Nowadays, the air quality issues has been major problems, especially in large urban areasdue to the high car population particularly in urban region. Emissions are the terms of the release of gases and particles into the environment that's undesirable. Crankcase gasses are harmful emissions because it contains un-burning hydrocarbon gas. Positive crankcase ventilation system mitigates environment impact by mixing the crankcase gas and clean air in the induction chamber. However, the use of positive crankcase ventilation system at the old car with a high degree of wear actually caused new problems. In the old car, high oil vapour is due to the blow-by gas. Carbon crust formation in the combustion chamber will occur more quickly. It’s due to the engineoil vapour into the combustion chamber. The crust of carbon in the combustion chamber will cause engine knocking. Meanwhile, engine knocking in an internal combustion engine tends to decrease of engineperformance.
Ethanol contains an oxygen atom therefore, it can be considered as a partially oxidized fuel[11,13,23]. For this reason, it has lower calorific value and stoichiometric air–fuel ratio than gasoline. Consequently, much more fuel is needed to obtain same performance when ethanol or ethanol–gasoline blends are used. Ethanol has higher octane number than gasoline thus it can lead to operation at higher compression ratios therefore improvement in power output, efficiency and fuel consumption. Furthermore, it has high latent heat of vaporization. As a consequence of both low calorific value and high latent heat of vaporization, engine volumetric efficiency may increase. However, vaporization of the intake mixture may be reduced. This problem can be avoided by heating intake manifold. It was reported that although vapor pressure of pure ethanol is low, Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of gasoline–ethanol blends rises depending on the ethanol proportion in the blend[7,8]. Low RVP can cause cold starting problems; therefore, volatile additives should be used when pure ethanol is used. Furthermore, vapor lock may occur in the warm weathers. Because of the cooling effect on the intake charge and leaner operation, significant reductions in CO and NO x emissions can be observed. Ethanol has high affinity for water
The brake specific fuel consumption of various types of fuels at different engine speeds is presented in Figure-3. Brake specific fuel consumption is considered to be a very useful parameter that can be used to compare the efficiency of energy consumption of fuels. As shown in the figure, when using gasoline, LPG and ethanol, the BSFC decreased when the engine speed increased. In addition, the brake specific fuel consumption increased when using ethanol at all engine speeds when compared to LPG and gasoline. This reduction can be explained by the fact that ethanol has a lower heating value, which leads to more fuel being consumed in order to produce the same effective power as the other fuels. Arroyo et al.  performed a similar series of experiments to show the effect of LPG fuel on engineperformance and they reached the same conclusions as the current study regarding BSFC.
The thermal design of the internal combustion engines most researchers use air-standard power cycle models to perform their thermodynamic analyses. Such models are used for comparison reasons in order to show the effect of varying engine parameters, conditions, fluid properties, etc. In most previous studies on air-standard power cycles, air was assumed as the working fluid as an ideal gas with constant specific heats without taking into consideration temperature dependence of the specific heats of the working fluid. However, due to the high rise in combustion temperature this assumption becomes less realistic. Although air-standard power cycle analysis gives only approximation to the actual conditions and outputs, it would be very useful to compare the performance of air standard power cycles using constant- and variable-specific heats assumptions. In a recent study the effect of various internal combustion engines parameters in the SIengine were studied. Some studies presented the effect of having temperature dependent specific heats on various air-standard cycles such as Otto, Diesel, and Miller. However, the model used for temperature dependent specific heats was a linear model. Constant specific heat models may be used for very small temperature variations. Also, linear models can be applied with moderate temperature changes. However, for large changes in temperature, more accurate models are needed. In this study a more realistic approach on the behavior of variable specific heats will be implemented on the performance evaluation of the SIengine.
