If there are effects of changing emotions on revealed or stated choices, this could pose a challenge to the interpretation of benefit-cost measures of value, since these are based on a model of rational choice and stable, consistent, and complete preference sets for each individual (Brown et al. 2008; Rabin 1998). If revealed or stated values are dependent upon an individual’s emotional state at the time benefits or costs are measured, then this introduces a source of context dependence which the Kaldor–Hicks criterion underlying Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) was not intended to deal with. 1 For example, a change in emotional state post project implementation could mean that those who gain are no longer willing to pay enough to compensate losers, even though the project had passed the CBA test before implementation. In this paper, we focus on a specific class of emotions referred to as incidental emotions. These emotions, such as sadness or happiness, occur at the moment of a choice decision, but are un-related to the payoffs from the decision at hand. Our experimental set-up uses stated choice modelling to estimate preferences over changes in an environmental good in an exper- imental laboratory setting, with a series of treatments designed to induce a given emotional state in respondents prior to their stated choices. The emotional states are sadness, happiness and a neutral state. We induce these different incidental emotions using an established prac- tice in behavioural science. We subsequently test whether the inducement procedure worked in terms of inducing the targeted emotional state, and find that it did. The materials used to induce the targeted emotional state are un-related to the environmental good, since otherwise
ABSTRACT: The paper makes a quantitative analysis and comparison on the continuous speech emotion of Lhasa Tibetan in the four basic emotional patterns (happy, surprise, sad, neutral) pitch, energy and time length by experimental phonetics and the linear statistical research methods, found that there is a positive correlation be- tween the Lhasa Tibetan emotional speech and pitch, energy and duration ,etc. And the pitch, energy and dura- tion of negative emotion acoustic parameters are bigger than positive emotion, on this basis, drawing the Lhasa Tibetan speech emotion acoustic feature patterns. Compared with the Chinese language and the Tibetan, even though both have the tone prosodic features, they also have significant differences in the acoustic characteristics of the speech emotion.
detection of basic emotions (i.e., anger, sadness, happiness, fear) in music performance is accurate and well above chance. With regard to music activating emotion circuitry in the brain, one fMRI study showed that unpleasant (dissonant) music activated the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal poles, areas previously implicated in the processing of negative emotional stimuli (Koelsch, Fritz, Müller, & Friederici, 2006). Additionally, highly pleasurable responses (i.e., producing “chills) to music have been associated with activation of pleasure and reward-related brain systems (Blood & Zatorre, 2001). Music has also shown been shown to differentially activate the autonomic nervous system compared to what has been shown in nonmusical stimuli. For example, while most studies show sadness increasing heart rate, sad music has actually been shown to decrease heart rate (Etzel, Johnsen, Dickerson, Tranel, & Adolphs, 2006; Krumhansl, 1997). One criticism that should be noted is that considering affective responses to music as being emotions in the first place may be inappropriate whereas use of terminology implying slower, more consciously produced “feelings” that integrate cognitive and physiological effects may be more accurate (Scherer, 2004). However, this issue still seems to be up for debate, and regardless of possible differential temporal dynamics of activation (i.e., slower increasing activation over time; Koelsch et al., 2006) and potentially more cognitive control being involved, current research interests still seem abundant for studying automatic (whether slower or not) emotional responses across systems to music without
temporal difference, x, of the percent signal change was trans- formed by the function: log(x þ 3), which resulted in normally distributed residuals. There was a signi ﬁ cant group x time inter- action (F(1, 30) ¼ 9.12, p ¼ 5.12*10 3 ) (Fig. 2) with post-hoc testing identifying signi ﬁ cant temporal changes in both patient (t(30) ¼ 28.74, p o 1.00*10 5 ) and control group (t(30) ¼ 40.49, p o 1.00*10 5 ), but in opposing directions of effect with decreases in patients and increases in controls. The group x time interaction remained signi ﬁ cant after adding the time interval between scans Fig. 1. Signiﬁcant brain activation at baseline. Mean activations of the full group associated with the “sad distractor contrast” were located in anterior cingulate, cerebellum and insula (A). Mean activations of the “happy distractor contrast” were located in superior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus (B). Mean activations of the reverse of “happy distractor contrast” were found in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex (C). With analysis restricted to the region of mean activation of the “happy distractor contrast”, signiﬁcant between- group differences were located in the orbitofrontal cortex (D) of the follow-up group. In this orbitofrontal region (D), baseline percent signal change was extracted with the patient group showing signiﬁcantly higher (t(31) ¼4.86 p ¼3.2*10 5 ) va-
