ABSTRACT: An ever increasing demand of fuels has been a challenge for today’s scientific workers. The fossil fuel resources are reducing day by day. So we need environmental viable fuel of biodiesel seem to be a solution for future. It is an environmental viable fuel. Several researchers have made systematic efforts to use plant oil and their biodiesel as a fuel in compression ignition engines .There is various types of raw material like Pongamia Pinnata, Neem seeds, Cashew nut, Waste vegetables, Cotton seed, etc. A non- edible oil seeds and various vegetable oils including palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and canola oil have been used to produce biodiesel fuel and lubricants. Out of these Pongamia pinnata can be a definite source of raw material due to its easy availability in wild. Pongamia pinnata is drought resistant, semi-deciduous, nitrogen fixing leguminous tree. An experimental analysis has been carried out to evaluate the performance and emissioncharacteristics of a compression ignition engine fuelled with dissimilar compositions of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel and its blend at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% with mineral diesel. HC, CO, CO2 and smoke were measured.
By injecting or carbureting alcohol fuel such as methanol is injected into the intake air stream of the inlet manifold (Abu- Qudais et al., 2000)  The results of applying biodiesel with 10% methanol fumigation in four-cylinder dieselengine at a constant speed with various engine loads are compared. While fumigating methanol lower CO, HC, NO2 and particulate emissions are obtained. During fumigation of methanol, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) is high at medium and higher engine load conditions. The experimental study shows the effects of methanol fumigation over exhaust gas and engineperformance (Cheng et al. 2008)  The fumigation of methanol is tested in a four cylinder, constant speed direct fuel injection dieselengine which impacts the engine’s combustion and emissioncharacteristics. It reduces diesel fuel consumed and increases the release of heat in premixed mode. When methanol is fumigated, in-cylinder pressure decreases from low to medium load condition, but at high load condition pressure increases. Ignition delay is increased, but there is no significant influence on the combustion duration of the fuel. (Zhang et al. 2013)  Diesel/methanol compound combustion results in the reduction of NOx emissionfrom both naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines due to the reduction of intake air and combustion temperature. And increase in CO and HC emissions due to lower combustion temperature and homogeneous methanol/air charge formed (Chunde Yao et al., 2007) 
), “An Experimental Investigation of using Ethanol as additive to Coconut oil on the Performance and Emissioncharacteristics of a DieselEngine at different loads” (DrHiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2016), “An Experimental Investigation on Effects of Ethanol Blended Pogamia oil and Diesel Fuel to EnginePerformance and Emissions of a DieselEngine” (DrHiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2016), “Analysis and Comparison of performance and emissions of a Dieselengine fuelled with Diesel and Cottonseed oil blended with Ethanol” (DrHiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2016), “Investigation of Apricot oil blended with Ethanol as substitute fuel in Turbocharged DieselEngine” (DrHiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2016),“Mango seed oil blended with Ethanol as a Bio fuel and Diesel as a fossil fuel in Twin Cylinder dieselEngine” (DrHiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2016), “Performance and Emissioncharacteristics of Rape seed oil blended with Ethanol and Diesel in CIEngine” (DrHiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2016),“Investigation and Piston to piston comparison of Twin Cylinder DieselEngine Fueled with Pongamiaoil and Dieseloil” (Dr Hiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2015), “Experimental Investigation of Twin Cylinder DieselEngine Using Linseed oil Blend with Ethanol” (DrHiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2015), “Investigation of Methanol in Twin cylinder in line 4 Stroke liquid cooled DieselEngine”(DrHiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2015) “Investigation and Performance Evaluation of Ethanol Blends With Vegetable Oils as Alternative Fuels in DieselEngine, (DrHiregoudaru Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2015)
beings are immediate victims. This pollution causes to suffer from headache, dizziness, eye irritation, brain damage, cancer, kidney damage etc.Further Rising fuel costs and impending emissions regulations have sharpened the automotive industry‘s focus on efficiency. In search for alternative fuels, the favourable option was found to be renewable fuels like vegetable oils, alcohol etc.The various edible vegetable oils like sunflower, soybean, peanut, cotton seed etc have been tested successfully in the dieselengine. Research in this direction with edible oils yielded encouraging results. Diesel is produced from crude oil, biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils, and either edible or non edible oils can be used depending on their properties.
