centralized, distant locale where others can be trained in tandem—on IGA techniques, such as aloe harvesting, agroforestry, and beekeeping. The cost of these education programs is covered by funds that are part of an overall conservation initiative-funding package. In the case of ASF, these costs were largely covered by USAID and Nature Kenya during the PFM pilot project and by A Rocha Kenya (via foreign donors and ecotourism revenue) through their ongoing ASSETS 11 program. While these education sessions are often successful in training the few that are chosen to participate, the success of those few returning and educating those within their communities are less successful. In some cases, those who were trained expect to be reimbursed for work lost by training other community members, both within their own villages and in villages adjacent to them. Without this payment, the perceived roles and responsibilities between actors collapses, and the intention of the program stalls or collapses as well. Without addressing role expectations as a vital component, a select few benefit from external conservation education through received knowledge (and, arguably, received wisdom) as well as future access flows, such as social, economic, and education access flows.
Brooks, Waylen, & Mulder (2013) and Berkes (2004) in their reviews of community-based conservation found that long-term success in conservation efforts requires involving and providing benefits to local communities. Shiminzu (2011) focused on a common property approach in which institutional arrangements are motivated to support conservation. He found that people, through their collective action, would cooperate to use forest resources in a sustainable manner. Focusing of traditional approach to conservation, Odegi-Owuondo (1990) in his assessment of ecological sociology of Turkana nomads found that the Turkana pastoral economy was managed and sustained through a series of complex mechanisms which included selective exploitation of ecological niches in an ecologically-conservative way. Thomas (2013) in his assessment of participatoryforestmanagement and actorroledependency found that management of government-controlled forests has moved away from strict centralized management. Studies in the area of social marketing and environmental conservation are scarce. The current study sought to address the following research question: What marketing strategies have been applied in the environmental conservation campaign of the Arabuko-Sokoke Schools and Eco-tourism Scheme in Malindi, Kenya?
ArabukoSokokeforestreserve has a 25 year strategic plan, station based PFMP and has signed ForestManagement Agreements (FMAs) with KFS hence pro- viding an avenue for sustainable forest utilization through user groups that have formed a CFA (KFS, 2009) in each station. Forest user rights are accessed through PFMPs and formalised through FMAs. Moreover, the PFM guidelines provide for participation of youth, women and all stakeholders living in the for- est area where PFM is being implemented, essentially contributing to SDG 5 on achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls. The PFMPs (KFS, 2015b) are used as means for promoting restraint in the harvest and con- sumption of natural resources by prescribing what can be harvested and the quantities of each as noted by Robinson (2011). This ensures sustainable con- sumption and production patterns as elucidated in SDG 12. It also brings in ne- gotiated positions which shift the ethical perceptions of different stakeholders. If this new positions are respected by all, an ethically acceptable balance is achieved. The issues of concern here would be how participatory and involving were the negotiations aimed at drafting PFMPs? Do they provide an opportunity for communities to have their prioritized demands and make compromises to satisfy those of others as Mutually Agreed Terms (MATS) as noted by Schroeder & Pisupati (2010).
Although the provision of knowledge and education is recognised as important in assisting NIPF owners there have been relatively few at- tempts at investigating and quantifying the e ﬀectiveness of extension activities in inﬂuencing management practices. Ireland oﬀers an in- teresting case study for such investigations for a number of reasons. First, private forestry in Ireland is dominated by new forest owners, i.e. farmers, who have been oﬀered ﬁnancial supports (co-funded by the EU) since the 1980s to establish forests on previously agricultural land. The Irish Forest Service estimates that the private forest estate con- tained 342,296 ha in 2012, with over 70% of this area established since 1980 with the aid of public supports ( Forest Service, 2013 ). These landowners were primarily farmers who planted part of their holding and would have been engaging with forestry for the ﬁrst time ( Duesberg et al., 2014 ). Thinning typically commences in Ireland between ﬁfteen and twenty years of age in productive forests, therefore much of the private estate is at the age of ﬁrst thinning. Farm/private forestry is relatively new to Ireland, in contrast to the situation that prevails in other European countries which have a long tradition of forestry and where many forest owners would traditionally have had access to a bank of inherited practical management knowledge and a traditional engagement in harvesting ( Kuuluvainen et al., 1996 ). However, the structural changes that are currently being witnessed in Europe, in- cluding the increase in new forest owners, mean that the potential knowledge gap that Irish forest owners are experiencing may be an increasing feature of private forest ownership in general in Europe. These new-owners may possess more multifunctional objectives for their forests as reﬂected in the intensity of their harvesting intentions ( Blanco et al., 2015 ). The engagement of forest owners in harvesting has also a particular relevance in Ireland
In Ethiopia, the involvement of local people in natural resource management activities can be traced back to the countrywide massive programs for natural resource conservation and rehabilitation that were initiated as a reaction to the 1972/73 famine (Admassie, 2000). According to Admassie (2000), communities‟ involvement in these programs, sometimes also referred as participation, is understood to be a contribution of labor and resources that often is arranged together with food for work payments. Particularly, the involvement of people in soil and water conservation and afforestation programs was a top-down and coercive process. Thus the efforts were not complemented with the necessary commitment and enthusiasm from the local people and were even met with resistance that ended with little outcome to show for the enormous investments made (ibid). Admassie (2000) indicated both the lack of appropriate local level institutions and the ineffective mode of the participation process that failed to implement successful community based natural resource management. Local level organizations (Peasant Associations), despite their mandate to organize collective action and manage common goods, had no prior experience in natural resource management (common property management) and they were discredited in the eyes of their members due to their association with the regime, where they served as instruments of unpopular rural programs. Owing to the large area under the PA‟s jurisdiction, there was a low level of shared sense of community that resulted in less effective collective action (ibid).
