Organizationalculture that is able to bring its members to improve performance in the achievement of organizational goals is not easy to build. This is because basically humans have different behavioral characteristics in accordance with the level of their needs. Cultural organization has a goal to change attitudes and behavior of human resources in order to increase labor productivity to face many challenges in the future. The benefits of implementing good organizationalculture is that it can improve the spirit of mutual cooperation, increase togetherness and openness, build better communication, improve labor productivity, increase responsiveness to developments of the world, and so forth, most of which are part of OCB (Oemar, 2013:66). Research results by Oemar (2013), Rini et al. (2013), Darsana (2013), and Harwiki (2013) show that organizationalculture affects OCB. Compensation is accepted by employees as remuneration for their work. Compensation not only is important as a major impetus but also affects employee morale. Employees can voluntarily perform activities that exceed tasks assigned such as providing extra service to consumers. Additionally, in situations and under certain conditions, employees must change shift work with another fellow employees and even replace colleagues in the line of duty job (Fitrianasari et al., 2012:13). Research results by Fitrianasari et al. (2012) show that compensation affects OCB. Organizationalcommitment is a psychological condition that characterizes the relationship between employees with the organization. The implication is employees staying as a member of the organization. Commitment can be defined as the willingness of social actors to provide energy and loyalty to the social system as an effective complement to the organization, regardless of the relationship. Employees will remain with the organization in joy or sorrow, attend work on a regular basis, give the whole day (maybe more), protect the company’s assets, share objectives of the company, and others. Having employees that are committed would increase the benefits of an organization (Brahmasari, 2008:277). Results of research by Brahmasari (2008), Soegiono (2010), Sena (2011), Oemar (2013), Prabowo and Setiawan (2013), Rini et al. (2013), William and Setiawan (2013), Gosaria and Setiawan (2014), Foote and Tang (2008), and Khan and Rashid (2012) show that organizationalcommitment affects OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior. Based on the description, the hypothesis proposed is as follows:
"Organizationalcommitment is the degree to which an employee feels confident, trusts, and understands all organizational goals and wishes to remain in an organization" (Sopiah, 2008). Vincent Obedgiu et al. (2017) states that basically employees highly committed to having a strong desire to show organizationalcitizenshipbehavior that can improve the image of local government. This is reflected in the attitude of employees who take an extra role in their work, help fellow colleagues, work according to applicable regulations, pay more attention to their work because of emotional ties with the regional government. Otto (2018) states that seen from the elements of affective, rational, and normative, organizationalcommitment is able to improve organizationalcitizenshipbehavior which is reflected in voluntary actions, sportsmanship, conscience, courtesy, and civic virtue. Rony Jaya (2018) states that the higher the commitment will have an impact on the increasing organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. From the statistical description shows the contribution of organizationalcommitment has an effect of 65.2% on the organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, while 34.8% is influenced by other factors. This proves that organizationalcommitment is the initial condition for emergence organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. Indicators for measuring organizationalcommitment in this study are sourced from Vinsent Obedgiu et al. (2017, Otto (2018) and Rony Jaya (2018), namely: (1) Affective commitment, (2) Normative commitment, and (3) Continuance commitment.
aggregate can improve the effectiveness of organizational functions . Organizations in general believe that to achieve excellence must seek the highest individual performance, because basically individual performance affects the performance of a team or work group and ultimately affects overall organizationalperformance. OCB is an individual voluntary behavior that is not directly related to the compensation system but contributes to the effectiveness of the organization. In other words, OCB is the behavior of an employee not because of the demands of his duty but rather based on his volunteerism . OCB indicators are as follows: 1 Altruism 2. Courtesy, 3. Conscientiousness 4. Civic Virtue, 5 Sportsmanship.  Some factors that are thought to influence OCB include: Organizationalcommitment Perceptions of leadership and organizational support,  , person organization fit  Job satisfaction
Organization is generally believed that excellence should strive to achieve individual performance as high, because basically individual performance affects the performance of the team or work group and ultimately affect the performance of the organization as a whole. Therefore, to pursue and improve the performance of individuals required culture, job satisfaction, commitment and sportsmanship behavior of the individual. This study examines how much influence organizationalculture, job satisfaction, organizationalcommitment and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) to organizationalperformance. The study population was employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in East Java Province shoe-ranking supervisor to manager. The sampling technique used is a collection of sample (stratified cluster sampling) samples totaling 174 respondents. Selection of sample areas is based on the areas that have the potential for industrial development (industrial district). Results of this study indicate that organizationalculture and job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment affect organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB). Organizationalcommitment and OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) effect on organizationalperformance. Simultaneously organizationalculture, job satisfaction, organizationalcommitment and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB affects organizationalperformance.
