ABSTRACT: In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel substitute for internal combustion engines. An experimental investigation was performed to study the performance, emissions and combustioncharacteristics of dieselenginefuelled with blends of Jatrophamethylester and diesel. In the present work three different fuel blends of Jatrophamethylester (B10, B20, B40 and B100) were used. The increments in load on the engine increase the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific fuel consumption. The biodiesel blends produce lower carbon monoxide & unburned hydrocarbon emission and higher carbon dioxide & oxides of nitrogen than neat diesel fuel. From the results it was observed that the ignition delays decreased with increase in concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel blends with diesel. The combustioncharacteristics of single-fuel for biodiesel and diesel have similar combustion pressure and HRR patterns at different engine loads but it was observed that the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were lower for biodiesel blends compared to those of diesel fuel combustion.
The effects of fuel blends containing 5, 10 and 15 wt. % of anhydrous ethanol in diesel oil with 7% of biodiesel (B7) on performance, emissions and combustioncharacteristics of a diesel power generator are investigated. The engine was tested with its original configuration, with the fuel blends directly injected into the combustion chamber, and the applied load varied from 5 to 37.5 kW. The results were compared with standard B7 operation, and showed that in in-cylinder peak pressure and heat release rate were decreased at low loads and increased at high loads with the use of ethanol. Increasing ethanol concentration caused increased ignition delay, decreased combustion duration and reduced exhaust gas temperature. The use of ethanol decreased carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, up to 8.6% lower than B7. Carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons
Energy is the major sources for the development of any country. India being a developing country requires much higher level of energy to sustain its rate of progress. According to the International Energy Agency (IFA), Hydrocarbon account for the majority of India’s energy use. The importance of biodiesel as alternative fuel is more feasible towards reduction of harmful engineemissions. Karanaja oil methylester as a alternative fuel in a singlecylinder, four stroke direct injection dieselengine experimentswas experimented. The BTE was found to be higher for B20 and B40 . The performance and emission characteristics of a singlecylinder agricultural dieselengine using preheated Karanja oil and its blends with diesel were studied. Marginal improvements in performance and emission as compared with diesel were found for lower blend percentage . Using bio diesel obtained from Mahua oil and its blends with diesel in Recardo E6 engine experiments were conducted at different compression ratios, different injection timing and at different loads. In the performance analysis it was observed that brake specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature increased and brake thermal efficiency decreased with the increased in blend percentage at all compression ratios(18:1-20:1) and injection timing(35-45 0 before TDC). It was concluded that biodiesel blended with high speed diesel can be used as alternative fuel . Using biodiesel obtained from crude rice brain oil methylester (CRBME) in a small duty direct injection dieselenginecombustioncharacteristics were studied. It was found that ignition delay maximum rate of pressure rise for biodiesel was increased as compared with diesel..Using diesel and biodiesel-ethanol blends in a singlecylinder four stroke direct injection dieselengine experiments were carried out at three different compression ratios (15:1,17:1,19:1).In the combustion analysis it was found that maximum rate of pressure of pressure rise , heat release rate increased with increased biodiesel percentage[5,6]. Using sea lemon oil-based fuels in a direct injection dieselengine, combustion and emission analysis were carried out.NO X emission was found to be lower , CO and hydrocarbon emission found
Priyabarta et.al. , Experiments were conducted on Diesel, preheated and crude Jatropha oil to evaluate the combustioncharacteristics of a DI (direct injection) dieselengine using PJO (preheated Jatropha oil). It exhibited a marginally higher cylinder gas pressure, rate of pressure rise and heat release rate as compared to HSD (high speed diesel) during the initial stages of combustion for all engine loadings. Ignition delay was shorter for PJO as compared to HSD. The results also indicated that BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and EGT (exhaust gas temperature) increased while BTE (brake thermal efficiency) decreased with PJO as compared to HSD for all engine loadings. The reductions in CO 2 (carbon dioxide), HC (hydrocarbon) and
The point of this paper is to numerically examine the impact of a specific biodiesel, namely Soy MethylEster (SME), on the performance and combustioncharacteristics of a compression ignition engine, under different loads and constant speed. A further study on the impact of retarding the start of injection on the same performance will then take place. A singlecylinder, naturally aspirated, air cooled, direct injection dieselengine is used. The numerical model should behave in the same way as the real engine in terms of the parameters available on the output of the engine. The numerical simulation is conducted with the thermodynamic code Diesel-RK. The computation of thermodynamic properties is processed using the first law of thermodynamics. Properties such as Pressure, temperature are computed for each crank angle. It takes advantages of empirical and semi empirical correlations which were obtained from experimental tests in the literature to compute its coefficients. Moreover, Diesel-RK uses the R-K model[12- 14], which is a multi-zone diesel fuel spray mixture formation and combustion model.