Intermediate policy solutions for tenure problems include long term forest concessions granted to industry, communities, or indigenous groups, for example. In an in-depth examination of industrial forest concessions, Karsenty, Drigo, Piketty, & Singer (2008) establish that in countries where large tracts of forest are state-owned, concessions can deliver services of public and collective interest through an association of private investment and public regulation. In theory, “the conditional use of the land stipulated by contract between the government and the [forest] concessionaire gives, in principle, additional security to a government willing to prevent forest conversion and enforce SFM, but with a limited capacity to fully enforce existing laws” (Karsenty, Drigo, Pi- ketty, & Singer, 2008). The authors argue that the success of an industrial concession model depends first, on the fact that forest functions and services are managed and maintained as public goods, and second, on effective monitoring and enforcement, especially where there may be asymmetrical information between the principal (i.e., regulating authorities) and the agent (i.e., concessionaires). Industrial forest concessions are not appropriate everywhere, particularly when other tenure approaches may lead to improved local livelihoods. However, in ex- tensive forested areas with low population density, insufficient public presence and infrastructure, and limited small-scale or community alternatives, industrial forest concessions have a “raison d’être”. Ultimately, when forests are “characterized by unclear land rights and subsequent risks of forest conversion to create de facto in- dividual land rights, a concession regime can fill the vacuum created by a confusing land tenure situation in or- der to contribute to forest protection against conversion” (Karsenty, Drigo, Piketty, & Singer, 2008).
This paper proposes a discriminative for- est reranking algorithm for dependency pars- ing that can be seen as a form of efficient stacked parsing. A dynamic programming shift-reduce parser produces a packed deriva- tion forest which is then scored by a discrim- inative reranker, using the 1-best tree output by the shift-reduce parser as guide features in addition to third-order graph-based features. To improve efficiency and accuracy, this pa- per also proposes a novel shift-reduce parser that eliminates the spurious ambiguity of arc- standard transition systems. Testing on the English Penn Treebank data, forest reranking gave a state-of-the-art unlabeled dependency accuracy of 93.12.
THIS territory of the Republic of Congo has been estimated to be 2,471,271 hectares, and about 65% of the country is covered by forests. These forests are full of immense wealth that contributes to economic and social development. Although logging for timber is not in absolute terms a major resource in terms of foreign exchange for the country, with a contribution of 5.6% of national GDP, it is right after the oil sector, the second largest contributor and it is the primary source of job positions in private sector in the country. The Republic of Congo has been a pioneer in forestmanagement, with, in 1974, a law on forestmanagement. But this first frame, weakly applied, did not prevent the degradation of forest ecosystems and the life of local communities, including preventing indigenous, highly dependent peoples from exploiting natural resources.
Along the same direction, we propose a struc- ture called dependencyforest, which encodes ex- ponentially many dependency trees compactly, for dependency-based translation systems. In this pa- per, we develop two new algorithms for extracting string-to-dependency rules and for training depen- dency language models, respectively. We show that using the rules and dependency language models learned from dependency forests leads to consistent and significant improvements over that of using 1-best trees on the NIST 2004/2005/2006 Chinese-English test sets.