Ward & Mckillop (2010) sugges that voluntary workers are needed in CU organizations including in Indonesia. Snyder & Omoto (2008) define voluntary work as freely chosen activities and to provide assistance in the long term, without expecting other rewards or compensation through formal organizations, and those carried out on behalf of individuals who want assistance. Transformational leadership is needed to encourage the spirit of volunteerism of their followers to realize and accept group missions and prefer group interests (Bass, 1999). Although this study found that transactional leadership does not significantly influence organizationalcommitment, CU needs to consider strengthening this leadership style. Referring to Heinecke et al. (2014), transactional leadership plays a role in managerial aspects and organizational effectiveness. In connection with the declining number of CUs in Indonesia, referring to the results of this study, it is possible that CU leaders focus more on bringing employees to care for the common welfare. Whereas CU has two important missions, not only mutual welfare, but also business benefits. In the context of CU in Indonesia, CU leaders need to clarify expectations of business profits and provide feedback in managing CU. However, this possibility needs to be tested empirically. Subsequent studies need to identify the role of transformational and transactional leadership in CU business performance.
Chen et al. (1998) conceptualized levels of OCB performance as a behavioral predictor of employee turnover and empirically examined the strength of this relationship. Our findings are inconsistent with Chen’s. We found that the highest level of OCB and organizational justice perception was in the workers who were working in this hospital for four years maximum. Sahin and Taskaya (2010) found that procedural and distributional justice levels were lower than the levels of other subdomains of justice in health professionals. They also found that organizational justice perception was significantly related to educational status, duration of work in this institution, number of night shifts per month, having managerial tasks and the number of patients seen per day. Our findings are consistent with this study. The study of Moorman (1991) showed that the workers perceiving fair practices of managers provide more OCB. According to Ortiz (2006), the consciousness of OCB depends primarily on the organizational justice perception. Konovsky and Pugh (1994) conclude that the trust toward managers strengthen the relationship between procedural justice and OCB. The interactional justice perception is an important tool to forecast the practices of citizenship behaviors (2005). Our finding suggests that organizational justice perception has a meaningful correlation with OCB and this agrees with Cropanzano’s study (2007). Williams and others (2002) determined positive and significant relationship between formal procedural justice, distributive justice and interactional justice and OCB intent of workers in various sectors including manufacturing, finance, ICT, banking in a city at the southwest of USA. In another survey, Blakely and others (2005) asserted that there is a positive relationship between organizational justice perception and OCB among full time personnel in different organizations. Chiaburu and Lim (2008) found out that there is a positive relationship between procedural justice and OCB among employees in a firm in USA. Chegini (2009) determined high correlation between
Abstract---This research aims to test and analyze the influence of transformational leadership style and organizationalcultureorganizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) and employees’ performance it focused on mothers and children hospitals in East Java Province. Indonesia Design/Methodology/Approach – The 89 nurses and midwives in 3 hospitals in East Java. The respondents were selected based on population study technique, while path analysis was used analyze data. Findings from the results, the following conclusions were made: (1) the transformational leadership style significantly influences OCB; (2) the organizationalculture significantly influences OCB; (3) the transformational leadership significantly influences employees’ performance; (4) the organizationalculture insignificantly influences employees’ performance; and (5) OCB significantly influences nurses’ performance. This is among the few studies that take into account the influence of transformational leadership style and organizationalculture on OCB, particularly in nurses working in mother and children hospitals
organizationalcommitment, organizationalperformanceOrganizational Politics: An extensive bank of OCB given the disappointed results to the researchers. information is been generated by the researchers in recent However, when the multifactor questionnaire was used by days about organizational politics and its relationship , a high correlation was found between with the organizationalcommitment, OCB and transformational leadership style, organizationalperformance of an organization. Most of the studies have performance and citizenshipbehavior. This relationship of focused the employee’s perception about the transformational leadership and performance was much organizational politics, defined by [20, 15] as “behavior higher as the relationship of transactional leadership and intentionally designed to maximize self-interests and performance. Later on researchers found a varied therefore gainsay the collective organizational relationship between transactional leadership, desired outcomes or the interests of other individuals”. organizationalcommitment and OCB. Furthermore some of [40, 45] discusses the organizational politics as the the researchers have found negative relationship between unconstructive process and argued, “If I told you, transactional leadership style and performance [31-36]. you were a very political person; you would take it According to , employees decide to perform tasks either as an insult or at best as a mixed blessing”. out of recognition with the leader or with the organization. When people are asked about the organizational politics, This relationship results in the employee’s basic they start listing those activities, which were not agreement with the norms to which they are mandatory to according to their interest or not perceived positively perform. According to Bass transformational leadership by them [9, 11]. Many other studies that develop the same can create recognition with the internationalization of concept found that the employees perceived workplace pleasing values, as opposed to the imperfect aim of politics as self-serving behavior to achieve benefits, transactional leadership to create an obedient workforce. advantages and self-interests at the expense of others A study was conducted by  in the public and sometimes opposing to the interest of the whole organizations about the leadership styles, innovation and organization [8, 17, 46-50]. This behavior was often related efficiency of the organizations and concluded that with exploitation, subversiveness, offense and illegal transformations leadership enable employees of an ways of using power to achieve one’s objectives beyond organization to work with efficiently and it also brings their authorities .
