Top PDF Performance Evaluation of SHGs and Microfinance (Agency-wise) in India

Performance Evaluation of SHGs and Microfinance (Agency-wise) in India

Performance Evaluation of SHGs and Microfinance (Agency-wise) in India

Microfinance means building a financial system that serves poor for alleviating their poverty and enhancing their standard of living. It is an attempt to improve access to small deposits and small loans for poor household neglected by formal banks. Micro credit started in India in the early 1980s with small efforts at forming informal SHGs to provide access to much- needed savings and credit services. Now microfinance sector has grown significantly and forming SHG strategy has become an integral component of the Govt. of India‟s thought to reduce the poverty of the country. As a result SHG strategy has been introduced in every annual plan since 2000. An attempt has been made to examine the growth of performance of microfinance through SHGs formation.
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Integrating microfinance and community health interventions: A narrative review of evidences from India

Integrating microfinance and community health interventions: A narrative review of evidences from India

In Maharashtra state, a project that trained women SHG members as health workers, initiated literacy programmes and provided funds for household health emergencies showed in the two decades after 1970 a reduction in infant mortality from 176 to 19 per 1000, a birth-rate decline from 40 to 20 per 1000, nearly universal access to antenatal care, safe delivery, and immunization, and a decline in rates of malnutrition from 40% to less than 5% (Rosato et al., 2008; Arole et al., 2002). Bandhan, an MFI serving nearly four million members in 18 Indian states initiated health services in West Bengal, including monthly educational sessions reinforced by a network of Shastho Shohayikas —women community health volunteers. The volunteers make home visits selling low-cost health products (e.g. oral rehydration solution, paracetamol, oral contraceptives, pregnancy tests, de-worming pills, antiseptic lotions) and encouraging people to use local health services when appropriate. Bandhan makes health loans available, with lower interest rates than their microenterprise loans, to assist clients with high medical cost events. The program has resulted in major increases in health knowledge (e.g., the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for newborns) and significant changes in health behaviours (e.g., treatment of child diarrhoea with oral rehydration solution) (Metcalfe et al., 2012). In Karnataka, Sampark an NGO that helps underprivileged, rural poor women to form savings and credit self-help groups (SHGs) developed an intervention to integrate mental health within a developmental framework of microcredit activity for economically underprivileged women.
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The Journey of The Women of India Toward Empowerment

The Journey of The Women of India Toward Empowerment

The SHGs assist women and encourage them to control their own personal and social empowerment (Jones, 2006). The perceived success of SHGs has encouraged their widespread application across India, becoming the primary mechanism to the empowerment of women. However, success has often been assumed rather than proven, with evaluations lacking a consistent definition of empowerment (Jakimow & Kilby, 2006). Like “microfinance” and “microcredit,” empowerment is a broad term that is difficult to define (Chester & Kuhn, 2002). In this case it can be defined as the process by which individuals with little or no power gain the power and ability to make choices and change their lives (Chester & Kuhn, 2002). This manifests itself in the women‟s lives through various channels including greater education, learning new skills, having access to financial resources, developing stronger relationships, developing their families, etc. The fact though is that access to resources alone does not automatically generate empowerment or create equality (Chester & Kuhn, 2002). There is no one way that women can be empowered, but through a variety of ways, each with their own benefits and challenges. Swain (2007) argued not all activities that lead to an increase of well- being of a woman are necessarily empowering in themselves. For a SHG to be effective, it must identify the proper way to provide empowerment for the women depending on their own circumstance.
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Feasibility and pilot study of the effects of microfinance on mortality and nutrition in children under five amongst the very poor in India: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

Feasibility and pilot study of the effects of microfinance on mortality and nutrition in children under five amongst the very poor in India: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

