Top PDF The Pain as a Triggering Factor of Dental Anxiety

The Pain as a Triggering Factor of Dental Anxiety

The Pain as a Triggering Factor of Dental Anxiety

To increase the accuracy of assessment, Melamed et al in 1975 (7) enumerated a list of behaviors deemed to be reactions induced by fear of dental surgery, and also the frequency of in time of the events evaluated by their inclusion after observing the child for a period of 30 minutes successively, the researcher indicating which of these reactions have occurred in each interval of 3 minutes. It is denoted the presence of the following behaviors observed in two situations: in the case of separation by mother and the behavior in the cabinet. In the first instance, it notes: the presence of the following behaviors: if the baby cries, clinging to the mother, refuses to leave or sticks to her. In the second situation is noted the presence of the following behaviors: if the baby cries, drown or suffocate, does not want to stand in the position of examination, tries to remove the tools, protesting verbally. overreacts to pain, close the eyes, becomes pale on the extremities, cries on injections, he refuses to open his mouth, has rigid posture, oblige the doctor to raise the tone of voice or to appeal to the constraints. To each reaction is given a score, thus quantifying the intensity and frequency of motor behavior of manifestation of anxiety in children.
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The prevalence of dental anxiety and its association with pain and other variables among adult patients with irreversible pulpitis

The prevalence of dental anxiety and its association with pain and other variables among adult patients with irreversible pulpitis

Among the 130 respondents, 46.9% were males and 53.1% were females. Mean age of the participants was 41.8 years (SD =14.25). Mean total score for dental anxiety on MDAS was 14.17 (SD = 4.76). Cronbach’ s alpha was 0.91 in the current sample. Based on the MDAS score, 16.9% of the subjects were identified to be less anxious (5– 9 total score), 66.9% were moderately anxious (10–18 total score), and 16.2% (≥19 total score) were seriously anxious (defined as dental phobia). Table 1 show mean MDAS score for all the categorized variables and difference among groups. Subjects who had higher MDAS scores were more likely to postpone their dental visit (P < 0.05). No correl- ation was found between MDAS and variables including age, gender, educational background, employment status, self-perceived oral health status. Negative dental experi- ence during treatment demonstrated the strong relation with dental anxiety. Participants who had bad experiences at their most recent dental visit were more anxious com- pared to those with good experiences (P < 0.05). Pain at most recent dental visit or before the present dental visit was the important factor correlating with dental anxiety among participants (Table 2). The mean CARS score was 2.24 ± 0.96. Notably, 36.2% participants displayed moderate or severe anxiety according to their expressions, behaviors or talks during this present visit for endodontic treatment. A positive correlation was also observed between MDAS and CARS (P < 0.001). Subjects who experienced more pain at the most recent dental visit were more likely to display anxiety when they received endodontic treatment (Table 3). Participants show higher CARS score if their past endodontic experiences were bad (P < 0.01). Mean- while, for participants who didn ’ t receive endodontic therapy before, negative attitude from others ’ experience or other media were also associated with more anxiety during this present endodontic therapy ( P < 0.001).
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Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies

Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies

Abstract: An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA) has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociode- mographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS), Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS), Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive cor- relation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P,0.001) and CDAS (r=0.32, P,0.001). Fathers’ CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P,0.05). There were no significant differ- ences in children’s fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclu- sion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children’s DFA. Keywords: fear of dental pain, pain behavior, coping skills, adaptive behavior, school children, parents
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Dental anxiety in patients with borderline intellectual functioning and patients with intellectual disabilities

Dental anxiety in patients with borderline intellectual functioning and patients with intellectual disabilities

performed studies on dental anxiety, such as Denmark [4], England [5], Finland [6], Saudi Arabia [7], Hungary [8], and Sri Lanka [9]. Several studies have attempted to determine a correlation between fear of the dentist and other factors, in order to prevent some anxiety causes, to recognize anxious subjects and design customized treatments. The variables most often considered to be associated to anxiety were: gender, age, level of educa- tion, past dental experiences, fear of pain, parents ’ attitudes and influence. Results from the previous litera- ture have not always been consistent, albeit the majority of authors agree that anxiety toward dental care is one of the major causes of renouncing dental treatment, thus impacting on social and economic aspects.
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Pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population: a cross-sectional pilot study

Pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population: a cross-sectional pilot study

Although not part of the study design, our experience with allowing the psychology department members to screen our patients prior to treatment resulted in treat- ment delays of up to 20 min. Further, when the interven- tion technique was tested, an additional 10 min were required. In this case, the patients who agreed to partici- pate in the study were willing to take the extra time into account. The treating hygienists, however, remarked that the patient screenings for dental anxiety placed an add- itional time pressures that made adherence to their treatment schedule difficult. Average dental hygiene ap- pointment times are 1 h per visit. With patients also quoting time and cost as reasons for avoidance of treat- ment [26], anxiety reducing intervention would need to be short, preferably self-administered and/or run con- current to the scheduled dental hygiene recall treatment. In addition to psychological interventions, pharmaco- logical pain management may also offer some benefit when treating anxious patients [31]. Previous studies have shown that patients with HA have a chronic tendency to expect, and remember, more pain than that which they ultimately experience [32, 33]. Further, should they experience more pain than originally anticipated, they will then not only an- ticipate even higher levels of pain for the next treatment but their increased fear level will be long-lasting [34, 35]. The results of our current study showed a tendency to- ward higher levels of anticipated pain by the HA subjects. When a cycle of anticipated pain and pre-treatment anx- iety exists, helping patients maintain consistently lower- than-anticipated pains levels may be a necessary step in reorganizing their expectations and facilitating a decrease in their anxiety levels. In view of this, pain management should remain a top priority when treating HA patients.
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Effect of Virtual Reality During Periodontal Treatment of Patients with Anxiety

Effect of Virtual Reality During Periodontal Treatment of Patients with Anxiety

Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 14 eligible patients were randomly divided into two groups. Participants of one of the groups were wearing eyeglasses during SRP of the first quadrant, while in the other group, SRP was performed without any intervention. The intervention group was reversed for SRP of the second quad- rant. The patients’ anxiety (dental anxiety scale-revised, DAS-R), pain score (visual analog scale, VAS), blood pressure (BP), and pulse rate (PR) were recorded before and after SRP. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-U test.

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Dental Anxiety among Danish Adults—Comparison of Recent Website Data and Older Telephone Data with Government Demographic Statistics

Dental Anxiety among Danish Adults—Comparison of Recent Website Data and Older Telephone Data with Government Demographic Statistics

DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2017.712050 541 Open Journal of Stomatology These results were also similar to results that used these very same negative dentist behavior items in a larger US study nearly 30 years ago [33]. Locker et al. [34] also reported on negative experiences with dentists in a Canadian popula- tion of N = 3055 and found that those with painful and frightening experiences had almost 10 times higher risk of being high DA patients (DAS > 13), while those with painful, frightening and embarrassing experiences increased the risk to 22 times higher than others. This emphasized that frightening and embar- rassing experiences with dentists, such as in the items above, had substantial in- fluence over highly anxious patients’ perceptions of negative dental experiences. Oosterink et al. [13] found in their 2009 study that dental phobias were unique from other phobias in that they had trauma-related symptoms including a pre- valence rate of 49.4% of individuals with intrusive re-experiencing of bad en- counters. The present results and those of these other studies indicate that the dental profession must redouble efforts to prevent bad experiences and condone negative dentist behaviors for both the benefit of patients and of the profession as a whole. This requires that dental education provide dentists with optimal communication skills and up-to-date knowledge of dental anxiety and pain con- trol.
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Psychological distress and anxiety compared amongst dental patients- results of a cross-sectional study in 1549 adults

Psychological distress and anxiety compared amongst dental patients- results of a cross-sectional study in 1549 adults

