Top PDF Women’s Performance of Breast Cancer Screening (Breast Self Examination, Clinical Breast Exam and Mammography)

Women’s Performance of Breast Cancer Screening (Breast Self Examination, Clinical Breast Exam and Mammography)

Women’s Performance of Breast Cancer Screening (Breast Self Examination, Clinical Breast Exam and Mammography)

Globally, breast cancer is the second leading cause of death in women and ranked number one among cancerous diseases in women who live in Saudi Ara- bia [3] [4] [5]. The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude of women toward breast cancer screening. In the present study, breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and periodic mammography screenings were re- ported by 35.5%, 27.4%, 37.8% of women who participated in the study, respec- tively. The reported results of practicing breast cancer screening from other stu- dies conducted in neighboring countries (Qatar and Jordan) showed BSE, CBE and periodic mammography screening were 13.9%, 31.3% and 26.9%, respec- tively in Qatar [19], while 34.9%, 16.8% and 8.6%, respectively in Jordan [20]. Similarly, on regular performance of BSE, our data found 27.3% of participants have performed BSE once per month. However, previous study was conducted among Iranian women showed the regular performance of BSE was 10.1% [21]. Theses reported results reflect the differences of attitude toward BCS among dif- ferent societies.
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Clinical breast exam and mammography in women referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran

Clinical breast exam and mammography in women referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran

The results of this study indicated very poor performance of CBE and mammography among the studied women. To improve women’s performance, appropriate and con- tinuous educational programs should be im- plemented through mass media such as ra- dio, TV and newspapers. Telecasting educa- tional films by health centers would be bene- ficial for women. Providing educational post- ers and pamphlets for breast cancer screening method also would be useful because, high level of awareness in individuals has a great effect on their desirable performance. Fur- thermore, providing necessary educations for breast cancer screening methods by health staff during pregnancy and even in postpar- tum period and pre-marriage counseling seems necessary. The results of the present study showed that screening methods in high-risk women was good; therefore, by sensitizing women toward the issue and ad- vantages of early diagnosis of disease, their performance can be improved. According to the study, physicians can have a very impor- tant role for advising them to perform screen- ing methods; it should be noted that a consi- derable percentage of women had never re- ceived any recommendations. Therefore, the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, with prioritizing this issue in educational programs of health staff such as physicians, midwives and other health staff, can have a very important role in early prevention and diagnosis of breast cancer.
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The Clinical Breast Examination: A Useful Screening Tool?

The Clinical Breast Examination: A Useful Screening Tool?

Abstract The standardization of the clinical breast examination as a screening tool for breast cancer has been a topic of controversy. Current recommendations vary significantly from organization to organization without consensus. There currently does not seem to be sufficient evidence regarding overall survival benefit of the clinical breast exam. However, as adjunct screening with mammography, it may help find earlier breast cancers and the up to 5–10% of cancers missed by mammography. The most appropriate standardized protocol may be that the clinical breast exam can be performed at the discretion of the provider and patient, with more inclination toward use in women in whom the exam carries greater sensitivity. (J Patient-Centered Res Rev. 2015;2:34-37.)
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Breast cancer screening practices for women aged 35 to 49 and 70 and older