The reason cited for the disastrous consequences of con- ventional microfinance initiatives, such as was seen in Andhra Pradesh, is the adoption of these programs by large commercial institutions primarily motivated by profit [14]. It has therefore been suggested that microfinance providers need to return ownership to the borrowers [14]. The United Kingdom Department for International Develop- ment (DFID) supports the Rojiroti program which uses an innovative approach for providing microfinance [15]. The program is run in areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh and parts of Bihar in India by the Centre for Promoting Sustainable Livelihood (CPSL) [16]. CPSL staff enter vil- lages and identify volunteers from the village community itself who go on to establish self-help groups (SGHs). The members of the SHG are encouraged to save money in a common pool to subsequently become eligible for a loan from the SHG itself and from CPSL. The loans are made for any purpose agreed upon within the SHG and are not restricted to conventional income-generating activities, as in conventional microfinance programs. Experience of workers in the field suggests loans are initially used for transport to government-subsidized shops and for hospital visits. As SHGs mature, later loans might be used to pur- chase livestock and improve housing. The approach offers a process of supporting community development at a low cost and aims to empower local villagers in managing their own finances.
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WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND MICROFINANCE   A STUDY ON SELF HELP GROUPS IN THANE DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND MICROFINANCE A STUDY ON SELF HELP GROUPS IN THANE DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA

JULY-AUG 2016, VOL-4/25 www.srjis.com Page 2457 developmental programmes. At present, a large number of SHGs , all the banking agencies and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) are pursuing this programme for upliftment of the poor. RBI also recognized it as part of priority sector lending and normal banking business. The programme is also the main contributor towards financial inclusion in the country. Micro finance is a powerful tool for social and economic development. It has been recognized as an effective strategy for the empowerment of women. It is very useful for repayment of loan of bank, reduction in transaction cost to the poor and to the banks and to the banks, door step savings and credit facilities to poor in rural India.
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The Changing dimensions of Micro Finance through SHGs in India: An Analysis

The Changing dimensions of Micro Finance through SHGs in India: An Analysis

The World Bank‘s website in its section on microfinance also points out that the poor also needs access to savings, insurance and payment services and micro credit alone is not sufficient! The key challenges pointed out are 1) Financial institutions like Banks and MFIs horizon rarely reach rural communities beyond a 30 km radius of the secondary town. It is necessary to explore ways to deliver financial services to people in remote locations. 2) Majority of microfinance models provide access to short-term loans with regular repayment. The Ways to mitigate the risks of agricultural lending should also be explored, 3) Microfinance in the short term, for the most vulnerable members of the community.
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Feasibility and pilot study of the effects of microfinance on mortality and nutrition in children under five amongst the very poor in India: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

Feasibility and pilot study of the effects of microfinance on mortality and nutrition in children under five amongst the very poor in India: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

The reason cited for the disastrous consequences of con- ventional microfinance initiatives, such as was seen in Andhra Pradesh, is the adoption of these programs by large commercial institutions primarily motivated by profit [14]. It has therefore been suggested that microfinance providers need to return ownership to the borrowers [14]. The United Kingdom Department for International Develop- ment (DFID) supports the Rojiroti program which uses an innovative approach for providing microfinance [15]. The program is run in areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh and parts of Bihar in India by the Centre for Promoting Sustainable Livelihood (CPSL) [16]. CPSL staff enter vil- lages and identify volunteers from the village community itself who go on to establish self-help groups (SGHs). The members of the SHG are encouraged to save money in a common pool to subsequently become eligible for a loan from the SHG itself and from CPSL. The loans are made for any purpose agreed upon within the SHG and are not restricted to conventional income-generating activities, as in conventional microfinance programs. Experience of workers in the field suggests loans are initially used for transport to government-subsidized shops and for hospital visits. As SHGs mature, later loans might be used to pur- chase livestock and improve housing. The approach offers a process of supporting community development at a low cost and aims to empower local villagers in managing their own finances.
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MICROFINANCE AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN INDIA