Patients suffering from dental anxiety are restricted in their daily routine. Most of the time, these patients will only choose to make a dental appointment if the pain becomes too unbearable. If the dentist is unaware of the patient’s anxiety, the encounter can deteriorate. This should not be the experience first experience of an indi- vidual fearing dental treatment. Screening using the Dental Anxiety Scale is fast and easy and can prepare the dentist to handle the patient. This would, however, require that the dentist has been professionally prepared to treat a patient who fears his surroundings. Improve- ments can be made in preparing students during their training or given as a mandatory lecture. With the help of specialized practitioners and a fully prepared dentist, it may be possible to reduce dental anxiety in susceptible individuals.
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Assessment of Relationship between Pain and Anxiety Following Dental Extraction—A Prospective Study

Assessment of Relationship between Pain and Anxiety Following Dental Extraction—A Prospective Study

Normality of the quantitative variables was checked by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Normality was found for age, anxiety scores and VAS. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all the quantitative variables with respect to the entire group, for males, for females and for the different age groups. Student’s unpaired t test was conducted to compare gender differences between anxiety scores and VAS. One way ANOVA was used to compare age differences between anxiety score and VAS. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was calcu- lated to analyze the relationship between VAS and each question of the modified dental anxiety questionnaire. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
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Dental anxiety, communication and the dental team : responses to fearful patients

Dental anxiety, communication and the dental team : responses to fearful patients

23. Watzlawick P, Beavin-Bavelas J, Jackson D. Pragmatics of human communication: A study of interactional patterns, pathologies and paradoxes. 1st ed. New York: Norton; 1967. 24. Zhou Y, Cameron E, Forbes G, Humphris G. Systematic review of the eff ect of dental staff behaviour on child dental patient anxiety and behaviour. Patient Educ Couns 2011 Oct;85(1):4–13. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2010.08.002. Epub 2010 Aug 31. 25. Versloot J, Veerkamp JS, Hoogstraten J. Pain behaviour and distress in children during two sequential dental visits: Comparing a computerised anaesthesia delivery system and a traditional syringe. Br Dent J 2008 Jul 12;205(1):E2; discussion 30–1. doi: 10.1038/ sj.bdj.2008.414. Epub 2008 May 23.
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Dental anxiety in patients attending a student dental clinic

Dental anxiety in patients attending a student dental clinic

There has been some work published regarding whether or not the dental treatment received influences patient anxiety levels. Early research established that painful dental experiences and expectations of trauma were associated with fear of dental procedures [13]. These negative reactions were countered by personal qualities of the dentist [13]. Procedures involving the needle or drill seem to evoke the most fear. Invasive pro- cedures such as subgingival scaling, deep probing, fill- ings, extractions and root canal therapy are associated with more reported pain, especially in those with high dental anxiety [14]. These patients also had previous painful experiences, expected treatment to be painful and reported lower levels of control during treatment. In a recent study [8] involving a patient group receiving dental hygiene maintenance, those with higher dental anxiety anticipated more pain from procedures involving probing, scaling and vibrating sensations. The literature however indicates that dental fear is lessened prophylac- tically through regular dental visits [15].
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Comparing oral health in patients with different levels of dental anxiety

