Finance institutions currently use numerous applications that are connected together within their information system architecture: these applications are for day-to-day contract management, accounting, risk management and reporting, third party database management etc. and they all interact with each other using specific interfaces.
1) For Basic Technical Support, InformationSystems Corporation will receive and track problems from authorized Technical Contract(s) via telephone or e-mail. InformationSystems Corporation will use commercially reasonable efforts to provide Technical Contract(s) with Technical Support consisting only of telephone assistance, e-mail remote access (modem, VPN, WebEx, etc.), and access twenty-four (24) hours per day, seven (7) days per week to web-based self-help and other web-based resources.
The detection and measurement of the pavement cracking provides valuable information to the local authorities on the road network condition and reduces maintenance costs. Significant progress has been made in recent years in using a variety of techniques for assessing the pavement road surface. For efficient collection of pavementcondition data, different approaches have been proposed, and various automated systems have been developed world widely since the 1980s. Previous approaches to pavementcondition involved a labor-intensive, time consuming, and risky process of data collection . A quick, easy to use, and cost-effective method for establishing a GIS database is proposed in this paper.
A very common index in the PMSs is the PCI, which was developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in 1982. PCI is an indicator of surface functional condition and structural integrity . After visual inspection of the pavement network, pavement engineers calculate PCI based on distress type, severity, and quantity. This index varies from zero for a virtually unusable pavement to 100 for a perfect pavement . On the other hand, the assessment of structural conditions generally performed by non-destructive tests such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) [10-13]. In the FWD test, an impulsive load applies to the pavement surface for 25-30 ms and the surface deflections are recorded by seven (or more) sensors. The sensors measurements are analyzed by back-calculation software such as ELMOD and MODULUS and useful information, including overlay thickness, layers modulus, and remaining life is determined [14-16].
A comprehensive fully integrated Pavement Maintenance and Management Systems (PMMS), is the key to better reconstruction, restoration and maintenance decision- making of pavements. It weaves together information on all pavement inventories, condition and performance databases, and alternative investment options. An oper- ating PMMS provides the road authorities the ability to better plan and manages highway, street, and road pave- ments. The Pavement Maintenance and Management Systems is a set of tools or methods that can assist deci- sion makers in finding cost effective strategies for pro- viding, evaluating, and maintaining pavements in a ser- viceable condition. It provides the information necessary to make these decisions. The PMMS consists of two ba- sic components: a comprehensive data base, which con- tains current and historical information on pavement con- dition, pavement structure, and traffic. The second com- ponent is a set of tools that allows us to determine exist- ing and future pavement conditions, predict financial
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract— the purpose of this study is to conduct a physical survey for distresses analysis of 50 lanes of urban flexible roads and to conduct a comparative study on pavementcondition rating methods (PCRM) using IRC method, and Highway preservation system. 50 lanes of urban flexible pavements from all over Pune city are selected as a case study. The lanes are visually surveyed to detect the types, severity and extent of the distresses based on IRC and WDOT guidelines (Distress identification manuals). Firstly the lane wise data base is created. Secondly the severity and extent is determined based on IRC and WDOT (DIM). And thirdly the lane wise Pavementcondition index (PCI) values are calculated by the methods of IRC, and HPS. To differentiate between both the methods the correlation analysis has been carried out.
• An airport’s Pavement Management Program (PMP) not only evaluates the current condition of the airfield the current condition of the airfield pavements, but also predicts its future condition through the use of historic information and pavementcondition indicators
London in a number of theatres beginning on 30 March. He also agree that he would arrive in London 6 days before the first performance in order to practise. Bettini then, became ill and did not arrive in London until 3 days before the first performance. The opera company refused to allow him to sing and said he had breached the contract.
Abstract: This paper presents a new pavement management system (PMS) to achieve the optimal pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) strategy for a highway network using genetic algorithms (GAs). Optimal M&R strategy is a set of pavement activities that both minimise the maintenance cost of a highway network and maximise the pavementcondition of the road sections on the network during a certain planning period. NSGA-II, a multi-objective GA, is employed to perform pavement maintenance optimisation because of its robust search capabilities and constraint handling method that deal with the multi-objective and multi-constrained optimisation problems. In the proposed approach, both deterministic and probabilistic pavement age gain models are utilised for evaluating the evolution of pavementcondition over time because of their simplicity of application. The proposed PMS is applied to a case study network that consists of different kinds of road sections. The results obtained indicate that the model is a valuable toolbox for pavement engineers.
Planning is the process of identifying organizational goals and objectives, developing programs and services to accomplish objectives and evaluating the success of these programs. An organisation's overall objectives should be an integral part of the decision making process at any level. In libraries, the objective is to select, organize and provide access to information for the users. Objectives may be hard to define in a service providing organization. Such as in a library, it is a service providing organisation and it is more difficult to measure the profit in such organizations. To formalise the process of planning of a library and information system, the project “DSS for Library Planning” is an effort to automate the planning process and implement it in the respective libraries and information centres/systems
To support these developments the School was also to establish its own Documentation Centre with high quality literature to support advanced level of competitive and universal learning standards and as a top-level study Centre catering for the eastern and central African region. Besides, the teaching must be backed by laboratories sophisticated enough to support postgraduate studies, staff research, consultancy and extension All of these facilities were in woefully short supply at Moi University, which was barely starting and with faculty work largely at the undergraduate (Bachelor’s) level. It was for these reasons that the School must, from the start, look for international resources and expertise to launch its programmes.