The results showed that Pulse sensor can show important data in term of timing (see figure 1-3), while ECG sensors showed more in the behaviour of heart activity (see figure 4-6). When considering the Pulse sensor (see figure 1), video stimulation of surprise triggered the emotion to rise up faster than any other emotions, this result agrees well with the nature of surprised stimulation. However, surprise stimulation showed also as the shortest emotional respond that reaches to the maximum amplitude during stimulation, compared to other emotions (see figure 3). More over, surprise showed as the lowest emotional respond in terms of heart beat amplitude (see figure 2), from this fact we opinioned that this surprise video stimulation was not dangerous to the cardiovascular activity. Figure 2 showed that happy, disgust and sad are the 3 emotions that have the highest amplitude. This means that they have more potential in trigering the cardiovascular problem. When considering figure 3, happy seems to have the longest respond to rise up, followed by sad. We think that this is because trigering happy and sad emotion at some point need time. The subjects need to think the facts that they saw from the video, and they need to correlate that video with their life experiences or memories. That is why, happy and sad showed the longest time to respond from the participants. When relating this result with the facts in our daily life, we can temporarily conclude that surprise news followed by sad news (surprise sad news) can have bigger potential in triggering cardiovascular problem, especially for elderly people.
The execution time in Table 3 and Table 4 is less than execution time of Table 1 and Table 2 because the sizes of two-man image and its templates less than the size of green image and its templates. From Table 3 we notice that 1-D algorithm is the best and it is give a correct result when the source and templates (T(a), T(b), and T(C)) are clean. But when the brightness are added to templates T(d), T(e), and T(f) the 1-D algorithm is fail to find a correct match. In this context, the proposed algorithm M1D give a correct match for brightness templates and also it gives the best results compared with other algorithms. From Table 4 when the noises are added to the source all algorithms given a correct match except the 1-D algorithm is fail when the brightness are added to the templates, but it gives the best result when templates are clean. Finally, we can say that, if the source and tem- plates are clean 1-D gives a correct match and best running time. But if there is a noise in the source or in the templates the proposed algorithm gives a correct match and best results compared with other algorithms. Figure 10 and Figure 11 show the performance of the proposed algorithm compared with other algorithms except 1-D algorithm which fail to find the correct match under noise conditions. It can be found that our method is about 14 times faster than NCC method, about five times faster than SAD method, and about three and half times fast- er than CTF method in the total computation time. That the model one-dimensional information vector, due to the transformation process, allow estimation by simple sum calculation rather than a complex calculation. Therefore, the matching time of proposed algorithm is reduced.
the confidence in the coordination of conflicts, while family interference work conflict is not correlated with well-being. The results also verify the results of the cross-cultural research from Samuel et al., Kossek and Ozeki on the relationship between the conflicts between work and family and the quality of life [27, 33]. They have argued that many relations in the work-family structure are similar in Eastern and Western cultures, but their natures and influences on quality of life are dif- ferent. Control variables have also shown that for rural women, family structure and family size have a marked effect on life well-being, while they present no sensitivity to working factors. This indicates that the level of well- being perceived by women, especially rural women, is closely related to family life. In the cognition of rural women, most of them agree with the traditional gender division of labor. With strong awareness of “homemak- ing women”, they are obviously bound by tradition, and their positioning of women and their roles tend to be traditional. At the sametime, rural women would stabilize their own mentality in balancing their family and work and be more satisfied with their life. Thus, their subjective evaluation of life is generally high.