Breast cancer screening practices for women aged 35 to 49 and 70 and older

The descriptive variables concerned breast cancer screening practices (review of family history of breast cancer, instruction in breast self-examination [BSE], performing clinical breast examination [CBE], prescrib- ing mammography, and referral to genetic counsel- ing) among 4 types of patients (women aged 35 to 49 years with or without risk factors [RFs] and women 70 years of age and older with or without good life expectancy [GLE] of 5 years or longer). For referral to genetic counseling, the 35- to 49-year-old group with RFs was divided into 2 groups: with family RFs and without family RFs. The dependent variables corre- sponded to the practice of prescribing mammography and the other variables related to the characteristics of the physicians and of the patients, as well as organiza- tional or situational factors (Table 1).
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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening among Female General Practitioners in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening among Female General Practitioners in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract: Background: Breast cancer has been ranked as the 1 st cancer in women in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Screening, early detection and proper treatment of Breast Cancer was associated with more chances of better prognosis and long-term survival. The role general practitioner’s role is to provide professional knowledge, skills and support for patients as well as their caregiver about screening and prevention. This study aimed to investigate the level of knowledge of Breast Cancer risk factors, beliefs, diagnosis and practice of Breast Self Examination, Clinical Breast Examination and mammography among female General Practitioners who are currently working in primary health care center in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire among female physicians, currently working as General Practitioners in Primary Health Care centers were invited. Descriptive statistics: mean, standard deviation, frequencies, percentage were calculated. Results: The majority (90%) of the respondents believed that Breast Cancer is a major health problem and 96% were aware of the importance of mammography as a screening method. But only 19% of the studied physicians requested mammogram as screening tool for women aged 40 years or more. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that knowledge about breast cancer screening was satisfactory and highlighted the need for the provision of continuing medical education programs to improve the general practitioners' practice on cancer screening tools.
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Studying Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Breast Cancer Screening Methods among Behshahr Dwelling Women

Studying Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Breast Cancer Screening Methods among Behshahr Dwelling Women

the fear from identification hinders the breast clinical examination. Based on the screening", 89.2% were strongl y disagree and regression logistic test, with one score disagree. Answering the item "I believe doing increase in attitude, the chance of clinical screening ways should be taken seriously", examination increases to 4%, In addition, 74.7% were strongly agreed and agree. Table using regression logistic, there was a 2 shows the number and percent of every meaningful relation between attitudes and option related to women attitude towards the doing mammography. With one score increase cancer screening ways. Regarding the in attitude, the chance of doing mammography relationship between attitude and variables of increases to 2.3 %. The results of the study demography, there was a meaningful show the relationship between the Behavior of statistical relationship only between attitude using screening ways and variables of and literacy. People with low literacy level, demography and other variables. There was a the attitude score was much lower. Using one positive relationship between the Behavior of tail variance analysis P=0.038 with Benfroni's breast self examination of married (P<0.029) post-test showed that the women with low and record of breast diseases in individuals literacy level had lower attitude scores (P<0.0001). There was a positive relationship compared with others. Considering the among the Behavior of mammography of relationship between attitude and Behavior of educated women (P<0.013) and people with using screening ways, the results of the study record of breast diseases (P<0.001) and people showed that there was a meaningful with record of disease in relatives (P<0.023). relationship between attitude and breast self Using regression logistic test, there was a meaningful relation between the variable of mammography and age, in that with one year increase in age, the chance of doing mammography increases to 4% (Table 1). relationship between attitude and
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Outcomes of a cluster randomized trial in young breast cancer survivors and blood relatives: surveillance and genetic services

Outcomes of a cluster randomized trial in young breast cancer survivors and blood relatives: surveillance and genetic services

We compared the efficacy of a tailored and a targeted intervention designed to increase clinical breast exam (CBE), mammography, and genetic services/testing among young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) (diagnosed <45 years old) and their blood relatives. A two-arm cluster randomized trial recruited a random sample of YBCS from the Michigan cancer registry and up to two of their blood relatives. Participants were stratified according to race and randomly assigned as family units to the tailored (n=637) or the targeted (n=595) intervention. Approximately 40% of participants were Black; 12% YBCS and 27% relatives were living in more than 20 different U.S. States. Higher screening rates were reported by YBCS (CBE p=0.05; mammography p=0.04) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.04) in the tailored arm, and by White/Other YBCS (CBE p=0.02) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.03). YBCS genetic testing rates increased from 22% to 26% (p=0.11). Black YBCS and relatives reported higher self-efficacy and intention for genetic testing, and higher satisfaction and intervention acceptance. The tailored intervention improved CBE and
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Systematic reviews as a “lens of evidence”: determinants of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening

Systematic reviews as a “lens of evidence”: determinants of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening

This systematic review, stimulated by inconsistency in secondary evidence, reports the benefits and harms of breast cancer (BC) screening and their determinants according to systematic reviews. A systematic search, which identified 9 , 976 abstracts, led to the inclusion of 58 reviews. BC mortality reduction with screening mammography was 15 – 25% in trials and 28 – 56% in observational studies in all age groups, and the risk of stage III+ cancers was reduced for women older than 49 years. Overdiagnosis due to mammography was 1 – 60 % in trials and 1 – 12 % in studies with a low risk of bias, and cumulative false- positive rates were lower with biennial than annual screening (3 – 17% vs 0.01 – 41%). There is no consistency in the reviews’ conclusions about the magnitude of BC mortality reduction among women younger than 50 years or older than 69 years, or determinants of benefits and harms of mammography, including the type of mammography (digital vs screen-film), the number of views and the screening interval. Similarly, there was no solid evidence on determinants of benefits and harms or BC mortality reduction with screening by ultrasonography or clinical breast examination (sensitivity ranges, 54 – 84% and 47 – 69%, respectively), and strong evidence of unfavourable benefit-to-harm ratio with breast self-examination. The reviews’ conclusions were not dependent on the quality of the reviews or publication date. Systematic reviews on mammography screening, mainly from high-income countries, systematically disagree on the interpretation of the benefit-to-harm ratio. Future reviews are unlikely to clarify the discrepancies unless new original studies are published.
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Application of the Champion Health Belief Model to determine beliefs and behaviors of Turkish women academicians regarding breast cancer screening: A cross sectional descriptive study

Application of the Champion Health Belief Model to determine beliefs and behaviors of Turkish women academicians regarding breast cancer screening: A cross sectional descriptive study

Female academicians in Turkey exhibit positive attitudes towards BSE, CBE and mammography as they have higher perceived sensitivity against BC, self-efficacy and fewer barriers. But there are still more room for progress. Also, women in health disciplines appear as not practicing what they preach. Further minimizing the barriers towards the screening behaviors can effectively persuade the academ- ician women. Interventions should focus more on the practical implementations. Data on the health beliefs can be used to determine the critical factors that affect BC. Improved health education and implementation of critical strategies should further enhance the performance of BC screening. Long-term community-based programs should be extended to different groups of women from a variety of socio-demographic environments.
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Knowledge and Practice of Breast Self Examination among Female Undergraduates in South Eastern Nigeria

Knowledge and Practice of Breast Self Examination among Female Undergraduates in South Eastern Nigeria

Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women worldwide [4]. Globally, it has been reported that breast cancer ranks as the fifth cause of death from cancer overall, although still the leading cause of cancer mortality in women (the 411,000 annual deaths represent 14% of female cancer deaths) [5]. The WHO estimated that 1.2 million cases of breast cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year which represented 10% of all diagnosed cancers and constituted 22% of all new cases in women in 2000 making it by far the most common cancer in women [6]. In Nigeria, breast cancer has been reported as the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of death [7] [8]. Late presentation of patients at advanced stages of when little or no bene- fit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women [9]. The peak age incidence of breast cancer in Nigeria is reported to be between 45 - 50 years [2], In contrast to Europe and America where it was reported to be 65 - 75 years. Some cases have been reported below 30 years in Nigeria [10]. The three screening methods recommended for breast cancer include Breast Self-Examination (BSE), clin- ical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. Unlike CBE and mammography which require hospital visit and specialized equipment and expertise, BSE is inexpensive and carried out by women themselves. Although mammography remains the best diagnostic tool in the detection of breast cancer, it is not routinely performed in Nigeria because of cost, high technology equipment and expertise required. Mammograms miss most breast lump in the younger age groups; this is likely to happen in Nigeria where cases below 30 have been reported [11].
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Knowledge, attitude and practice of female undergraduate students toward breast cancer screening: using breast self examination as a case study