MICROFINANCE AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN INDIA

Micro finance is a powerful instrument for poverty alleviation and women‟s empowerment in the new economy. There are two dimensions of the impact of micro finance. Firstly, it facilitates the SHGs members in general and enhancing their income which helps in strengthening their livelihood, increases the self confidence in managing their micro finance programmes. In India microfinance is dominated by SHGs & MFI bank linkage programme, aimed at providing a cost effective mechanism for providing finance services to the poor. Microfinance for the poor and women has received extensive recognition as a strategy for poverty reduction and for economic empowerment. However, there is perceptible gap in financing genuine credit needs of the poor especially women for the empowerment and poverty reduction .Rural development is primarily concerned with addressing the needs of the rural poor in the matter of sustainable economic activities. Reduction of rural poverty can be can be achieved by starting income generating programmes with focus on micro credit as the basic input for socio-economic development. Microfinance is powerful instrument for innovative and hard working micro entrepreneurs to start any small business. From the income of these small businesses the borrowers of micro credit live quality life, health facilities, education, and nutrition for their family and keep hope for the better future.
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Penetration of Microfinance Industry in India

Penetration of Microfinance Industry in India

Microfinance is an important institution and mechanism of credit delivery, particularly for the poor and deprived. A number of studies have been taken up in India and other developing countries which highlight the success of various microfinance programmes to alleviate poverty in rural areas, promoting holistic development of individuals, communities and developing small enterprises to promote entrepreneurship development particularly for the womenfolk. The importance of the microfinance programmes and the success of the institutions offering microfinance services in various developing countries come to the fore due to the persistent failure and non-responsiveness of the formal financial institutions in the sphere of rural development in general and rural credit in particular. In India there are two different models adopted for the delivery of microfinance services to the poor- Self Help Groups (SHGs) and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). But the penetration of these two models have been uneven in the country with microfinance services remaining concentrated mainly to the Southern region of the country while the North and the North-Eastern region are still lacking the services of both the formal sources of finance and also the microfinance services. With this background the paper makes an attempt to look into the outreach of both the microfinance models in various regions of the country and construct a state-wise index of microfinance penetration.
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Challenges of Microfinance Sector in IndiaDr. Harpreet Singh, Ramneet Kaur

Challenges of Microfinance Sector in IndiaDr. Harpreet Singh, Ramneet Kaur

Access to finance for India’s rural poor, to meet their diverse financial needs (savings, credit,insurance against unexpected events, etc.) presents a formidable challenge in a country. But theopportunities, too, are plentiful. Government should come forward in a manner to provide quickdelivery of microfinance to the poorer and needed people. A legal and regulatory environment isneeded as per the requirements of the stakeholder of microfinance. In Microfinance theappropriate products and services to be launched, to cater the needs of small entrepreneurs,. Astrong focus on the quality of SHGs by their NGO promoters is a key factor in the success of theSHG Bank Linkage model in its pilot phase. Government should check the group quality and offinancial sustainability of MFIs.
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PROBLEMS OF MICROFINANCE IN INDIA

PROBLEMS OF MICROFINANCE IN INDIA

Federated Self Help Group Model: The Federated Self Help Group model is one such way to scale up the previous model. Federation of SHGs bring together several SHGs. Compared to a single SHG, federation of SHGs have more than 1000 members .In Federated SHG model, there is a three tier structure the basic unit is the SHG, the middle tier is a cluster and the topmost unit is an apex body, which represents the entire SHG. At the cluster level, each SHG is represented by two of its members. The representatives of each SHG meet regularly. With the help of federations, an NGO with limited resources can have an impact on a large number of people. Few notable examples of Federated Self Help Group model are PRADAN, Chaitanya and SEWA.
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Commercial Microfinance and Social Responsibility: A Critique

Commercial Microfinance and Social Responsibility: A Critique

Currently, the microfinance sector in India stands clearly divided into three segments – (i) slow growing, informal and community based (SHG bank linkage programme), (ii) moderately growing and not for profit (NGO MFIs and cooperatives), and (iii) fast growing, regulated and commercial (non banking finance companies if NBFCs). By 2008-09, the number of bank linked SHGs stood at around 45 lakh (or about 6 crore households, if one assumes an average membership of about 12 households per SHG) and the cumulative bank loans availed by SHGs at Rs. 22000 crore (RBI, 2009). Though the country is yet to have an authentic, all-inclusive and single point database on the number and spread of microfinance intermediaries – known popularly as microfinance institutions or MFIs - the available information suggests that both client and credit outreach figures of such organisations are very impressive. One estimate by CRISIL(October 2009) shows that the top 50 MFIs together claim an outreach of more than 1.2 crore clients and
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A STUDY OF LITERATURE REGARDING MICROFINANCE THROUGH SHGs