Fig.6.Shows the variation of carbon monoxide emissions of various JME biodiesel blends with brake power. From the figure it is observed the CO emissions of JME are lower than the standard diesel fuel. The reason for the lower CO emission of JME blends are due to the high cetane number of fuel, better combustion, shorter duration of combustion and better spray. Also due to higher compression ratio, injection pressure and injection timing the combustion of the charge occurs in a shorter duration. Hence more heat release occurs and increases the cylinder temperature, as a result the whole mixture are combusted fully without leaving carbon monoxide. In addition the presence of molecular oxygen helps to combust the fuel with less emission.
ABSTRACT: Now a day’s world is facing fuel problems due to increasing in automobiles, power plant and industries, increasing of these automobiles, power plant produce more emission like CO, HC and NOX. This situation leads to seek an alternative fuel for dieselengine .biodiesel is found as an alternative fuel for dieselengine .The ester of vegetable oil and animal fat are known as bio diesel .This paper investigates the prospect of making bio diesel from jatropha oil. Jatropha curcas is renewable and non edible plant. Jatropha is wildly grown in drought areas of the country on degraded soils having less fertility and moisture content. Jatropha bio diesel is an oxygenated fuel; it has more oxygen and can be used dieselengine without any modification. In present work studied the emission characteristics of jatropha biodiesel the blends of jatrophamethylester and diesel in the proportion B10, B20, B60, B80 and B100 are prepared analysed and their performance and emissionscharacteristics compared with the performance and emission characteristics of diesel. And obtained the emissions like CO, HC, NOX and CO2.The results are compared with pure diesel.
experiments were conducted at the engine speed of 1500 rpm. Initially experiments are conducted using diesel and methylester of sunflower oil with different injection timings at the rated speed of 1500 rev/min under variable load conditions. Load speed, air flow rate, fuel flow rate, exhaust gas temperature, and exhaust emissions of carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and smoke are observed, cylinder pressure position signals are recorded for processing to obtain combustion parameters. In the second phase, methylester of sunflower oil is blended with diesel in different proportions. Performance, emissions and combustion parameters are analyzed and compared with neat diesel operation. All the test values were noted down thrice and average value was taken to avoid the errors in readings. Some of the properties of sunflower oil, sunflower methyl esters and its blends. It is very important to know the properties of fuel with blends. Different blends were tested and the properties are noted.
IJEDR1602145 International Journal of Engineering Development and Research (www.ijedr.org) 817 combustioncharacteristics of engine which will improve engineperformance and reduce emissions. H. tyagi et al.  conducted hot plate ignition probability taste to examine ignition properties of aluminium and aluminium oxide nanoparticles added diesel fuel and showed that addition of nanoparticles to fuel improve heat transfer properties and hence droplet ignited at much at much lower temperature than pure diesel Nanoparticles added fuel also shows shortened ignition delay, longer flame sustenance, rapid oxidation and hence complete combustion. The use of metal and metal oxide based nanoparticles as additive in fuel shows appreciable enhancement in thermal efficiency and reduced brake specific fuel consumption as well as level of harmful pollutants [9-16]. J. Sadhik Basha et al.  reported that use of carbon nanotube in jatrophamethylester emulsion fuel significantly reduce peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate and because of microexplosion and secondary atomization phenomenon associated with CNT blended jatrophamethylester increase brake thermal efficiency as well as reduced emission of HC, CO and NO X . V. Selvan
Abstract— This project is aimed at biodiesel production of Jatropha curcas oil using calcium oxide catalyst(CaO) as heterogeneous solid metal oxide catalyst by base catalyzed transesterification process and the study of the fuel properties like density, viscosity, flash point, calorific value, copper strip corrosion etc. with varying blends of Jatrophamethylester. A singlecylinder, four stroke, direct-injection, water cooled dieselengine tests will be carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of performance and exhaust emissionscharacteristics of blends of Jatrophamethylester. The results are analyzed to optimize best operating conditions for maximum performance and minimum emissions.