comparable engineperformance and emission to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel from microalgae oil has received significant attention recently as it is renewable, environmentally friendly and represents the ability to convert CO2 to oil. Microalgae oil contains high values of palmitic acid, and the concentration of linoleic acid met the requirements of the European legislation for biodiesel. Microalgae biofuels are non-toxic, highly bio-degradable, contain no sulphur and the leftover materials (after extracting the oil) can be used for ethanol production or as soil fertilizer. Microalgae have high biomass and high lipid productivities per unit of area in comparison with other crops. Chisti  reported that the demand for fuel in the transportation industry can only be covered by microalgae as a renewable source. It was reported that microalgae can produce the same amount of biodiesel (for 30% w/w oil content) compared to rapeseed or soybean crops using around 49- to 132-times less land. Furthermore, microalgae are non-edible and can grow under various conditions in which there is no significant impact on the human food supply chain. The properties of biodiesel depend on its fatty acids (FA) composition. The biodiesel fuel properties are the outcome of its individual fatty ester’s properties and structure such as chain length, degree of unsaturation and branching of the chain. Those parameters of the fatty acid esters influence cetane number, heat of combustion, cold flow viscosity and exhaust emissions. Ramírez-Verduzco, et al.  estimated density, viscosity, cetane number, and the higher heating value for tallow and soybean biodiesel using a developed empirical equation. They found that the increase in the number of double bonds in the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) causes a reduction in the values of cetane numbers, viscosity and the higher heating values.
processing. The cost of raw material (vegetable oil) accounts to 60 – 70 % of the cost of biodiesel fuel. Using non – edible oil like karanja oil (in place of vegetable oil) will surely improve the economics of the process (Biodiesel production)  Nadir Yilmaz et al (2014) Biodiesel–diesel–ethanol blends with ethanol concentrations of 3%, 5%, 15% and 25% with equal concentrations of biodiesel and diesel equal were used to fuel a diesel engine. Effects of low and high concentrations of alcohols, along with variation of engine loads were investigated. Results indicate that emissions strongly depended on not only engine operating conditions, but also fuel blends concentrations. Cooling effects and oxygen contents of alcohols were two of the most important factors in the outcomes. Overall, alcohol blended fuels increased CO emissions as compared to diesel fuel for all operating conditions. While ethanol blended fuels reduced NO emissions for all concentrations, unburned HC emissions depended not only on ethanol concentrations, but also operating conditions. Overall, high concentrations of ethanol increased HC emissions, and vice versa. But at over 50% load, ethanol decreased HC emissions for all concentrations. Reduction of HC emissions occurred for all concentrations at over 70% load. Chongkhong et al (2007) A process for the production of biodiesel from relatively low cost PFAD a residual product from the refining of crude palm oil has been evaluated. The final product is a light brown material meeting the requirements of the Thai biodiesel standard. A range of methanol to PFAD ratios and acid catalyst concentrations were established that would produce a high-quality product in reasonable CSTR residence times, and at lower temperatures which we considered to be a more economic solution.
Abstract: Today’s world is facing major environmental issue called global warming, the emissions of diesel fuel is one of the major source for the global warming and also for air pollution. The use of biodiesel can reduce diesel fuel consumption and emission of diesel engine, because biodiesel has been considered as a potential alternative fuel for CI (Compression Ignition) engines. Out of many biodiesel derived from various resources, present study deals with usage of Used Temple Oil have been considered as fuel for analysis. The transesterfication process was adopted to condition the raw oil to suit its properties. Properties are evaluated according ASTM standard and properties are found to be computable with diesel. The present work Used Temple Oil biodiesel bends are used to the run thesingle cylinder four strokes diesel engine at different injection opening pressure. To optimize thethree opening pressure, Taguchi method adopted. For forming orthogonal array the experiments have been designed using DOE in Minitab 18 and Taguchi’s L9 array is employed. For identifying the contribution of various factors which significantly affects the response followed by regression analysis to validate the results at optimum set of selected control factors. This study deals with optimal values of BTE and NOx emission. From the results it reveals that NOx reduction is maximum at 200 bar injection pressure, B30 methyl ester blend at 50% load.
Myers et al.,  had worked on properties which in turn effect on the transfer of heat and also on various efficiencies related to the IC engines and this marks first of its kind effort on adiabatic engines after 25 years of Kirloskar’s research. He clearly mentioned the pros and cons of his research. This is very much useful for researchers for further developments One of the earliest investigations on the low heat rejection concept was conducted by Griffiths . In his thermodynamic simulation model, he increased the combustion chamber wall temperature and studied its effects on thermal efficiency and heat rejection. In his analysis he found that only 25% of the reduction in heat rejection is recovered as work. About 61% of this reduction appears in the exhaust and 14% is lost in intercooler.