Comparing oral health in patients with different levels of dental anxiety

Dental anxiety is a complex psychological inhibitor which may even influence other parts of the individuals life. It is necessary to analyse how to best treat patients with high dental anxiety to prevent bad oral health. The large sample size of a general population used in this study makes this study especially relevant for dental practitioners. The DMF-T index was not significantly linked to dental anxiety, even though there is a slight in- crease the DMF-T average score visible. It was possible to link a larger amount of destroyed and missing teeth to patients with a higher amount of anxiety before a dental visit. These patients make a dental appointment not as regularly and therefore there is no feed-back from a professional to diagnose and treat carious lesions in their early stages to prevent tooth decay. Dentists have the obligation to educate their patients in how to improve oral health if necessary. This is not possible if no regular check-ups are appointed. Dental anxiety can cause a patient to evade dental treatment fully, even if pain is present. Every patient visiting our dental clinics had to overcome himself and make an appointment to be part of our study. This could still indicate that there could be a group of highly anxious patients which would feel too worried to make an appointment for a dental treatment, let alone take part in our study during a den- tal examination which might propose even more stress [27]. When it becomes unbearable the dental appoint- ment might be too late and end up in tooth removal or invasive tooth preparation. The amount of filled teeth could not be associated with dental anxiety like in simi- lar studies [26], even though there is a decline in filled teeth noticeable the more anxiety the patients admit
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Children’s experiences of dental anxiety

Children’s experiences of dental anxiety

Common recurring themes described by the dentally anxious participants included: making negative predictions about what could happen (e.g. expectation of pain, clinical error, suffering harm, being powerless); reliving traumatic dental experiences (e.g. memories, nightmares); avoiding dental care (e.g. deceptive strategies, negotiation); and experiencing negative affective states (e.g. fear, anxiety, anger, shame, embarrassment), and physical symptoms (e.g. autonomic arousal). In this study a deductive, top-down approach was utilised. 17 However, as further evidence for the helpfulness of the Five Areas model in describing and making sense of child dental anxiety, the findings are consistent with previous qualitative studies involving dentally anxious adults that used inductive analysis (e.g. Grounded Theory), 28;29 or where novel methods were used, such as evaluating videos about dental anxiety that were posted on social media. 30 Although the child and adult experience of dental anxiety have similarities, a difference was apparent in relation to avoidance of dental care. 29 Unlike adults, children do not make the decision themselves about dental attendance. The participants in this study described attempts to deceive or pressure their parents into cancelling appointment. Correspondingly, parents have reported that they can feel overwhelmed and unable to convince their child they needed to attend. 31 The multi-dimensional nature of the experiences described by children also highlights potential limitations of the currently available paediatric self- report measures which may only capture part of children’s overall experience of dental anxiety.
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Understanding children's dental anxiety and psychological approaches to its reduction

Understanding children's dental anxiety and psychological approaches to its reduction

There is no single explanation for the development of dental anxiety and a variety of different mechanisms have been applied to understanding the aetiology of dental anxiety. Rachman proposed three different possible mechanisms of fear acquisition which included i) exposure to threatening information ii) vicarious learning (e.g. observing significant others displaying anxious behaviours) and iii) direct experience. Whilst there is limited support for the informational pathway in the acquisition of children’s dental fear research has revealed that child and parental dental anxiety are closely linked, providing some support for the argument that the modelling pathway may be important in the development of children’s dental anxiety . Direct experience, however, has also been found to play a significant role in the development of children’s dental anxiety . Classical conditioning is one of the mechanisms through which fear can develop following previous negative dental encounters. This is the process whereby a once neutral stimuli (e.g. a dental probe) becomes associated with a negative experience (e.g. pain) as a result of these stimuli being paired together in the past (e.g. a painful dental examination) . Indeed children who report previous negative or traumatic dental experiences are more likely to experience higher levels of dental anxiety than those who have had more positive dental experiences .
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Psycho-Behavioral Particularities in Dental Anxiety

Psycho-Behavioral Particularities in Dental Anxiety

These terms are often considered as having the same meaning. However, please note that events are different in terms of the intensity of symptoms. People with dental anxiety feel agitated, tensioned and embarrassed before going to the dentist. They worry, exaggerate, fearing without no real reason, yet, often exceeding difficult moments, managing to "accept" the benefits of dental treatment. In phobias, people feel intense fear, become terrified, and suffer from panic attacks when confronted with anxious situation. Not infrequently, these subjects faint when they are in a medical practice. Fear of physical pain, the occurrence of physical deformities, blood and injections determine them to give up treatment, increasing the risk of gum disease and premature loss of teeth (5). This avoidance has negative effects on the psyche, as discolored or decayed teeth lead to loss of confidence in us. Teeth unpleasant appearance makes people to smile less, partially open their mouth and to difficult express themselves. Phobia is installed gradually as a result of repetition of experiences more or less anxious or through conditional or social learning. Sometimes, this conditioning is fixed during periods of high stress or hyperactivity intervals when reactions characterized by fear are easily learned (6).
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The Influence of Stress and Anxiety on the Expectation, Perception and Memory of Dental Pain in Schoolchildren