There is a significant reduction in smoke emission of 43.85% for B100 at full load compared to diesel because of its oxygenated nature. But at low and middle engine loads the smoke density is higher than diesel. This is due to the high viscosity of biodiesel, which results in poor atomization and locally rich mixtures at part load operations. But at high engine loads, smoke density of biodiesel and its blends is lower than diesel fuel. Smoke is mainly produced in the diffusive combustion phase; the oxygenated fuel blends lead to an improvement in diffusive combustion for biodiesel and its blends. The highest smoke emissions are 43.1, 36.8, 31.2, 26.4 and 24.2 HSU for B0, B25, B50, B75 and B100 respectively. Reduction in smoke emission of about 14.6% is recorded at full load for the B25 blend. Another reason of smoke reduction, when using biodiesel is due to the lower C/H ratio and absence of aromatic compounds as compared to diesel. The carbon content in biodiesel is lower than diesel fuel. The more carbon a fuel molecule contains, the more likely is to produce soot. Conversely, oxygen within a fuel decreases the tendency of a fuel to produce soot . The smoke emission obtained in this study follows the trend as reported by Nantha Gopal et al .
fuel is 48 ppm at low load and 112 ppm at full load and for MeS50Eu50 blend it is 38 ppm at low load and 78 ppm at full load.For MeSEu blends, the HC emissions are lower than that of diesel fuel, and this may be due to complete combustion. There are normally some regions within the combustion chamber of an engine fueled with methylester where the mixture is either too rich to ignite the partially decomposed and oxidized fuel in the exhaust. Those unburnt species are collectively known as unburnt hydrocarbon emissions. As the ignition delay period lengthens, for example, due to a reduction in the fuel cetane number, a portion of the mixture may become over mixed with air and leaner than lean combustion limit. This may be the reason for the reduction in HC emission for blends than the diesel fuel operation.
Exhaust gas temperature variation of the test fuels at different loads is presented in Fig. 6. This temperature gives us an estimate of in-cylindercombustion temperature. From the figure, we can observe that exhaust temperature is high in case of coated engine operation for all test fuels compared to uncoated engine operation at all loading conditions. This can be attributed to decrease in heat loss due to insulation provided by the coating of combustion chamber walls. From Fig. 7, we observe HC values decreased for coated engine operation. It can be seen that HC emissions were considerably decreased when using biodiesel blends. The higher oxygen content in biodiesel takes part in combustion and makes combustion environment enriched with oxygen, helping to achieve less in-complete combustion products such as HC and CO emissions.
Unburned fuel may escape through exhaust as hydrocarbon (HC). Hydrocarbon emissions from diesel engines vary widely with different operating modes. The key component of brown haze of smog is hydrocarbon, which plagues many urban areas causing serious health problems to humans. Incomplete mixing of fuel and air and the quenching of the oxidation process are the main causes of HC emissions from diesel engines. The variation in the hydrocarbon emission level with biodiesel blends at different CRs is depicted in Figure 7. It is observed that the HC emission of biodiesel blends is lower than that of diesel due to higher oxygen content in biodiesel, which results in more complete combustion. The figure also shows that the HC emission of various blends is higher at higher compression ratios, which may be due to the improper mixing of fuel and air. Lower emission of HC of biodiesel is reported by some researchers  but, at the same time, higher emission of HC of biodiesel is also reported, which is attributed to improper atomization of the fuel .
This paper evaluates and quantifies the environmental impact from the use of some renewable fuels and Fossils fuels in internal combustion engines. The following fuels are evaluated: gasoline blended with anhydrous ethyl alcohol (anhydrous ethanol), conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel in pure form and Blended with diesel fuel, and natural gas. For the case of biodiesel, its complete life cycle and the closed Carbon cycle (photosynthesis) were considered. This study reports the effects of engine load and biodiesel percentage on the performance of a dieselenginefuelled with diesel-biodiesel blends by experiments and a new theoretical model based on the finite-time thermodynamics (FTT). In recent years, biodiesel utilization in diesel engines has been popular due to depletion of petroleum-based diesel fuel. In this study, performance of a singlecylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) dieselenginefuelled with diesel-biodiesel mixtures has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. The ecological efficiency concept depends on the environmental impact caused by CO2, SO2, NOx and particulate material (PM) emissions. The resultant pollution of each one of the mentioned fuels are analysed, considering separately CO2, SO2, NOx and particulate material(PM) emissions. The ecological efficiency for pure biodiesel (B100) is 86.75%; for biodiesel blended with conventional diesel fuel (B20, 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel), it is 78.79%. Finally, the ecological efficiency for conventional diesel, when used in engines, is 77.34%; for gasoline, it is 82.52%, and for natural gas, it is 91.95%. All these figures considered a thermal efficiency of 30% for the internal combustionengine.
