Top PDF Parental physical punishment : child outcomes and attitudes

Parental physical punishment : child outcomes and attitudes

Parental physical punishment : child outcomes and attitudes

3. The issue of corrective actions Third, while it is hard to base conclusions about causality on correlations at the best of times, some researchers argue that it is insufficiently recognised that correlations can be particularly misleading when used to examine corrective actions; that is, remedial actions used to correct a perceived problem (Larzelere, Cox & Swindle, 2015). This is because the corrective action, in this case parental physical punishment, is inherently confounded with the perceived problem, in this case childhood problem behaviour 20 . This creates a selection or intervention bias because children receiving the corrective action have a poorer prognosis than those not requiring the corrective action. Assuming that the corrective action is only ever partially successful, the argument is that correlational studies are biased by residual ‘problem behaviour’ and draw the conclusion that this is an ‘impact’ of the corrective action, when some or all of the results are likely due to the poor prognosis inherent in the behaviour problems the
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Parental Assets: A Pathway to Positive Child Educational Outcomes

Parental Assets: A Pathway to Positive Child Educational Outcomes

Sherraden, 1991; Shobe & Page-Adams, 2001; Yadama & Sherraden, 1996). Similar results are seen in research on Individual Development Account (IDA) programs, which foster asset accumulation among low-income participants by helping them save for asset-building purposes. Participants in IDA programs report changes in their attitudes and expectations after participating in an IDA program and starting to save (McBride, Lombe, & Beverly, 2003; Sherraden et al., 2005). Examples of these changes include increased self-confidence, increased hope for the future, increased ability to set and achieve goals, greater sense of responsibility, and reduced levels of stress. Moreover, some IDA participants with children have reported feeling reassured that their savings would benefit their children by paying for their children’s education, improving their living environment, or generally providing for their children’s future (McBride, Lombe, & Beverly, 2003; Sherraden et al., 2005). Research provides mixed findings regarding which types of parental involvement activities are most beneficial to child outcomes. Parental involvement in school is significantly associated with positive child outcomes, and, although to a lesser extent, parental involvement in the home is also shown to be significant (Barnard, 2004; Fan & Chen, 2001). In our study, only one of the two measures of parental involvement is shown to mediate the effects of asset holding on child academic outcomes. Specifically, the number of breakfasts is a significant mediator but the parental involvement
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A Review of the Outcomes of Parental Use of Nonabusive or Customary Physical Punishment

A Review of the Outcomes of Parental Use of Nonabusive or Customary Physical Punishment

A finding was counted as a beneficial outcome if nonabusive or customary physical punishment significantly (P < .05) predicted a desirable outcome in the child (eg, improved complianc[r]

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Testing moderation : physical punishment, parental warmth, and aggression

Testing moderation : physical punishment, parental warmth, and aggression

displayed by fathers was positively related to that displayed by mothers. Together, this combination of results provides some empirical evidence that father-mother pairs concurrently vary greatly in their parenting characteristics and techniques. Another interesting finding was that fathers and mothers tended to use comparable levels of physical punishment. However, neither physical punishment nor parental warmth was related to the child aggression at 54 months, and this was true for both parents. This finding did not hold true for aggression at 24 months, however. Fathers and mothers who exercised higher levels of physical punishment tended to have children who displayed higher levels of aggression, according to mothers. Furthermore, results suggested that mothers who were warmer had children who were rated by both parents as less aggressive. The time- specific discrepancy in these results suggests that, although there may be no association between physical punishment or parental warmth and child aggression 30 months later, the relationship may be more contemporaneously significant. Although premature, an argument might be made that the relationship among these variables when physical punishment is not
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EFFECTS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSE ATTITUDES AMONG ADOLESCENTS UDC