Knowledge, attitude and practice of female undergraduate students toward breast cancer screening: using breast self examination as a case study

Breast cancer remains the most common cancer related cause of death among women. Late diagnosis and presentation seen among our patients reflect paucity of knowledge about breast cancer and breast cancer screening programmes. This study determines the knowledge based of our university undergraduate female students about breast cancer and breast self examination an inexpensive technique for breast cancer screening. It is a questionnaire based prospective study among university undergraduate female students here in referred to as respondents who were given open ended structured questionnaires to collect relevant data about breast cancer and breast self examination. Out of four hundred and fifty nine (97.04%) of the respondents who had knowledge about breast cancer, only 201 (42.49%) of them heard about breast cancer screening. However, 95 (47.26%) of the 201 respondents agreed that breast cancer can be detected early through breast cancer screening. Eighty four (17.75%) respondents have heard about self breast examination out of which only about a third (36.90%) practice it. Considering the knowledge on self breast examination only 3 (9.67%) out of the thirty one respondents who practiced it, perform it correctly. In conclusion most of our respondents have heard about breast cancer but have insufficient knowledge on breast cancer and breast cancer screening to harness the effective positive attitude towards self breast examination.
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A study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Breast Self-Examination among the women of a selected urban community

A study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Breast Self-Examination among the women of a selected urban community

Abstract: Breast cancer is a global health problem and is significantly rising all over India. It ranks first among all types of cancers pushing cervical cancer to number two. It leads to considerable rate of mortality, morbidity, over-burden to health system and added direct medical expenditure in India. Trend analysis shows that there has been a rise of 50 to 100% increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the last 20 years all over the world. In a study done in India, five-year survival rate was 56% among patients diagnosed with breast cancer at a later stage in comparison to 85% for cases diagnosed early. One of the reasons for poor diagnosis has been identified as late diagnosis of the breast cancer leading to advanced staging and poor prognosis. Globally clinical breast examination, Breast- Self examination & mammography are the recommended screening test for the detection of breast cancer. However BSE being a cost effective method and a test that can be done by self in privacy, it’s been advocated as one of the best screening methods by many of the cancer institutes and oncologists for detection of any change in the breast.
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A longitudinal study of the prevalence and characteristics of breast disorders detected by clinical breast examination during pregnancy and six months postpartum in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

A longitudinal study of the prevalence and characteristics of breast disorders detected by clinical breast examination during pregnancy and six months postpartum in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

Antenatal and postnatal clinics should be considered a place for intensified screening and teaching of breast edu- cation. This is a feasible and very useful option for early breast cancer diagnosis. As close to 60% of women in their reproductive ages who attend ANC at least once in preg- nancy according to National Demographic Health Survey 2013 [46] would be captured. Due to the challenging nature of examining the breast during pregnancy and lactation, health care workers should be trained on how to conduct thorough CBE using standard and validated techniques. Further diagnostic investigations such as BUS and ultrasound guided biopsy should be conducted after breast disorders are found during CBE. Factors affecting low diagnostic uptake should be addressed by educating the women. Studies with longer follow up duration could have possibly found cases of PABC, in addition, it could as well determine the risk of breast cancer after breast disorder diagnosis.
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Index terms Breast Cancer Screening Kenya Objectives: This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices towards breast cancer screening among female out-patients

Index terms Breast Cancer Screening Kenya Objectives: This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices towards breast cancer screening among female out-patients

Results: Three hundred and forty (85%) of the respondents completed the study; 32.1% of them were of age 28-37 years; 37.4% of the respondents had secondary education; 43.5%) of them were unemployed; 58.5%) of them were from Kisumu County. Two hundred and fifty eight (75.9%) of the respondents were aware of the breast cancer screening (BCS), while 37.6% didn’t know what causes breast cancer. Smoking and family history was highly associated with breast cancer at 71.2% and 61.5% respectively; 55%) of the respondents believed that in case changes are realized in the breast a doctor should be seen immediately. Breast self-examination at 69.1% and clinical breast examination at 45.0% were the most popular breast screening methods compared to FNAC, mammography and ultrasound.
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Promotion of early diagnosis of breast cancer in Brazilian Women