It is quite common nowadays to learn that every country is in the race to find suitable and affordable alternative fuel options for diesel engine as the present-day diesel fuel reserve is depleting fast. Even though the petrol vehicles are more in population, the research of alternative fuel for petrol (SI) Engines are very less In addition, the price of conventional petrol fuel is sky rocketing due to great demand, exponential increase of vehicles number on road and political turmoil. Therefore, it is an urgent need for India as well to search for an option to run Petrol engine using a fuel other than conventional and petroleum fuels. Research work on biodiesel reveals that large number of experimental studies of biodiesel, derived from various feed stocks, as fuel for engines used for
with higher ﬂ ow resistance, slower ﬂ ow and thus higher resistance against movement of lubricated surfaces (Luksa, 1990). There is a general practice that range of ± 20% of viscosity value is accepted for engineoil use. This value was set for large diesel engines (Covitch, 2007). In case of gasoline engines, the higher tolerance (for lower values) is acceptable, also with regard to shearing instability of recently produced oils. Total decrease of viscosity up to 30% is thus acceptable. The viscosity value, which is too low as a result of failure in the injection system and/ or water in fuel, can lead to unacceptable thinning of lubricating layer (Zhang et al., 2011).
Vegetable oils present very promising alternate to Diesel oil since they are renewable and have similar properties. Several research and project in the field of Internal combustion Engine are being focused on reduced Emission, which not only makes commercial sense but also helps benefit the environment reducing harmful emission from diesel vehicles helps improve local air quality which is no becoming increasingly important towards corporate social responsibility. The use of vegetable oils as fuels for diesel engines is not a new concept. It is known that when Sir. Rudolph Diesel invented diesel engine he used Peanut oil in his engine.
The performance of a Diesel engine is affected by various parameters like compression ratio, air fuel ratio, speed etc.Diesel engineperformance increases with increase in compression ratio. In IC engines compression technologies are used to increase fuel efficiency under variable loads. But the exhaust gas from vehicles under variable loads pollutes the environment. The exhaust gases contain toxic gases, mainly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot particles. This thesis aims exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system was built in the internal combustion engine to reduce the pollution in the environment. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a common way to control in-cylinder NOx production and is used in most modern high speed direct injection diesel engines.
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Economic improvement has a direct impact on commercial activities and road network facilities in a country. This situation can lead to an increase in the number of vehicles on the road. In Malaysia, there are a total of 22 million registered vehicles which can contribute to the waste engineoil (WEO), that can lead to environmental pollution if not disposed of properly or recycled (Road Transport Department, 2012). Generally, engineoil also referred as oil lubricants, oil cylinder, crankcase oil and motor oil (Ssempebwa and Carpenter, 2009; Romera et al., 2006). Vehicle workshops and factories with heavy machinery are seen as primary sources that generate WEO. If the discharge of waste engineoil is not well managed or disposed, it will affect human health, aquatic life and ground pollution. According to previous studies, little waste engineoil is enough to ruin millions of gallons of fresh water (Moghaddam et al., 2011). Figure 1 shows the color difference between fresh oil and waste engineoil where fresh oil has a gold and translucent color and after the heating process of the engine, the oil turns black and opaque.
significant positive impact on the environment [2–4]. The conventional methods of recycling of waste engineoil either requires a high cost technology such as vacuum distillation or the use of toxic materials such as sulfuric acid. These methods also produce contaminating by-products which have highly sulfur levels, especially in the Kurdistan region/Iraq. Lubricant oils have been used primarily for reducing friction between moving parts of various machinery or equipment, minimize material wear, improve the efficiency of equipment /machinery and for fuel and energy savings. Access to lubricants is essential to any modern society and not only does lubrication reduce friction and wear by interposition of a thin liquid film between moving surfaces, but it also removes heat, keeps equipment clean, and prevents corrosion. One of its important applications includes gasoline and diesel engine oils . Waste lubricating oil refers to the engineoil, transmission oil, hydraulic and cutting oils after use. It is also refers to the degradation of the fresh lubricating components that become contaminated by metals, ash, carbon residue, water, varnish, gums, and other contaminating materials, in addition to asphaltic compounds which result from the bearing surface of the engines . These oils must be changed and removed from the automobile after a few thousand kilometers of driving because of stress from serious deterioration in service. The amount of lubricating oils that is collected annually in Europe and USA is very large, approximately 1.7 to 3.5 million tons. This large amount of waste engine oils has a significant impact on both economical and environmental aspects. They cost millions of dollars to manufacture and represent a high pollutant material when disposed of. If discharged into the land, water or even burnt as a low grade fuel, this may cause serious pollution problems because they release harmful metals and other pollutants into the environment .