EFFECTS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSE ATTITUDES AMONG ADOLESCENTS UDC

Attitudes establish communication with many things inside a social structure. While occupying a noteworthy space in this structure, parents are also important in terms of the concept of attitude. Accordingly, numerous studies were conducted for investigating pa- rental attitudes (Dietrich & Salmela-Aro, 2013; Özdemir et al, 2013; Ishak et al., 2012; Oncu & Unluer, 2012; Sawalha, 2012; Serinkan, 2012; Hoeve et al., 2011; Bolkan et al., 2010; Huver et al., 2010; Nekkebnoeck et al., 2010; Abar et al., 2009; Brand et al., 2009; Paczkowski & Baker, 2008; Yang &Shin, 2008; Dwairy & Menshar, 2006; Orhon et al., 2006). In view of these studies, it was clear that parental attitudes are influential on a wide range of issues, from education to motivation, from the sense of discipline to nutri- tion, from self-control to daily life, from development to academic success. With parental attitudes having such an influential effect, various models were developed in order to de- scribe their effects on behavioral outputs of the child. Baumrind (1973; 1978) suggested that there were three types of parenting styles, which are permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative. While permissive parents warmly approach their children, they are unsatis- factory in guiding them and limiting their behavior. On the other hand, authoritarian par- ents show less affection for their child and place emphasis on their obedience to them. An authoritative parenting style involves affection as well as behavior of clear and compre- hensible guidance for children to acquire a series of important behavior styles and values (Baumrind, 1973).
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Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Their Attitudes Towards the Use of Physical Punishment in Schools

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Their Attitudes Towards the Use of Physical Punishment in Schools

Selection of participants was facilitated via collaboration with the Early Childhood Education course instructors and school administrators. The researchers, course instructors, and school administrators organized a time that was convenient to ask individuals for participation and completion of the survey. The survey contains a short demographic questionnaire, the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale-long form (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001), questions assessing values and beliefs regarding discipline practices (Atiles, 2012), and a modified version of George W. Holden’s Parent Response to Child Misbehavior, to address teacher responses instead of parent responses, with author’s permission (Holden & Zambarano, 1992; Holden, Coleman, & Schmidt, 1995) which in this study is called Teacher Response to Student Misbehavior (TRSM).
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Attitudes Predict the Use of Physical Punishment: A Prospective Study of the Emergence of Disciplinary Practices

Attitudes Predict the Use of Physical Punishment: A Prospective Study of the Emergence of Disciplinary Practices

A second contribution of this study concerns the link between attitudes and behavior. 31 Significant correla- tions were found with spanking attitude (assessed when their children were just 6 months old) and spanking behavior at each of the 4 ages. The correlation attained its highest value at child age 48 months (r ⫽ 0.50), although the values at 24 (r ⫽ 0.47) and 36 (r ⫽ 0.42) months were highly significant as well. These correla- tions provide evidence that spanking often has an in- strumental basis and that adults already may have formed specific attitudes toward spanking early in par- enthood. More generally, this finding of the attitude- behavior link supports the contention by Holden and Edwards 32 that if attitudes toward a specific child-rearing practice are assessed, rather than global decontextual- ized attitudes, significant attitude-behavior links can be found. The magnitude of the correlations may be limited because of the likelihood that some parents are “emo- tional spankers” 20 and may not have had positive atti- tudes about the practice. Support for this was found in some of the comments mothers provided regarding the context of their use of corporal punishment. A common theme of these comments was that spanking occurred when the mother was angry or had lost control. In addition, several mothers doubted the effectiveness of spanking. This trend is similar to the results of another study 33 in which it was found that parents who reported spanking frequently acknowledged that it was not the best method.
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Parental attitudes toward disclosure of the mode of conception to their child conceived by in vitro fertilization

Parental attitudes toward disclosure of the mode of conception to their child conceived by in vitro fertilization

The reasons for this are unclear. Compared to conventional IVF, ICSI is a relatively new technique. Parents may be more anxious about the long term outcomes of this technique and may wish their child to be fully informed. Undecided parents were most concerned that their child was too young. All the children of families in this survey were under the age of 6.5years. The parents were not asked if the current age of the child was relevant to their future decision about revealing mode of conception. It may be that parents wish to wait until their child has developed further and asks questions for him/herself. The majority of parents who stated that their child’s age was a factor also had other reasons for non-disclosure.
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Predictors of parental use of corporal punishment in Ukraine