methanol or diesel fuel–E85 blends. The tests in a compression ignition engine contained analysis of heat release rate and combustion parameters as well as analysis of exhaust toxic emission NOx, THC, CO and soot. It was observed that with increase in methanol or E85 peak combustion temperature decreases as well as temperature of the mixture at the end of compression stroke that affects combustion duration. For methanol or E85 two characteristic peaks in the heat release rate profile were observed. The first peak represents burning the diesel fuel and the second burning methanol or E85. Hence, diesel fuel injection timing should be corrected, if alcohols, even in small amounts, are applied. Furthermore, as advantage, slight increase in brake efficiency was observed. Next, radical reduction in soot, particularly at 50% alcohol (methanol or E85) addition was also managed as important advantage. On the other hand, increase by 16% in NOx emission was observed, while 20% methanol or E85 were added. Summing up, addition of methanol or E85 to the diesel fueled engine is justified, however, it significantly changes entire combustion process. Especially, intensive research should be undertaken on reducing higher NOx emission.
Smoke intensity is measured in Hartridge Smoke Unit (HSU) and expressed in %. Higher HSU indicates that either excess fuel is burnt or the fuel burning process is not efficient. It is observed from the Fig.3.10 that smoke is less at higher CR for all the fuels. This may be due to complete combustion as the heat of the compressed air is high. At lower CR, smoke is high as incomplete combustion of fuel takes place. HSU is lowest for B40 blend compared to all other blends. As the CR increases from 15 to 18, HSU decreases by 45% for Diesel and 40% for pure Honne biodiesel. At a CR of 18, the HSU for pure Honne biodiesel is 2.4% more than that for Diesel.
This paper represents the results of an investigation on the effect of an antioxidant additive on emission characteristics of a jatropha biodiesel-fuelled direct injection dieselengine. An attempt also has been made to evaluate the various performance and emission characteristics in order to effectively utilize antioxidants for the NOx reduction in biodiesel fuelleddieselengine.
Ethanol was known as possible candidate for alternative fuel and many studies are conducted to develop this fuel . Ethanol has a number of advantages compared to fossil fuels that can be directly mixed in the fuel tank, is injected into the combustion chamber and burned in order to reduce exhaust emissions . This material is derived from a renewable resource that is not limited in the form of plants that can grow well or biomass containing sugar, starch or cellulose . By mixing the ethanol with fossil based fuels in dieselengine may help extend the life of the supply of fuel, ensure the safety of the larger fuel supply, reduce environmental problem, increase agricultural economy and avoid dependence on fossil fuel-producing countries. Based on previous studies, it is very difficult to get a mixture stability of ethanol diesel fuel by direct mixing [7,8]. Today, the problem can be solved by adding octyl nitrate , nitrite glycol , triethilene glycol dinitrate (TEGDN) , and methylester [7,9] as an additives.
In this investigation, a singlecylinder DI dieselengine was used, generally it is employed for marine, agriculture and power source application. It is coupled with eddy current dynamometer, with the help of the dynamometer varying the load 20, 40, 60, 80 and maximum load. The schematic view of the experimental setup is shown in figure 4. The specifications of the engine are furnished in the Table 2. The engine was started manually and fuel supplied to the engine. The exhaust emissions were measured using AVL di-gas analyzer. The combustion was measured by AVL combustion analyzer. The air cooled pressure transducer was mounted in the cylinder head and connected to charge amplifier and Indimeter, the data’s are recorded in the pc using Indiwin software. Initially engine was started by sole fuel after reaching the steady state condition above mention parameter was recorded for every load. The same procedure was followed for all blends.