economic growth. In fact it only analyzes the relationship between IPR-induced factors and economic growth, or the impact of IPR on other economic indicators such as welfare, technological change, FDI, R&D, innovation, etc. This happens because a standard argumentation is adopted, maintaining a strict relation between these elements and economic growth.
There are divided opinions about the importance of personnel training for pay increases due to seniority. According to Models 3 and 4 in Table 7, wage increases due to seniority occur because no value is attached to specific per- sonnel training in other workplaces. As a result, someone who stays at the same workplace for some time will receive a greater pay increase than someone who often changes jobs. Hence, the empirical prediction is that a pay increase due to seniority will be higher if specific training occurs. However, several studies indicate that personnel training is not one of the main reasons for increased pay due to seniority. Barth (1997), using data from the 1989 Norwegian Survey of Organizations and Employees (NSOE) found a significant negative correlation between the job’s training requirements and increased pay due to seniority for specific know-how. And in a sample of companies in the US and Japan, Levine (1993) found that companies with high wage increases on the grounds of seniority did not have more personnel training than average. However, one explanation may be that the training was general and took place in the initial stages of employment. In Sweden, Regnér (2002) indicates that, based on LNU cross-section data, training increases the employee’s level of pay, but that increased pay is not linked to seniority 37 . According to Regnér, one possible