Abstract— An experimental study is conducted to evaluate the effects of using diethyl ether as additive to waste fried oil/diesel blend on the performance and emissions of a direct injection dieselengine. The waste fried oil and diesel blending with diethyl ether (DEE) in the ratio of 0:100:0, 20:80:0, 30:70:0, 40:60:0, 15:80:5, 25:70:5 and 35:60:5 by volume were tested in CIEngine. The results shows that compared with neat diesel, there is slightly lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for diesel- waste fried oil -DEE blend. Strong reduction in emission is observed with diesel-bio waste fried oil-DEE at various engine loads. waste fried oil at 25% and DEE 5% blend with diesel gave best performance in terms of low smoke intensity, emissions of HC,CO,CO 2 ,and NO x .
There is abundant fish waste in local fish sell, either in coastal town or in metropolitan cities. The moisture content of these fish wastes is about 65%. Biodiesel production, dung composting, biogas production and burning of fish wastes to produce energy are different ways to exploit the fish dissipate in the world. In this study, after designing and manufacturing of an oil extraction machine, waste fish oil was separated from fish wastes. Experiments proves that 53% of fish wastes was in liquid form and the taken out oil was in relation to 11percent of the total weight of the fish raw material(using of 7 kg of wastes, about 3.71 kg liquid was and 0.8 l (768 g) oil was isolated). Biodiesel fuel was produced from the fish oil after the chemical reaction (transesterification, effect between methanol, potassium hydroxide and oilfrom fish waste). For every liter of oil, 0.9 l biodiesel be produced. Biodiesel is typically formed through the effect of fish oil with methanol in the being there of catalyst to yield glycerin and biofuel. This method for making biodiesel is relatively simple. The process is known as transesterification Process of biofuel production from waste fish oil has been indicated in figure. At the first step, the processed waste fish oil was supplied into the system. The presented water in the retort at higher temperature level resulted in triglyceride and liberates fatty acid creation. Free fatty acids neutralized the catalyst led to soap creation. Therefore, it can be implied that the existence of water and free fatty acids caused soap production. Since waste oil was used for biodiesel production, the color of resulting mixture was dark brown through the early stages of effect turning to a lighter color at the later phases of the reaction. The reaction was conducted for 2h at the temperature of 60 0 C, agitation speed of 300 rpm and at the
In the present work an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory single cylinder, four-stroke variable compression ratio, and direct injection dieselengine converted to Diesel dual fuel mode to analyze the performance and emissioncharacteristics of pure diesel first and then blending of Karnja oilbio-diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded for the compression ratio of 15,16,and17 at blends % substitution rates of B20,B40 and B60 by varying the load from idle to rated load of 2.5,4.5,and 6.5 kg in steps of 1 up to 2.5kg ,4.5kg and then to 6.5kg. The results reveal that brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel engine is in the range of 15%-30% at the rated load of 6.5kg which is 11%-13% higher than pure dieselengine for B20, B40 and B60 substitution rates. Brake specific fuel consumption of dual fuel engine is found better than pure dieselengine at all engine loads. Investigations in this study.
The transesterification is the most widely used commercial process to produce clean and environmental friendly bio-fuel . Methyl/ethyl/butyl esters of mahua oil , jatropha oil , karanja oil , and rubber seed oil [12, 13] have been successfully tested on C.I. engines and their performance has been studied. Bose et al.  run a naturally aspirated dieselengine with etherified non-edible oil (Koranja) to study the performance and emissioncharacteristics and observed that brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency of ester fed Koranja oil and diesel are found satisfactory results.
The properties of biodiesel fuel have higher viscosity, density and flash point than the diesel fuel . Further the energy content or net calorific value of biodiesel is less than that of diesel fuel. There are various economically and environmental advantages to utilize this unique fuel. Indian Oil Corporation has tied up with Indian Railways to introduce the production of biodiesel producing crops over 1 million square kilometers On 12 September 2008, the Indian Government announced its „National Biofuels Policy‟. It aims to meet 20% of India‟s diesel demand with fuel derived from plants. Biodiesel has physical and chemical properties similar to conventional petroleum-based diesel.