The teacher then play the song, as the children listen, they are asked to circle any words that they do not understand, and they also write the complete lyrics of the song. These are some of the example of using songs to teach the children listening skills. Through the songs the children can enhance their listening skills.
I know. I knew her story and she knew mine and we both wanted to feel something other than agony when we recounted it. And so the plan was hatched and I helped eagerly. But it wasn’t until the poison gas was almost complete that Marie chose her target. And it was only then that I realized what it was I had signed myself onto. My family was dead and I wanted revenge. But letting a daycare full of children choke to death on poisonous fumes because their parents had been part of the war effort seemed just as bad as sending soldiers in to attack a city full of civilians because the president of the uprising was holed up somewhere inside.
Regarding the second and third questions, both groups stated the Arab figures had made them laugh more than the Jewish ones. This leads to two insights: the first is that Oriental Jewish audiences have no problem laughing at the Arab figures and accepting Israeli-Arab comedians on their "own" television channel. Neither do Arab viewers have any problem laughing at the same figures although they are portrayed in a somewhat ridiculous manner. The Arab viewers refer to the Arab figures as clownish characters not necessarily representing Arab society. This is much like circus clowns who remove themselves from the real world and transfer into a world of imagination with their unconventional clothes, excess makeup and extraordinary behavior. Their existence is limited to the circus.
Let’s take the Queens Square dataset (Figure 3b) as an ex- ample. Using NRTK, 90% of the horizontal positions have a precision of 10 millimetres or better. This may or may not be good enough for your job... your decision. When using single- base RTK over 12 kilometres at the same location, only 60% of the positions fall within this precision. Now ask yourself about your alternatives. Can you use RTK connected to a CORS, should you use NRTK, or should you set up your own base closer to the job for the day?
Children’s ability to discern emotion from the facial expressions of others is crucial to adaptive social functioning (Edwards, Manstead, & Macdonald, 1984; Philippot & Feldman, 1990, Izard et al., 2001) and tends to be better for positive versus negative emotions and for expressions of high emotive intensity versus subtle expressions (e.g., Gao & Maurer, 2010; Vicari et al., 2000). Facial affect discernment is thought to undergo considerable development during middle childhood (Montirosso et al., 2010), which is a period when social interactions with peers become more complex and children typically experience growth in emotional intimacy and emotional support in interpersonal relationships and independence in initiating social interactions (Lancey & Grove, 2011; Rose & Asher, 2000; Rose-Krasnor, 1997; Rubin, Bukowski, & Parker, 2006; Sroufe et al., 1999). However, surprisingly little empirical work has addressed children’s ability to discriminate subtle expressions of happiness, sadness, and anger in other children’s faces and whether children with negative discernment biases tend to be more socially inhibited from these developmentally appropriate peer interactions. The aims of this study were to characterize facial affect discernment for happy, sad, and angry children’s facial expressions across a range of intensities and explore relations among aspects of negatively biased facial affect discernment and socially inhibited behavior in middle childhood. 4.1 Differences in Discernment Accuracy by Emotion and Intensity
Male involvement in maternal and child health is recognised as a valuable health promo- tion strategy in low- and middle-income country settings. Recent systematic reviews dem- onstrate that engaging male partners and fathers 1 in maternal and child health can improve care-seeking for essential health services, as well as home care practices, with plausible benefits for mortality and morbidity (Tokhi et al. 2018; Yargawa and Leonardi- Bee 2015; Takah et al. 2018). However, there is limited empirical evidence of how these effects are achieved – especially the subjective factors that can motivate men and women who participate in male involvement interventions to behave differently. While it is known, for example, that male involvement interventions can affect couple relationship dynamics, particularly couple communication (Tokhi et al. 2018; Davis, Luchters and Holmes 2012), few studies have explored the mechanisms leading to observed changes in communica- tion patterns. Indeed, an established critique of the male involvement literature is that many studies report narrowly on men ’ s behavioural outcomes, such as financial support and accompaniment to health services, with limited consideration of men ’ s and women ’ s subjective experiences of behaviour change in the context of couple and family relation- ships (Comrie-Thomson, Tokhi et al. 2015).