Predictors of parental use of corporal punishment in Ukraine

of parents responded affirmatively to these same items in 2012 (Lansford et al., 2017). Despite the legal ban, however, the data from this study would further suggest that many Ukrainian parents still use physical punishment, including more serious forms such as hitting a child with an object that could result in physical abuse. Durrant and colleagues suggest that it can take up to one generation for norms re- lated to physical punishment to change signi fi cantly enough to be re- flected in parenting behaviors. Notably, Ukrainian parents also reported high use of nonviolent discipline strategies, such as explaining why something was wrong and redirecting the child (Lansford & Deater-
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Parental attitudes towards extracurricular physical and sports activity in school-age children

Parental attitudes towards extracurricular physical and sports activity in school-age children

872 | 2013 | ISSUE 3 | VOLUME 8 © 2013 University of Alicante Parents clearly prefer their children to take part in swimming and football, probably because of the tradition of these sports in Spain (Romero et al., 2009). What is more, parents are generally satisfied with the activity their child takes part in and the teacher’s performance; data which is consistent with the findings of other research (Jordan et al., 2002; Capdevila et al., 2004). In line with these results, our research data has shown that most of the parents surveyed, when asked their opinion about physical and sporting habits, agreed that participating in these activities is good for your health. This reason coincides completely with those mentioned in previous studies aimed at elucidating why parents enrol their children in extracurricular sporting programmes: they want them to enjoy themselves, have fun and do exercise (Passer, 1982; Weiss
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Parental attitudes towards extracurricular physical and sports activity in school-age children

Parental attitudes towards extracurricular physical and sports activity in school-age children

872 | 2013 | ISSUE 3 | VOLUME 8 © 2013 University of Alicante Parents clearly prefer their children to take part in swimming and football, probably because of the tradition of these sports in Spain (Romero et al., 2009). What is more, parents are generally satisfied with the activity their child takes part in and the teacher’s performance; data which is consistent with the findings of other research (Jordan et al., 2002; Capdevila et al., 2004). In line with these results, our research data has shown that most of the parents surveyed, when asked their opinion about physical and sporting habits, agreed that participating in these activities is good for your health. This reason coincides completely with those mentioned in previous studies aimed at elucidating why parents enrol their children in extracurricular sporting programmes: they want them to enjoy themselves, have fun and do exercise (Passer, 1982; Weiss
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Understanding the Relationship between Parental Income and Multiple Child Outcomes: a decomposition analysis

Understanding the Relationship between Parental Income and Multiple Child Outcomes: a decomposition analysis

Although it is the adverse family characteristics of poor children that underlie the majority of the income gradients in child outcomes, we do find a significant role for the wider local environment beyond the family in predicting low income children’s deficits in both cognitive and health outcomes. While the correlation between neighbourhood deprivation and poorer outcomes is well established, less is known about the mechanisms through which the estimated effects operate. Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn (2000) provide three potential explanations. Firstly, they argue that the availability and quality of institutional resources such as childcare facilities, schools and recreational facilities may play a role. Our finding that children in deprived neighbourhoods tend to be fatter than other children is relevant to recreational facilities broadly defined 37 . But we find no evidence that the composition and quality of schools in low income neighbourhoods is a factor in explaining the deficits of poor children in any aspect of child development 38 . The second is the poorer mental and physical health and weaker social support networks of parents in low income neighbourhoods. We find some support for this view in that differences in psychological functioning associated with deprived local environments contribute significantly to the deficits of low income children in behavioural outcomes and fat mass, although this is less true for cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. We also find some support for Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn’s third mechanism of norms or collective efficacy. They characterise this mechanism as relating largely to monitoring and rule enforcement by non-parental local residents. We find, however, that some 10 percent of the income gradients in both behavioural problems and fat mass can be accounted for by the poorer health-related behaviours of parents in deprived neighbourhoods. This suggests there may be a role for local social norms in shaping the smoking, breastfeeding and eating habits of low income mothers (see also Macintyre et al., 2002; Ellen et al., 2001). Finally, selection may be a fourth potential explanation.
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Harsh Physical Punishment in Childhood and Adult Physical Health