On the other hand specific energy consumption and oxides of nitrogen of WCO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. In addition combustion characteristics of all biodiesel blends showed similar trends when compared to that of conventional diesel. The quality of biodiesel is most important for engine parts and various standards have been specified to check the quality. The important properties of safflower oil and its methyl ester (biodiesel), such as density, kinematics viscosity, flash point, iodine number, neutralization number, pour point, cloud point, and cetane number, are found out and compared to those of No. 2 petroleum diesel. Fuel properties of methyl esters of Carthamus tinctorius L. oil compare well with ASTM and EN biodiesel standards. G. Venkata Subbaiah, et al., (2011 ) investigates experimentally the performance, and exhaust emissioncharacteristics of a direct injection (DI) dieselengine when fuelled with rice bran oilbiodiesel (RBD) and its 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% ethanol blends over the entire load range. The experimental test results showed that the maximum brake thermal efficiency was obtained with 2.5% ethanol blended with RBD and are 6.98%
Oil, natural gas and coal form the main constituent of fossil fuel energy. These energy resources were formed millions of years ago as the consequence of decomposition of organic remains trapped in the sediments and subjected to high temperature and pressure conditions in the subsurface of the earth. The consumer demand for crude oil is increasing with annual rate in excess of 2%. This demand is even higher in the advanced Asian countries like China, India and South Korea owing to increase in transportation, using cars and trucks powered by internal combustion engines. Extensive analysis of demand supply by petro consultants, geologists has predicted that the oil production will peak within a span of 20 years in the near future. Fast depletion of the fossil fuels, rising petroleum prices, increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions and global warming have generated intense international interest in developing alternative non-petroleum fuels for engines. Due to fast depletion of fossil fuels and increasing of dieselengine vehicle population, the use of renewable fuel like vegetable oils becomes more important. Many alternative fuels like bio gas, methanol, ethanol and vegetable oils have been evaluated as a partial or complete substitute to diesel fuel. In the past 2008 Semin, Rosli Abu Bakar  gave a technical review on CNG that is Compressed Natural Gas as alternate fuel for internal combustion engines. Natural gas is made up of primarily CH 4 (methane). CNG is non
Extensive studies on alternative fuels have been carried out since the fossil based fuels are limited. One of these studies is on vegetable oils to be used in diesel engines. In the researches done so far, some negative sides of using vegetable oils in engines such as carbon deposits in combustion chamber, harmful effects on engine parts, clogged injectors, needle adhesion and the cause a first starting problem have been observed [12-20]. In addition, decrease in combustion efficiency due to poor atomization, thickening of lubricant and piston and ring adhesion has also been reported by some researchers [21-23].
Oil expeller is the central part of the whole oil extraction plant. Oil expeller consists of a screw shaped worm enclosed in a sealed chamber. The chamber has inlet and outlet opening which enable the flow of input seeds and outgoing oil and refuse. The precooked seeds are fed through a hopper into the inlet of the chamber. The screwing action of the worm pushes the seeds towards the narrow end. As the seeds are pressed to the narrow end, Oil is released as a result of increased pressure through very tiny holes, specially built at this end, oil escapes the chamber flowing through the pipes oil is collected at storage end. The refuse of the seeds after extracting oil is collected as oil cakes which is again a very important
To obtain biodiesel, the oil or animal fat is subjected to a chemical term termed as transesterification. In this reaction, the vegetable oil or animal fat is reacted in the presence of a catalyst with an alcohol to give the corresponding alkyl esters methanol, of the FA (fatty acid) mixture that is found in the parent vegetable oil or animal fat.