This study had combined local binary pattern as a feature extraction technique with support vector machine in order to improve the accuracy of facial expression recognition. Seven facial expressions from JAFFE database have been used as a case study. The overall result showed that the average accuracy when using local binary pattern was 22% better from recognition process without using local binary pattern. However, the proposed combination have a limitation on generalization to other datasets. This limitation can be addressed in our future work. In future development, this research could be enhanced by referring to various other works available such as -.
In a paper presented by P.Y. Oudeyer , the author highlighted the stipulation of the robots to identify and distinguish the emotion during a human interaction. It included a large Japanese dataset, trained and tested using a machine learning algorithms like support vector machine (SVM), neural network (NN) and decision trees (DT). The results emphasized on using optimum features with sufficient algorithm to obtain realistic performance. Gjoreski et.al. carried the research ahead and proposed automatic emotion recognition from the speech . Low-Level descriptors i.e. features were calculated from speech samples using an Opensmile (Open Speech and Music Interpretation by Large Space Extraction). Using Waikato environment for knowledge analysis (WEKA), the features computed were analyzed against SVM, K-NN and Naïve Bayes (NB). It suggested that as the number of features increased above 400 features the performance of algorithms deteriorated with SVM providing the highest accuracy rate among them i.e. 73%. The accuracy of the system was optimized using average magnitude differential function (AMDF) in combination with Auto- WEKA, obtaining 77% accuracy for SVM. Casale et.al. investigated further in analyzing the emotion classification performance using AMDF . The results were obtained against Berlin Database of Emotional Speech (EMO-DB) and Speech Under Simulated and Actual Stress (SUSAS). The feature selection was completed using filtering methods due to the low computation time and algorithm independency. Only the fast computing algorithms like NB, SVM etc. were selected. SVM trained with the Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) algorithm performed the best, resulting in 92% and 100% recognition rates for EMO-DB and SUSAS respectively.
As I learned from Talbot (2010), there are differences among women and men in oral storytelling. For example, in men’s stories, protagonist is usually the teller or anoth- er male. On the other hand, protagonist in women stories is another person whether male or female (Talbot, 2010). Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether or not such variations applied to science fiction short stories. This study is important because it would help readers differentiate writ- ing style between female and male storytellers. This research is being conducted because the results can be used to help readers to choose the writing style that they prefer. This research paper analyzed eight science fiction short stories, four written by males and the other four by females. Hence,
For the first experiment, the training and testing dataset used the author’s facial ex- pressions. Five facial expressions are selected for the experiment: neutral, happy, sad, angry and surprise. For the training set we have obtained a range of images acquired in different contexts, i.e., in home and in work, with glasses and without glasses, un- der different background and different lighting conditions. Currently, only some im- ages are used. In the first experiment, 23 images are in the training dataset and 9 im- ages are in the testing dataset. The images used in the testing dataset are shown below in Fig. 2:
Our findings are consistent with recent studies showing a lack of evidence for configural processing of upright thatcherized faces, as defined by RT-based (Donnelly et al., 2012) and accuracy-based (Mestry et al., 2012) measures. In Experiment 2, the only cue to the orientation of the face was the jaw line for the mouth region and the eyebrows or the bridge of the nose for the eye region. Nevertheless, it appears that these cues are sufficient to signal the critical orientation cues that influence our perception of the facial features. The presence of interactions between orientation and thatcherization when only the eye or mouth regions were shown suggests that inversion is disrupting the local coding of the expressive features of the face. The findings suggest that the perception of facial features can be influenced by the context in which the face is perceived. This fits with a recent study that demonstrated how the global properties (including orientation) of natural images (including faces) can influence feature detectors (Neri, 2011; 2014).