Harsh Physical Punishment in Childhood and Adult Physical Health

reporting bias is probably minimal be- cause previous research has shown high agreement between self-reported and physician-diagnosed physical conditions. 45 Similarly, BMI was computed by using self-reported weight and height, which may introduce some measurement error. However, mean self-reported weight and height have been shown to be generally accurate estimates of true mean weight and height. 46 Third, the retrospective data collection of exposure to harsh physical punish- ment and child maltreatment may in- troduce some sampling error caused by recall and reporting bias. However, there is support for the validity of ac- curate recall of adverse childhood events. 47 Furthermore, psychopathol- ogy has not been found to be linked to less reliable or less valid self-reported data on adverse childhood experi- ences. 48 Fourth, the measure of pa- rental psychopathology relied on the respondent ’ s retrospective recall of parental mental health problems.
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The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups

The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups

relatively greater tendency to attend to relationships and emotional cues (Gilligan, 2005), in part, explain the evident effects of verbal punishment from both mothers and fathers on girls’ outcomes. That fathers’ verbal punishment did not predict boys’ negative outcomes runs contrary to previous research. It must be borne in mind that children’s reactions to parental discipline are influenced by their interpretations of the discipline event (Deater-Deckard & Dodge, 1997). In the Philippines, boys are generally expected to occupy roles of authority in the household and society whereas females are viewed as more delicate and in need of protection (Garo-Santiago, Mansukhani, & Resurreccion, 2009). This perception may lead parents and children to believe that sons must toughen up in order to be strong and responsible adults in the future (Sanapo & Nakamura, 2011). Indeed, Filipino fathers were found to be more punitive compared to mothers and boys were found to receive more harsh punishment than girls (Sanapo & Nakamura, 2011). Thus, perhaps, the lack of associations among paternal verbal punishment and boys’ negative outcomes is due to the acceptance and normativeness of harsher punishment from fathers.
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Longitudinal Effects of Improving Inter-Parental Relationships in Low-Income Couples: Child Outcomes

Longitudinal Effects of Improving Inter-Parental Relationships in Low-Income Couples: Child Outcomes

18 for improving their support and commitment to each other, and ways to evaluate their expectations of each other. Finally, couples learn about taking time out to preserve and protect the positive side of their relationship, how to maintain strong community connections, and how to plan for their futures. The stress and coping modules teach couples and individuals how to identify the stressors in their lives with an emphasis on financial stress and how to distinguish between those events and circumstances that are readily solvable and those that need to be coped with in another way. Next, individuals learn progressive muscle relaxation and are taught about the importance of giving and receiving social support. Then, individuals are taught basic problem solving steps and work through current problems using the steps, focusing on problems that have identifiable solutions. Finally, individuals learn how to cope more effectively with stressors that are not readily solved in the moment using active acceptance and cognitive restructuring (Raviv & Wadsworth, 2010; Wadsworth & Santiago, 2008). The child- centered parenting module teaches parents how to identify and set developmentally appropriate expectations for their children, teaches how to use positive reinforcement to build prosocial child behaviors, and introduces the idea of natural consequences and alternatives to corporal punishment such as time-out. Parents reflect on their own and their partner’s parenting styles and conduct a structured activity to help them develop a co-parenting plan.
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Parental Distress, Parenting Practices, and Child Adaptive Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Parental Distress, Parenting Practices, and Child Adaptive Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Level of parental psychological distress was not significantly associated with child adaptive functioning following orthopedic injury. If this finding were to be replicated prospectively it would lend further support to the notion that children with TBIs are more vulnerable than children with OIs to the negative effects of maladaptive familial and social environments (Taylor et al., 1999; Wade et al., 2003, 2011). In terms of the current study, we must also consider several other factors that might account for the absence of a significant relationship among these variables in the OI group. First and foremost, there was a greater degree of variability in child adaptive functioning in the TBI group. Greater variability in the TBI sample, and therefore greater variance to be accounted for by the variables of interest, may have contributed to our ability to detect a significant asso- ciation despite the rather small sample size. A stronger asso- ciation between parental distress and child adaptive functioning may be seen in a larger or more demographically heterogeneous OI sample, or in a group of children/adolescents who sustained more severe physical injuries.
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Substantive Due Process and Parental Corporal Punishment: Democracy and the Excluded Child