Promotion of early diagnosis of breast cancer in Brazilian Women

Background: Breast Cancer (BC) is the type of cancer that most affects women, being the second most common type in the world. In Brazil, in 2016, an estimated 57,960 new cases in women, representing 28.1% of new breast cancer cases across the country. Mammography remains the method of choice for population screening for breast cancer in asymptomatic women and is the first imaging technique indicated to evaluate most clinical breast changes. Objective: To evaluate the promotion of early diagnosis of breast cancer by performing screening mammography in women aged 50 to 69 years in the city of Teresina-PI. Method: Descriptive, prospective study with 297 women aged 50 to 69 years. For inferential analyzes, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson correlation and Student's t test were used. Results: The average age of the participating women was 58.4 years and 68.4% called themselves brown. The average sample estimates of developing breast cancer by the Gail model at 5 years and up to 90 years of age were 1.3% and 6.7%, respectively. Still, using the same model, 8.8% of women had an estimated risk of developing breast cancer ≥1.67% in 5 years. In the study population, there was an increase of 15.9% in the performance of screening mammographic examinations after the intervention. Conclusion: Lectures and workshops to raise awareness about breast cancer in women had positive impacts on the screening program. The sample studied had low risk estimates for developing breast cancer, according to the factors considered in the Gail model. As well, the number of screening mammograms performed during the study period was increasing compared to the previous year.
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Javaeed

Javaeed

For the physical examination, there are basically two types of breast examination; the self breast examination (SBE) and the clinical breast examination (CBE). Both of which are done to detect the presence of a lump in the breast, at very early stage. It should be stated that not all breast lumps are malignant, some are benign, especially those occurring in younger age group which are extremely mobile; the popular fibroadenoma which is referred to as breast mice is an example. Nevertheless, most malignant breast lumps are usually painless, solitary or multiple and they can be fixed, depending on spread. Every breast lump is biopsied to confirm the presence of malignancy. Both SBE and CBE are conducted in the same pattern, with one arm placed to the other side of the head, tensing the pectoralis major muscle upon which the breast lies and the breast is palpated with other arm, along its four quadrants systematically to fill for lumps. CBE is said to have a specificity and sensitivity of 97.11% and 57.14% respectively. Compared to that, the sensitivity and specificity of SBE are 87.4% and 58.3%, respectively. 13 Although, the numbers suggest that the specificity of CBE is better than SBE, but SBE is the easiest and cheapest method of screening. 14 The lack of awareness still remains a common barrier for wide spread practice of SBE by the women. Some literatures have shown that there is no improvement in mortality rates after applying CBE, hence making its use generally controversial as it is not diagnostic and yet increases the rate of biopsies. But, still it remains an essential tool for the screening of the said disease. It is generally recommended for women under 40 years and those who do not undergo routine mammography. 15,16
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Improving early detection of breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: why mammography may not be the way forward

Improving early detection of breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: why mammography may not be the way forward

Clinical downstaging, also called ‘downwards stage mi- gration’ , describes an approach to early detection of breast cancer that centres on detecting cancers early in symptomatic women, for example those with a palpable tumour or other symptom, so that women may be diag- nosed with earlier disease and an improved prognosis [20]. This approach contrasts to both population-based and opportunistic screening, which aim to detect cancer in asymptomatic women. A number of authors suggest that clinical downstaging is the preferred alternative for early detection in settings where women present with late stage disease [8, 20]. There is little research on the effectiveness of downstaging, but existing research indi- cates it is effective in settings where most women have advanced disease. For example, a program in Malaysia that involved training health staff in CBE and increasing public awareness of symptoms of breast cancer led to a decrease in late stage disease from 60 to 35% over 4 years [32]. Studies in Sudan and Tanzania have demon- strated that CBE combined with awareness campaigns and training of health workers can be effective in down- staging breast cancer [20].
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Attitude, Awareness and Experience of Women towards the Breast Self-examination in Saudi Arabia