Therefore, organizationalcitizenshipbehavior can be determined by a positive outlook to the employee culture. Usually, it can be done with the backing given a good example or pattern, through modeling or imitation of employees who have worked previously in an organization. Thus, organizationalcitizenshipbehavior can be defined as a. behavior that is voluntary and does not include an element of coercion in the interests of the organization; b. This behavior appears without official orders. c., not of flower directly with the reward system.
In the view o f employees’ attitudinal behaviours, organizationalcommitment initially replicates the combination o f desired (affective), perceived cost (continuance) and obligation (normative) (Meyer and Allen, 1991). In Somalia, the telecommunication companies are challenging to maintain employees’ desire/loyalty, recognition the cost associated upon leaving, and sense o f moral obligation toward the organizational goals and values (Osman, 2011; Warsame 2015). For example, initiatives that determine the organization’s operations or violate the employee- employer attachments are often associated with lower levels o f commitment among the employees (Allen et al., 2011; Yang, 2012; Top et al., 2015). More precisely, employees’ attachment along with desire and loyalty toward organizational goals and values, seem to result poor organizational outcome, performance, productivity, and breakdown to achieve competitive advantages (Top et al., 2015). This due to the fact that organizations often increase high levels o f uncertainty and threats to pose sense job o f insecurity and often can result in withdrawal behaviours’ , increase turnover, absenteeism, apathy, cynicism, and intention to quit therefore tend to affect employees’ commitment toward the organization (Ismail et al., 2011; Top et al., 2015; Bashir and Long, 2015; Islam et al., 2016). Therefore, since the employees’ attitudinal behaviours tend to affect the level o f organizationalcommitment, it can be surmised as it’s due to the lack o f (OCB) among the employees’ (Allen et al., 2011; CH Chan and Mak, 2014; Kuok and Taormina, 2015; Chan and Mak, 2014; Islam et al., 2016), and hence forms the main focus o f the present study.
The Concept of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior
It has been almost three decades since the term OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) was introduced by Organ and Organ’s colleagues (Bateman & Organ, 1983; Smith, Organ & Near, 1983). Similar concepts of OCB, however, can be traced back to Barnard (1938)’s “willingness to cooperate” and Katz (1964)’s “innovative and spontaneous behaviors” that go beyond role prescription. Organ (1988) defined OCB as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization” (p.4). This definition implies that OCBs have three characteristics: 1) discretionary in nature, which means that the behavior is not an enforceable requirement, but rather, a personal choice; 2) not directly or explicitly rewarded within the context of the organization’s formal reward structure, which means that the potential rewards of performing OCB is not guaranteed; and 3) important for the effective and successful functioning of an organization, which means that OCBs could influence organizationalperformance in a positive manner.
Based on the writter's data and observations, one of the problems that appears to Balitower employees is OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior, which relates to employee compliance with regulations, procedures and regulations. Based on the employee attendance data in 2017 that the average number of late Balitower employees is 12%. In addition there are several employees who do some activities during work hours for activities which has no relation to the main work, such as smoking, drinking coffee outside the office. This shows that there are employees who still do not use work time effectively. Further, the survey was conducted on 20 employees to find out the factors that triggered the low figures of OCB. The result is 60% are unwilling to be asked to replace the work of friends who are unable to attend, related to organizationalculture as much as 65% do not know the company's Vision and Mission, related to the job satisfaction, 60% of employees are not satisfied with their compensation received. Furthermore, related to organizationalcommitment, the 2017 turnover data obtained is an average of 13.29%.