Substantive Due Process and Parental Corporal Punishment: Democracy and the Excluded Child

legislature will safeguard their right, as long as it reflects societal consensus, and need not tum to the courts to preserve this right. In conclusion, the Supreme C[r]

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Mothers Attitudes Regarding Parental Styles and Child Abuse in Croatia

Mothers Attitudes Regarding Parental Styles and Child Abuse in Croatia

Abstract Objective – To explore Croatian primipara mothers’ attitudes toward strict-authoritarian parenting style and to analyze if there are any maternal factors, more specifically age, education and place of residence that could be linked to mothers’ attitudes toward different statements reflecting abusive behavior toward children and statements reflecting safety behavior toward children. Materi- als and Methods – A cross-sectional study was carried out at the maternity ward of the Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Clinic for Women’s Diseases and Obstetrics in Zagreb, Croatia. A specially designed anonymous questionnaire served as a research tool for this study that included 284 Croatian primipara mothers. Results – This study showed that younger age, lower level of educa- tion and residence of mothers in less urbanized areas are related to more positive attitudes toward authoritarian parenting style and abusive behavior. Conclusion − The aforementioned group of mothers is one of the priority groups for conducting primary intervention for preventing child abuse. In this sense, primary prevention should be carried out with future parents before they have their own children so that they can understand the problem, gain the necessary knowledge, accept attitudes that disapprove of child abuse and behave in this way in their lives. The economic, social and moral support of the whole society is a significant factor in this matter.
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Parental Attitudes and Girl - Child Education in Edo State, Nigeria

Parental Attitudes and Girl - Child Education in Edo State, Nigeria

Women Commission(NWC) now federal ministry of women affairs and youth development. Similarly, the UBE was inaugurated in 1999 which geared toward the provision of compulsory education to all Nigerian children. Currently, the Girls’ Education Project (GEP) which was launched in December 2004 in partnership with UNICEF has recorded tremendous gains in girl child education as well. The question is; Have parents responded favorably to these invitations of girl child education? Despite these notable and encouraging efforts made by government, there seemed not to be positive attitudes of parents towards girls’ education. Women are still marginalized in terms of education. UNESCO(2005); Oleribe (2002) and Ekejuba (2011) discovered that women in Nigeria are harder hit in poverty than men due to disparity in education and the prevalence of early marriage which tend to further impoverish women and subject them to statutory discrimination. Certain socio-cultural practices also prevent girls from having access to western education. There is a general belief and fear that educated women might not be able to have children and might not be submissive to their husbands, this has also led to marginalization of girls in education.
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Parental correlates in child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis

Parental correlates in child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis

With these limitations in mind, the aim of this meta- analysis was to provide a cohesive and comprehensive examination of the parental correlates, and potential moderators, of child PA. Here, the five postulated mod- erators included the child’s developmental age, method in which child PA is measured (objective or reported), geographical location of the sample population, study design, and quality of the study. Moreover, we investi- gated the possibility of intergenerational gender inter- actions between parent and child behaviours. It was hypothesized that overall parental PA would have a negligible to small correlation with child and adoles- cent PA, explaining the prior inconsistencies among the narrative reviews; whereas overall parental support will have a small to medium correlation. Among the individual support behaviours, it was postulated that a small effect size will be found for the various support behaviours and child PA. Our analysis of intergenera- tional gender interactions between parental and child was considered exploratory.
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