Southern Agricultural Research Institute, Bonga Agricultural Research Center, Bonga, Ethiopia, and Hawassa University, Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Sciences
Participatoryforestmanagement was started more than one decade ago in Ethiopia as one of the ways applied to reverse deforestation and depletion of natural resources. However, there are no adequate site specific empirical and quantitative studies on the effectiveness of PFM approaches in conservation of woody species diversity and forest conservation. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the impacts of PFM on woody species diversity in selected forest user groups in Gimbo Woreda, South West Ethiopia. Vegetation data were collected from different PFM user groups and adjacent Non-PFM forest blocks. A total of 63 plots measuring 20 m × 20 m were employed to collect species composition and structural data. Data for all the sapling and seedlings were also collected within subplots of 5 m X 5 m and 2 m X 2 m respectively. Accordingly a total of 73 different woody plant species (72 at PFM and 54 at Non-PFM blocks), representing 64 genera and 35 families were recorded, with 53 species shared. Woody species diversity and evenness were higher in the forest with PFM (H´ = 3.04, E = 0.76) compared to the forest without PFM (H´ = 2.8, E =0 .70). The overall average values of sapling and seedling density were also significantly (p < .05) higher in PFM than Non-PFM forests. However, no significant variations were observed in basal area and dominance of the species between the two forest blocks. Thus it can be concluded that participatoryforestmanagement is showing signs of delivering impact in terms of woody species diversity conservation in the study area. However, there is a gap in some of forest user groups in terms of forest protection from an illegal activities. Therefore it is important to conduct further assessments in the remaining forest user group’s to have baseline data for further study and performance evaluation over all forests under PFM approaches. Keywords: Forest User Group, Regeneration, Species diversity, Human induced disturbance.
In SMT, forest-based decoding has been pro- posed for both constituency and dependency parse trees (Mi et al., 2008; Tu et al., 2010). A forest is a compact representation of n-best parse trees. It provides more alternative parse trees to choose from during decoding, leading to significant im- provements in translation quality. In this paper, we borrow this idea to build an alignment model us- ing dependency forests rather than 1-best parses, which makes it possible to provide the model with more alternative parse trees that may be suitable for word alignment tasks. The motivation of using dependency forests instead of constituency forests in our model is that dependency forests are more appropriate for alignments between language pairs with long-distance reordering, such as the one we study in this paper. This is because they are more suitable for capturing the complex semantic rela- tions of words in a sentence (Kahane, 2012).
Apfelbaum and Chapman (1994), opines that it is important to develop an appreciation for the necessity of restoration. Even after being informed about ecological degradation, some individuals are skeptical about the need to intervene. Farmer’s response to decline of crop yield is an indication that land degradation does not make any meaning to them, concerted efforts to reclaim or restore the land is not their concern but rather, they shift their cultivation to other parts of the reserve where soil fertility is still high. The lack of will power in restoring degraded land in the study area is a serious problem and that in order to tackle this, there must be reorientation and environmental education given to them on the prospects of restoration.
Forest Survey of India had started evaluating the forest cover of the country, based on LANDSAT imagery and through visual interpretation of the satellite data from 1987. Such rapid appraisal of forest cover, on national basis, led to discrepancies in results on vegetative cover in the States. In order to find the actual status of forest cover of the State, prior to launching of Social Forestry project and initiation of Joint ForestManagement (JFM) with people’s participation in the in the early 80’s, and to monitor the changes over the years, West Bengal Forest Department took up collaborative project on Forest vegetation mapping, using satellite imagery, with RRSSC, Kharagpur, Department of Space, Govt. of India. Forest cover mapping was done with December, 1988 data from IRS-1A satellite, using supervised classification, and it showed that total forest and vegetation cover in the state had gone up to 14.32% from the recorded forest area of 13.4% as in 1988 (Sudhakar et al., 1992). Subsequent, periodic change detection studies have been carried out with November/December, 1991data from IRS-1A/ 1B, November/December, 1994 data from IRS-1B (Sudhakar et al., 1996) & 1997 Nov/Dec data from IRS-1C through the infrastructure of RRSSC, Kharagpur, Dept. of Space, Govt. of India. The Remote Sensing / GIS Cell of West Bengal Forest Dept., was launched in late 1999. January, 2000 data from IRS 1D and March, 2004 from IRS-P6 satellites were processed by the GIS Cell of the Forest Department. The time-series output had shown a considerable improvement in the forest cover of the state up to the year 2006 (Raha, 2007).