Attitude, Awareness and Experience of Women towards the Breast Self-examination in Saudi Arabia

women are unable to get early diagnosis and treatment [15]. Saudi Arabia has a low rate of breast cancer screening despite free medical care [16]. Breast self-examination (BSE) is an important tool in developing countries because it is easy, safe and does not require any equipment [17,18]. There is an association between detection of breast cancer and breast self- examination [19]. In Saudi Arabia, there is insufficient knowledge among females about breast cancer and screening [20,21]. This low level of awareness has a strong relationship with the level of education, marital status and level of job [22]. In our study, 22.1% of patients had breast examined by themselves while in one study 41% of females did self-breast examination [23]. Another study in Nigeria showed breast self- examination from 19% to 43%, in India 0 to 52%, and 54% in a study in the west [24,25,26]. In Saudi Arabia, lack of knowledge and awareness, shyness are the reasons for not doing breast- self-examination [27].
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Perceived barriers to early detection of breast cancer in Wakiso District, Uganda using a socioecological approach

Perceived barriers to early detection of breast cancer in Wakiso District, Uganda using a socioecological approach

The concept of early detection of breast cancer is somewhat ambiguous [9]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the aim of early detection of breast cancer is to ensure that breast cancer is identi- fied, referred and treated early [10], making it an import- ant component of the breast cancer care pathway. Early detection measures recommended by the Breast Health Global Initiative guidelines (BHGI) for LMICs include: breast awareness and breast self-examination (BSE); clinical history and clinical breast examination (CBE); diagnostic breast imaging such as ultrasound; and mam- mography screening for high risk populations [11]. The most basic of these measures include BSE which simply involves getting to know one ’ s breast [12] and breast awareness which involves knowledge of the risk factors, signs and symptoms of breast cancer to prompt diagno- sis and treatment [10]. Scientific evidence for the use of BSE as an individual early detection approach is contro- versial [13]. However, the simple clinical procedure of CBE is regarded as a preferred approach in comparison to BSE, mostly because it is carried out by trained health personnel and considered an effective method for early detection in LMICs [11]. A medical diagnostic method such as mammography is predominantly conducted among asymptomatic populations and is currently rec- ommended for developed countries [14].
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KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES TOWARDS BREAST CANCER SCREENING PROGRAMS AMONG IRANIAN RURAL FEMALE POPULATIONS IN NORTH OF IRAN

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES TOWARDS BREAST CANCER SCREENING PROGRAMS AMONG IRANIAN RURAL FEMALE POPULATIONS IN NORTH OF IRAN

classes based on cumulative point scores (I: acceptable = 11 to 20 points, II: low = 1 to 10 points, III: poor = -10 to 0 points, IV: unacceptable = -20 to -11 points). Women’s attitudes toward breast cancer and screening programs were assessed by 10 items, each of which was scored on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree". Assessing the frequency of BSE, participants 20 to 40 years of age, and 40 years of age and above, indicated how often they examined their own breasts, on a 4-point scale (1 = Never, 2 = 1 to 6 times per year, 3 = 7 to 11 times per year, and 4 = once a month or more). Perceived self-efficacy of BSE was assessed by the question "How confident are you that you can examine your own breasts correctly?” with response categories being "Very", "A little", and "Not at all". All participants were asked whether they had performed BSE over the previous 12 months. Participants 20 years of age and above, in compliance with CBE, were assessed by asking whether they have had a CBE in the past 24 months or not. Participants 40 years of age and older, in compliance with mammography, were assessed by asking whether they had a mammogram in the past 24 months or at least one mammogram until now. Internal Consistency of the Questionnaire
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