Abstract: Fossil fuels have given us utility and continued their role in a variety of areas, but rapid depletion of these fossil fuels directs the researchers to find alternative fuels for the present energy crisis. In this perspective a Bio-diesel came in to existence which meets the present energy demand and emission norms. Biodiesel is a non–toxic, biodegradable and renewable alternative fuel that can be used with little or no engine modifications. In this study Transesterification of soybean oil (TSO) with methanol to methyl esters (biodiesel) was carried out in the presence of NaOH as catalyst and the effect of the biodiesel was investigated on four stroke single cylinder slow speed dieselengine for both performance and emissioncharacteristics in the range of no load to full load. The experimental results have showed that increase in brake thermal efficiency by 2.6 % and mechanical efficiency by 8.8 % with soybean Bio- diesel. Smoke is reduced by 75 % at part load and NO x
on increasing in view of the increase in automobile number in present days and as a result demand for fuels. The insufficiency of conventional fuels lead to its over-dependence by nations, escalating emission pollutants and their rising costs has made the renewable energy sources more attractive than other types when compared. So to nullify troubles, alternative energy is the best answer and their fore lot of research is going out in this field. Several researchers are concentrating on bio-diesel as substitute fuels as these can be adopted instead of the conventional CI engines with not more modification in present once. Bio-diesel can be extracted from different raw materials like vegetable, biomass, algae, simarouba, milk scum, Pongamia pinnata etc. In which Milk scum oil and Pongamia pinnata oil is one of them. We considered as they available in cheap cost and renewable. Hence the proposed work of study would be an attempt for study purpose experiment Milk scum and Pongamia pinnata biodiesel-diesel blend with various ratios on a CIengine and to look for its possibility so as to have a substitute for diesel fuel, which is being used continuously from past many more years, and to overcome petroleum crisis in upcoming days.
In the present study biodiesel is collected from Bindle group and it blended in various proportions with diesel were studied. The torque, brake power and fuel consumption values associated with these fuels were determined under certain operating condition. Maximum brake power for all the blend as well as diesel is obtained in the speed range of 1520 rpm. Maximum Brake power for JB 80% is 1.83 Kw at 1500 rpm & for diesel is 1.82 Kw at 1444 rpm. Increase in power may be due to complete combustion of oxygenated fuel. With increase in speed, specific fuel consumption first decreases and than increases. Specific fuel consumption (sfc) also increases with increase in blend percentage. All the blend gave minimum sfc at 1444 rpm for diesel is 0.49 kg/kwh, JB 20% at 1490 rpm is 0.45 kg/kwh, JB 40% at 1480 rpm is 0.51 kg/kwh,JB60% at 1492 rpm is 0.52 kg/kwh, JB 80% at 1500 rpm is 0.49kg/kwh.. The products of Tran’s esterification were evaluated by comparing physical characteristics of biodiesel oil. The biodesel were then tested in dieselengine to observe their actual performanceemission. This paper introduces an elegant method for the above required analysis by establishing a definite relationship between fuel properties and engineperformance.
oil is more convenient and economically viable method for large scale epoxidation which shows utility especially in plasticizer and stabilizer used in polymers. In the present study, several basic trends were observed. The prepared compounds exhibited the favorable cold-flow characteristics. The presence of branching group at the head of the molecule will make it more effectively in disruption crystalline formation at reduced temperatures. These products can be efficiently utilized for bio based industrial materials, such as bio lubricants. Contaminated environment is expensive. Conventional mineral oil based lubricants are extremely harmful for the biosphere when they get into the environment. Due to poor degradability mineral oils remain in the ecosystem for a long time. Even in case of high dilution the effect will be fatal (ecotoxicological effect). Higher amount will be required for elimination of contaminated ecosystem clearly. Edible oils in use in developed nations such as USA and European nations but in developing countries the production of edible oils are not sufficient. In a country like India, there are many plant species whose seeds remain unutilized and underutilized have been tried for biodiesel production. Non-edible oil seeds are the potential feedstock for production of bio lubricant in India.
The concept of biodiesel blend is very old. The study of hydrated ethanol with gasoline as a means of reducing the cost of ethanol/gasoline implemented by Suri rajan .The blending of ethanol with unleaded gasoline increases brake power, torque, and brake thermal efficiency .For single cylinder direct injection dieselengine with blends of rice bran oil the kinematic viscosity decreases with increase in unburnt hydrocarbons.The bio additives such as extracted matter of palm oil have been tested with gasoline engine engines which shows that there is increase in improvement of exhaust emission.
Abstract: Automobiles are growing day by day it means usage of automotives are increasing, so usage of fuel also increasing. In this paper will be discuss the use of diesel with ethanol and castor seed oil blends in diesel four-stroke engine. This alternative fuel contains castor oil and ethanol so it increases the performance and reduces the emission compared to diesel. Ethanol is a good cooling agent due to blending of ethanol so the NO x will be reduced. For those mixtures the gas