The Architecture of back propagation three layer artificial neural network model for pavementcondition forecasting modelling is designed as shown in figure 2.Two input variables, first present pavement age and second present pavementcondition index (PCI) has been considered. Asan output of the model, future PCI has been taken. BPA first phase namely forward pass calculates the network output by propagating the input data through the network. The network output is then compared with the desired output to calculate the error using a backward pass; during the backward pass connection weights are modified to reduce the target error. Sigmoidal transfer function was used as a neuron transfer function between input layer to hidden layer and hidden layer to output layer. Network training represents acquiring the knowledge of forecasting the PCI value.MATLAB software package was used for training and testing the ANN model. Training was stopped when the mean absolute error, root mean squared error and mean absolute relative error reached a previously specified minimum value (0.001).
(3) Medical Preparation. Under the terms and conditions of their contracts, contract companies are responsible for providing employees who are medically and psychologically fit to perform duties as specified in their contracts. Just as military personnel must pass a complete health evaluation, all CAAF must undergo a medical and dental assessment within 12 months prior to arrival at the designated deployment center. The medical preparation of CAAF per theater or location reporting instructions includes deployment health briefings, medical surveillance screening, medical and dental evaluations, DNA [deoxyribonucleic acid] specimen collection, determining prescription and eyewear needs, and immunizations. Specific medical-related theater entrance requirements, such as human immunodeficiency virus screening requirements , are established by the supported CCMD’s joint force surgeon in consultation with the subordinate joint force surgeons. This medical-related theater guidance normally covers specific immunization requirements and restrictions applicable to certain TCN or LN personnel for specific mission functions (e.g., food service workers). Dental conditions that may preclude medical clearance include lack of a dental exam within the last 12 months or required dental treatment or re-evaluation for oral conditions, which are likely to result in dental emergencies. Service components and their associated contract management organizations are responsible to validate CAAF meet predeployment medical processing and screening requirements. The GCC shall develop procedures and criteria that require removal of contractor personnel identified as no longer medically qualified and post them on the CCDR OCS website and published in the reporting instructions. Per DOD policy, contracting officers are responsible to incorporate these requirements into all contracts for performance in the AOR via standard contract clauses or mission specific contract language as applicable.
These developments are said to be originating from the 1950s. In fact, the first publications on project management in a prestigious management journal was back in 1959 (Pellicer & Victory, 2006). In the 50s and 60s the focus of development in project management was on network analysis and planning techniques like PERT and CPM (Crawford, Pollack, & England, 2006). PERT, or Program Evaluation and Review Technique, is used to calculate the minimum time needed to complete a project. In the more routine work, CPM, or Critical Path Method, is used to prioritize activities based on a determined critical path. Based on a review of project management literature, the authors note the further development in project management to focus on teamwork and breakdown structures in the 1970s, an emphasis on project organization, risk and a first start towards standards in the 1980s. Furthermore, Crawford et al. (2006) note that “a great deal of similarity can be seen between the forces influencing the general management and project management communities”. In their literature review, some topics noted to be dominating the 90s were human factors, information management, scheduling and performance (among others). The authors conclude with an increase in significance of project evaluation and improvement over the last 10 years up to 2003. Looking back at the developments in project management literature, little is written about project management in SMEs (R. Turner, et al., 2010). The focus has been on project management in predominantly large projects. These traditional approaches to project management will not hold for SMEs, because the characterization of big projects does not hold for smaller projects:
Leming, Malcom and Tennis (EB 303, 2007) report that fine grained sediments deposited in the pavement will most likely occupy less than 1/2 in. (12 mm) of the depth of the aggregate base in 20 years of service, resulting in only a few percent loss in storage capacity assuming typical but conservative deposition rates, but the analysis was based on simple assumptions not confirmed with experimental data. An extra inch (25 mm) of aggregate base is most likely more than adequate to supply sufficient storage capacity for those cases in which sedimentation of fine grained particles are estimated to be high (EB 303 [Leming, Malcom and Tennis 2007]); the marginal cost of the 1 in. (25 mm) of base is minimal. For sites with depositions estimated to be 1,000 lbs/ac/yr (1,125 kg/ha/yr) or higher, and additional inch (25 mm) of aggregate base was suggested as a standard design feature.
In recent years, the study of human–computer interaction (HCI) has become increasingly impor- tant for systems analysts. Although the definition is still evolving, researchers characterize HCI as the “aspect of a computer that enables communications and interactions between humans and the computer. It is the layer of the computer that is between humans and the computer” (Zhang, Carey, Te’eni, & Tremaine, 2005, p. 518). Analysts using an HCI approach are emphasizing people rather than the work to be done or the IT that is involved. Their approach to a problem is multifaceted, looking at the “human ergonomic, cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors involved in user tasks, problem solving processes and interaction context” (Zhang, Carey, Te’eni, & Tremaine, 2005, p. 518). Human computer interaction moves away from focusing first on organizational and system needs and instead concentrates on human needs. Analysts adopting HCI principles exam- ine a variety of user needs in the context of humans interacting with information technology to complete tasks and solve problems. These include taking into account physical or ergonomic fac- tors; usability factors that are often labeled cognitive matters; the pleasing, aesthetic, and enjoy- able aspects of using the system; and behavioral aspects that center on the usefulness of the system. Another way to think about HCI is to think of it as a human-centered approach that puts peo- ple ahead of organizational structure or culture when creating new systems. When analysts em- ploy HCI as a lens to filter the world, their work will possess a different quality than the work of those who do not possess this perspective.