A STUDY OF LITERATURE REGARDING MICROFINANCE THROUGH SHGs

Hossain (1988) in the study of Bangladesh; Todd (2001) in the study of Andhra Pradesh; Chen and Donald (2001) in their study of SEWA Bank in Ahmedabad; and Kabeer & Noponen (2005) in the study of PRADAN in Jharkhand of India have confirmed that microfinance programme has resulted in reducing poverty and the participants enjoyed higher standards of living. Singh (2001) in a study of Uttar Pradesh; Raghavendra (2001) in a study of Karnataka; MYRADA (2002) in a study of southern India; Puhazhendhi & Badatya (2002) in a study of eastern India; Misra (2006) in a study of western and central parts of India; and Hoque (2008) in a study of Bangladesh concluded that group loans have reduced the dependence of the beneficiaries and household on money-lenders; and the participant households are able to face financial crisis through their own savings and group loans. Littlefield et al. (2003) explained that microfinance programme is helpful in attaining millennium development goals by reducing poverty, infectious diseases and through empowering women. Khandker et al. (1998) and World Bank (1999) in their studies of Bangladesh; Sarangi (2007) in a study of Madhya Pradesh; and Borbora & Mahanta (2008) in a study of Assam report that microfinance programme participants are engaged in gainful micro-enterprises. They shifted from wage-employment and are mainly self-employed in non-farm activities.
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OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRESS OF MICROFINANCE PROGRAMME IN INDIA

OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRESS OF MICROFINANCE PROGRAMME IN INDIA

The SBLP has now completed more than 21 years of existence. The Self Help Group-Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP) was originated in GTZ-sponsored project in Indonesia. NABARD has set up a task force with the APRACA to identify the existence of SHGs. Starting from a modest scale as a pilot in the year 1992, the SHG-Bank linkage programme has turned into a solid structure with more than 73.18 lakh savings-linked Self Help Groups (SHGs) covering over 9.50 crore poor households as on 31 March 2013. The total savings of these SHGs with banks amounted to Rs. 8,217.25 crore. The number of credit-linked SHGs under the programme stood at 44.51 lakh. NABARD expended a sum of Rs. 50.44 crore during 2012-13 from Micro Finance Development and Equity Fund and Women Self Help Group Development Fund for various micro finance related activities such as formation and linkage of SHGs through SHPIs, training and capacity building of stakeholders, livelihood promotion, documentation and awareness, etc. NABARD continued to extend support to NGOs, RRBs, CCBs, Farmers‘ Clubs and Individual Rural Volunteers (IRVs) for promoting and nurturing SHGs. During 2013-14, grant assistance of Rs. 36.33 crore was sanctioned to these agencies. The cumulative assistance sanctioned to various agencies was Rs. 262.83 crore for promoting 7.46 lakh SHGs. Cumulative assistance of Rs. 79.04 crore was released for formation of 4.99 lakh SHGs as on 31 March 2014. The NGOs were the most dominant SHPI, forming more than 3.79 lakh SHGs. Grant assistance of Rs. 76.74 crore was sanctioned for promotion of 3.99 lakh JLGs across the country as on 31 March 2014. During 2013-14, Rs. 1,392.58 crore was disbursed by banks to around 1.29 lakh JLGs and the cumulative loan disbursement as on 31 March 2014 was Rs. 6,075.91 crore to 6.58 lakh JLGs. 1 . There was small increase of 2% in the number of SHGs with outstanding bank loans on 31 March 2013 as compared to a year earlier. This reversed the decline during 2010–12. The
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Microfinance   evolution, and microfinance growth, of India