These points will now be addressed in more detail. Developing existing systems to include features for, for example, group decisions or MCDA demands time and resources for programming. It is a challenge for technicians or researchers to program a tool that can match available data and the values of the stakeholders. For example, even if recreational values are included, a DSS may not be useful if it only handles traditional forestry data (such as standing timber volume, basal area, etc.). In addition, features for the inclusion of multiple values and non-tra- ditional forest data and management are likely to be costly because they require the collection and compilation of new kinds of data. Additionally, most forest DSSs are quite inflexible in the sense that they must be modified by the developer because they are far too complex to be changed by the user. Furthermore, most forest DSSs are not open access. Consequently, we suggest that participatory mod- elling should be applied in the development of new DSS Table 3 Evaluation criteria, DSS features, and the criteria they address
While looking at the forest transition drivers, it occurs that all drivers played their individual role. While land specialization was not a dominant factor, certainly it occurred on a more globalized scale resulting in low competitiveness. The most important factor was the structural economic changes such asthe globalizing world, growth of the touristic sector, and changing food. On the other hand, the growing popularity of exotic crops created a booming plantation sector, forming a strong incentive towards deforestation. The institutional transformation and environmental concerns also played an important role and can mostly be explained by the relatively stable governance and political system. Consequently, in terms of the FTis driven by structural changes in the economy and subsequently, the abandonment of agricultural land. However, simultaneously elements of the “forest scarcity path”, including the political pressure for dealing with forest degradation are taking place globally. Growing issues must be addressed as well to improve our understanding of long-run land-use change in developing countries. Global environmental governance offers opportunities and incentives for private stakeholders to determine forestmanagement that affects their livelihoods and profits directly. This review will highlight critical aspects to improve our knowledge about recognizing numerous factors affecting forest transition and derivers of sustainable forestmanagement in future research.
- Forest cover has increased and the ecosystem services, The number of fire incidences have reduced, Charcoal burning and Illegal logging in the forest has stopped, Firewood collection from forest has been licensed, CFA bought 1150 energy saving jikos (cooking stoves), each at Ksh.300, therefore they reduced energy consumption and hence women reduce the need to go to the forest daily to collect firewood.
Legal and Policy Requirements related to Restriction of Access to Natural Resources: The Government,
recognizes that, given, their close association with land, forests, water, wildlife, and other natural resources, measures which reduce the access of vulnerable and marginalized groups to livelihood-related resources, has complex implications, and may entail significant adverse impacts on their identity, culture, and customary livelihoods. During NRMP preparation, the Bank’s Operational Policy (OP) 4.10 on Indigenous Peoples (See Attachment 1) was triggered with regard to Component Two: Management of Forest resources due to the presence of the Ogiek and Sengwer Communities in the Mount Elgon and Cherangany Hills regions respectively. When actual sub-project sites are yet to be identified an Indigenous Peoples Planning Framework (IPPF)/Vulnerable and Marginalized Peoples Planning Framework (VMGPF) 24 is developed to ensure that these communities benefit from the project and are not adversely impacted, and to ensure that measures be put in place to mitigate such actions and /or compensate adversely affected peoples. An IPPF was developed, the NRMP is now ready to ramp up implementation and receive sub-project grant applications from communities in these areas. The World Bank’s Operational Policy (OP) 4.10 requires that when sites are known the IPPF should be advanced into Vulnerable and Marginalized Groups Plans (VMGPs) that presents specific activities to be carried out at specific sites. A Social Assessment was done for the two areas as a first step to developing Vulnerable and Marginalized People’s Plans.
This research showed that the forest edge had an open canopy owing to the fact that it is an ecotonal area. In a study conducted by Sagar et al. (2008), reduced light infiltration to ground due to closed canopy was shown to reflect in lesser number of unique species and also lower species richness, evenness and alpha diversity compared to a more open canopy. On the other hand, greater irradiance on the ground was shown increase the recruitment and diversity of herbaceous flora. Below certain thresholds, light limitation alone can prevent herbaceous species survival regardless of other resource levels (Tilman 1982). Whittaker (1972) stated that the dominance of one stratum might affect the diversity of another stratum. The lower stratum dominated the canopy cover on the forest edge, where regeneration was highest, this was also the case in the forest core where the lower stratum dominated, indicating high regeneration rates therefore showing that this forest has been heavily disturbed thus the canopy was not closed enough to reduce irradiance significantly. The upper canopy was low, showing that there are few old trees thus also showing the heavy disturbance in the forest. The herb layer dominated the agroecosystems because they were often under cultivation and thus no canopy cover.
Purposive sampling was used to select three villages among the adjoining communities in Onigambari forestreserve (Within 1-3km radius) and these include: Onigambari, Onipe and Busogboro with the projected population of 1,428, 1271 and 1,018 respectively. Diaw et al., (2002) was therefore adapted to sample from the population. Hence, 10% sampling intensity was used to randomly sample respondents in the communities where their population is less than 500, 5% for between 500 and 1000, and 2.5% for over 1000. Therefore, 28 respondents were reached in Onigambari, 38 in Busogboro and 27 in Onipe, totaling 93 respondents that were sampled for the study. Hence, 93 structured questionnaires were administered for primary data collection while 83 were retrieved. The returns represent 89% of the total number of questionnaire administered to the forest dwellers in the study area. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Logit regression analysis).