The Influence of Stress and Anxiety on the Expectation, Perception and Memory of Dental Pain in Schoolchildren

Dental pain scores and psychosocial measures were not normally distributed according to the Shapiro–Wilk test (p < 0.05). The comparison of age, education, psychosocial measures, expectation, perception and memory of dental pain between sex groups was checked using Mann–Whitney and Fisher’s exact tests. Children’s stress scale and state–trait anxiety inventory psychometric properties were assessed for internal consistency using Cronbach α coefficient and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Statistical correlations between psychosocial factors and dental pain measures were sought after using the Spearman coefficient correlation. The Mann–Whitney test was used to compare the expectation, perception and memory of dental pain measures between stress, state anxiety and trait anxiety groups. Pairwise comparisons between dental pain expectation, dental pain perception and dental pain memory for the whole sample and relevant psychosocial factor groups were assessed using the Wilcoxon test. Multivariate ordinal regression was carried out to estimate the odds ratio with 95% CI and p values of stress, state anxiety, trait anxiety and dental pain expectation, dental pain perception and dental pain memory adjusted for age and sex. All analyses were performed in IBM SPSS Statistics version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Chicago, IL, USA). The significance level established for all analyses was 5% (p ≤ 0.05).
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Dental anxiety, psychiatry and dental treatment: How are they linked?

Dental anxiety, psychiatry and dental treatment: How are they linked?

544 subjects took part in this study but 30 were excluded because they failed to respond to important items on the questionnaire. The group, thus comprising 514 subjects, was recruited from several dental surgeries. 253 subjects were male and 261 female and they were aged between 16 and 70 years old (average = 35.70; S.D. = 14.21). Af- ter obtaining their consent, the subjects were asked to take part in the study during the time they spent in the waiting room. Prior consent was also obtained from the dentist.

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Dysfunction of the modalities of pain expression as a possible cause of problem behaviours in the patient with autism

Dysfunction of the modalities of pain expression as a possible cause of problem behaviours in the patient with autism

PDD NOS, who were admitted in a psychiatric ward because of severe problem behaviours. The causes of these problem be- haviours seemed to be referable to different physical conditions that could possibly affect the behavioural manifestation of pain, i.e., frontal glioma, auditory hyperesthesia, lobar pneumonia, and coprostasis.

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MEASUREMENT OF ANXIETY LEVEL AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING DENTAL TREATMENT AT MANGLORE

MEASUREMENT OF ANXIETY LEVEL AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING DENTAL TREATMENT AT MANGLORE

Dental anxiety has been recognized as a significant barrier to the seeking of dental care which might be in the form of a delay in receiving dental treatment is associated with the deterioration of oral health. Studies have found that those experiencing high levels of dental anxiety are among those with then poorest oral health related quality of life.

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THE EXPLORATION OF FACTORS TRIGGERING FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANXIETY: LEARNERS' VOICE

THE EXPLORATION OF FACTORS TRIGGERING FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANXIETY: LEARNERS' VOICE

Abstract: This article presents the findings of a study looking at the factors which learners believe have contributed to their anxiety in their foreign language learning. A questionnaire with a three-point Likert scale was developed and used as the means for data collection. Descriptive analysis of the data, focusing on mean scores, was carried out using SPSS software. The results indicate that most learners experienced foreign language anxiety in their learning. Factors such as lack of preparation, lack of confi- dence and fear of failing the class have been the major contributors to learners fo- reign language anxiety.
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