Microfinance evolution, and microfinance growth, of India

several data sources shed some light on the industry. The growth of microfinance is visible in many aspects. There are more than 2000 NGOs involved in the NABARD SHG-Bank linkage program. Out of these, approximately 800 NGOs are involved in some form of financial intermediation. Further, there are 350 new generation co-operatives providing thrift and credit services. According to our estimate, the present total outstanding, including Sa-Dhan members and bank linkages is approximately Rs.700 crores (Rs. 150 crores of Sa-Dhan members and another Rs. 550 crores from the Banking system). The total client base is estimated at 6-8 million as opposed to the Government of India (GOI) intention to reach 25 million clients. The growth of community institutions has taken place with the role to take social and financial intermediation. A numbers of community banks have come into existence at village and block levels call ' Federation of Self Help Groups'. The inadequacies of the formal financial system to cater to the needs of the poor and the realization of the fact that the key to success lies in the evolution and participation of community based organizations at the grassroots level led to the emergence of new generation of MFIs. One kind of MFI is an NGO engaged in promoting Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their federations at a cluster level and linking SHGs with Banks under the Scheme. Examples are Myrada in Karnataka, which has promoted Sanghmitra, a company of its village saving and credit sanghas, PRADAN which has established a large number of SHGs and federated them under Damodar in Bihar, Sakhi Samiti in Rajasthan. Another kind is NGO-MFI directly lending to the poor borrowers, who are either organized into SHGs or into Grameen Bank type of groups after borrowing bulk funds from SIDBI, RMK and FWWB. Examples in this category are Rashtriya Gramin Vikas Nidhi (RGVN) which runs credit and savings programme in Assam and Orissa on the lines of Grameen Bank, Bangladesh. Also we have SHARE in AP, ASA in Tamil Nadu under this category. There are MFIs which are specifically organized as cooperatives, such as over 500 Mutually Aided Cooperative Thrift and Credit Socities (MACTS) in AP, promoted among others by Cooperative Development Foundation (CDF) and the SEWA Bank in Gujarat which also runs federations of SHGs in nine districts. Then we have MFIs, which are organized as Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFC) such as BASIX, CFTS Mirzapur, SHARE Microfin. Ltd. and Sarvodaya Nanofinance Ltd. Growth of Microfinance in India
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Microfinance in india

Microfinance in india

According to a World Bank, report India accounts for one in three of the world population worldwide. It has most number of the people who live below the international poverty line of $1.90 a day. India’s economic growth has been unsuccessful on making a notable difference on the poverty figures. Poverty deprives a segment of society with bare necessities of food, clothing, shelter, education and health. In a fight against poverty the goal should not be only limited to increasing the income level of individual, household or the group but also mainstreaming the marginalized in the development process of the country. The government of India initiated various programmers to ease the burden of poverty holding healthcare, education, nutrition, and support to vulnerable groups. The microfinance has come forward to fill the gap and is considered as an effective tool for poverty reduction and socio-economic development. The impact of microfinance is still questioned and varies from one country to another and from urban to rural. The paper is structured into three parts the first part to analyze the growth of microfinance in India and secondly it examines the role and performance of the NABARD and other institutions in strengthening the SHGs and MFIs and the and lastly the paper presents a brief discussion on the shortcomings and recommendations to be adopted to make microfinance more inclusive.
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Impact of microfinance in empowerment of women in India