Sustaining a clean environment is an important issue in an industrialized society. The air pollution caused by automobiles and motorcycles is one of the most important environmental problems to be tackled. Since using alcohol–gasoline blended fuels can ease off the air pollution and the depletion of the petroleum fuels simultaneously, much research has been devoted to study the effect of these alternative fuels on the performance and pollutant emission of an engine [15 & 16]. Alcohol fuels can be produced from renewable resources like locally grown crops and even waste products such as waste paper or grass and tree trimmings . Alcohol is a likely alternative automotive fuel in that it has properties, which would allow its use in present engines with minor modifications.
Here, in order to solve the problem, a four- unit set including three separation units and one atmospheric storage tank are considered. Well fluid from variousoil wells enters the first stage in a simple stream with a given temperature, pressure and flow rate. Temperature and pressure of the entering stream are usually greater than the first stage. The drop in pressure cause flash vaporization. Crude oil from the first stage flows to the second stage. This process continued until the final stage which is a stock tank. Since there is a pressure-reducing valve at the input of each separator vessel, according to the input pressure, there will be three variables for the value of pressure fall in valves and this amount is a dependent value for the fourth valve. The general schema of the considered unit which was simulated by hysys is seen in Figure 1.
7 placed outside the air intake. In an automotive intake system, the air filter always sits ahead of the throttle body and mass air flow sensor and for old vehicle its location at above carburetor or throttle body. The air filter in an air intake system permanently removes unknown particles such as dust and sludge from the intake air, thereby maintaining the performance of the engine and protecting it from damage. A spotless air channel results in enhanced gas mileage, better speeding up, expanded engine life, lower discharges and general enhanced motor execution. Not just does an air channel clean the air entering the engine, however, it additionally keeps flotsam and jetsam from entering the engine and bringing about harm. As an air channel gets to be filthy, the limit for it to channel the air going into the engine is diminished (De Amaral, 2013). Once the air filter become clogged it will affect engine to work properly like emission control systems of the car; reducing air flow and causing a too rich air-fuel mixture which can foul the spark plugs also drivability problem. Two types of air filter that are available in a market which are open pod air filter and drop in air filter.
Fuel burning devices are devices that produce heat (thermal energy), derived from burning fuel and required for technological processes especially in the industry . There are so many types of burners with different fuel types. Examples of such fuel are the biodiesel, ethanol, vegetable oil etc. Burning devices that make use of this fuel are classified as the oil burners, liquid fuel burners, and the combined gas liquid fuel burners. Apart from its classification by the type of fuel used, a burner can also be designed based on factors like the combustion chamber geometry, type of oxidizer and also heat transfer requirements which include flame temperature and heat distribution etc. Typical examples of burners which are developed based on the type of oxidizer are the oxy-fuel burner and air fuel burner . Various works relating to the construction and testing of burners were studied, they include: Development of a high velocity burner for furnace operation. The main components of this burning device are the burner nozzle, mixing tube, downstream section and a cross-connected regulator for air fuel ratio control. It employs forced draft in mixing the fuel and air . Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Biogas Burner, the work was geared towards modification and improvement of the burner and its efficiency . Porous Radiant Burners which make use of liquid petroleum gas were also developed and tested for cooking applications . Other authors studied the Design and Construction of Atmospheric Gas Burners where they dwelt most on the theory of flow of gas through different types of orifice .
This increases the work necessary to spray vegetable oils in diesel engines and also makes it difficult to break them up into fine droplets. The carbon residue of vegetable oils is higher than that of diesel. This leads to a smoky exhaust in a diesel engine. Table 1.1 compares some of the important properties of different non-edible vegetable oils,which are used as fuels in diesel engines.