Impact of microfinance in empowerment of women in India

The Microcredit Summit Campaign Report by UNFPA also stated that according to the Khandker study of 1998, found that members that participated in BRAC in Bangladesh for more than five years had higher rates of contraception (Microcredit Summit Campaign Report, 2014). Studies carried out by Alison.M.Buttenheim in Indonesia asserted that microfinance programme participation and availability of contraception did not uniformly increase contraceptive use but led to an increase in a woman’s ability to achieve her fertility preferences as measured by desire for more children (Alison M. Buttenheim, 2007). Jaikishan Desai et al. conducted a field survey in Ethiopia that experimented with four groups. In the first group both credit and family planning services were provided. Only credit or family planning services but not both were provided in the second and third group and the fourth group was the control group. They used pre and post-intervention surveys were they explained that neither type of programme combined or in isolation led to an increase in contraceptive use when compared to the control group (Jaikishan Desai and Alessandro Tarozzi, 2009). Julia Kim et al. conducted a study to evaluate the impact of combining microcredit services with health interventions. This study stated that there was an increase in the use of condoms and also brought about greater self- confidence, autonomy in decision making and larger social networks (Julia Kin, 2009).
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Quality of Teachers’ Performance Evaluation in Public and Private Secondary Schools of Karachi, Pakistan

Quality of Teachers’ Performance Evaluation in Public and Private Secondary Schools of Karachi, Pakistan

In Pakistan, teachers’ performance evaluation system exists in both private and public secondary schools with different approaches. In public schools this evaluation is kept confidential and therefore termed as “Annual Confidential Report” (ACR). Currently it is called “Performance Evaluation Report” (PER) based on teachers’ overall characters and attitude without considering the role of teacher in classroom teaching and effective learningof their students. In Pakistan, the performance evaluation in public schools is carried out annually for the accountability of teachers and to provide annul increments so it has no concern with the quality of education or for the professional development of teachers. In contrast, most of the private schools in Pakistan have performance evaluation based on classroom performance of a teacher and successful learning of students (Rahman, 2006).
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AN EVALUATION OF PACKAGE INSERTS OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS MARKETED IN INDIA

AN EVALUATION OF PACKAGE INSERTS OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS MARKETED IN INDIA

An evaluation of adherence of PI to DCA of India showed that5 (4.6%) PI provided all the necessary information (i.e. scored 20/20) (Figure 1). Half of PI (n = 62, 50%) scored more than 16/20 and 15 PI (12%) scored less than 10. As per US FDA guidelines, a PI must contain additional detailed information (i.e. besides the requirements specified by DCA of India) (Table 1). While adherence to US FDA guidelines for PI marketed in India is not compulsory, we also evaluated the PI in reference to these guidelines. Out of a total score of 35, 29 PI (23%) scored more than 26 and 2 (1.6%) PI scored more than 30 (Figure 2).The generic name of the drug was provided in all PI (Table 2). Posology of the product was correctly mentioned in 122 (99%) PI. The dose and method of administration of the product was correctly stated in 95(77.2%) PI. Information on indications and use of the product was correctly mentioned in 59(48%). Adequate information on pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties were present in 39(31.7%) and 75(61%) PI respectively. Contraindications were clearly mentioned in 31 (25.2%) PI. The suitability of use during pregnancy and lactation was specified clearly in 101 (82%) PI, while its suitability in pediatric and geriatric population was mentioned in 98(80%) and 64(52%) PI respectively. Warning and precautions were correctly provided in 113 (92%) of PI. Complete information about interactions of the product with drugs and food (or other substances) was provided in 73 (59.3%) and 45(36.5%) of PI respectively. Information on undesirable effects or side effects or Adverse Drug Reactions was adequate in 75(61%). Effects on ability to drive and use
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Traffic Modelling and Performance Evaluation in Cruise Port of Kotor

Traffic Modelling and Performance Evaluation in Cruise Port of Kotor

Simulation modelling of traffic in the Kotor cruise port is used for performance evaluation and optimization of the operational policy. During the summer, the traffic intensity of the cruise ships’ arrivals is higher than in other periods of the year. The increased traffic intensity causes congestion at anchorages, which can lead to significant dissatisfaction of the cruise ship operators and passengers. The simulation model, based on the port calling frequency statistics and port tariff charges, is developed. First, the simulation model is validated against the real data. Second, several simulations are performed, where the scenarios of an extended main berth and of increased traffic intensity are evaluated in order to minimize congestion and to maximize revenue. Simulation results indicate significant queue reductions and a higher revenue, thus justifying the intention in the main berth extension.
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