Based on the hypothesis test in this study it was found that organizationalcitizenshipbehavior does not moderate the relationship of organizationalcommitment with teacher performance. This finding is in line with Otto's research (2018) where organizationalcitizenshipbehavior does not moderate the influence of organizationalcommitment on performance. This can be interpreted by employees who have strong OCB that does not affect their commitment to the organization. The findings obtained in the testing phase of the fourth hypothesis are also in line with the theory described by Gibson et al (2014) which states that organizationalcommitment does not always affect OCB in employees in an organizational environment, intellectual intelligence and emotional intelligence influence the occurrence of these conditions. The same is explained by Shopiah (2012) in the organizational concept that the difference in experience and working age of each employee affects the way a person works, when the work environment is not conducive, the tendency of employees to work individually is far from the OCB value so it does not affect performance generated by employees. The results obtained are not in line with the research of Hakim (2013) where in his research the Judge found that organizationalcitizenshipbehavior moderate the influence of organizationalcommitment on performance.
says that the concept of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior originally developed by Barnard in 1938 as "the desire to work together", then there is the concept of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, the behavior shown by employees in formal organizations. Usually, it is indicated through the job description that it is responsible so that the good and bad staff can be determined thoroughly by the job description. This is called role- behavior. However, to support the success of tasks within the organization, employees are expected to work not in their respective tasks, but they are required to work extra roles over their formal job description (extra-role behaviors). This is called organizationalcitizenshipbehavior.
Finally, the effect of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior on turnover intentions was found to be significant. This finding also supports previous work of Cropanzano and Byrne (2000) and a recent study of Du Plooy and Roodt (2010). The findings of the current study confirm and add to the existing knowledge base by providing evidence of confirming hypothesized relationships among study constructs. Among others, satisfying employees by using motivational techniques, providing flexible times, and fostering work- family programs may help employees be committed to the organization. These resources may also positively influence employees to have citizenship behaviors that will help better functioning of organizations (cf. Robbins, 2001). In addition, employees with these resources who are satisfied, committed, and show extra-role performance (organizationalcitizenshipbehavior) are likely to stay in their current organizations.
the OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior can be apply by all the Bernama TV employees within the organization and how it can give an impact to the Bernama TV’s employees in terms of their behavior and attitude. The aim is also to see which affective commitment should the organization and the employees in Bernama TV focus more or change. A comparison between Bernama TV Management Team and Bernama TV Production Team will be done in order to observe the similarities as well as the differences in terms of their behavior and attitude towards to achieve good OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB). As ground work of this thesis theories regarding the behavior and attitude will be used and which dimension (occupational stress, organizationalcommitment – affective and job satisfaction) that the employees Bernama TV always used within the organization. The research question is based on the purpose with this study and is stated as follows: “. Is dimension of Occupational Stress, organizationalcommitment (affective), job satisfaction effect the dimension of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB)”. In order to conduct this study, the researcher have observe all the possibility dimension that may give big impact of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) towards Bernama TV employeesbehavior. Although Bernama TV is a well-known company that have emerged since 2 years ago, but still lack of the employeesperformance because of thei employeesbehavior and attitude rather than to have spirit of self belonging. The researcher really want to know which dimension (base on occupational stress, organizationalcommitment – affective, and job satisfaction) may build the organizationalcitizenshipbehavior and which one they should focus more or change. Besides of observing the Bernama TV employeesbehavior and their attitude, the researcher have come out those theories based on the previous researcher that have been done by other researcher. Lots of searching of journals, articles, books also from the internet, lots of reading in order to understand the concept of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior, behavior, commitment related behavior and commitment related attitude so that the researcher theory cannot be misinterpreted and also the study are reliable and valid.
One of the limitations of this research is the sample size which was quite small. The larger sample size will provide more confidence in the results and thereof, reliable generalization. The mediating role of organizational variables such as organizationalculture, politics, and climate will be helpful in understanding the relation of OrganizationalCommitment and OrganizationalCitizenshipbehavior especially in rural and tough settings. The individual who is committed towards his organization often displays organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. These positive behaviors are essential for the success of an organization. Therefore, it is obvious for an organization to be aware of the factors affecting the commitment of employees. This issue is more important for Corporations working in far flung hilly areas, where the environmental conditions are also a matter of concern and a challenge for the employees. Raising the commitment of employees under such conditions is a serious concern for the organizations. Organizations have to take care of all the needs of its employee so as the employee feel secure and not lose his enthusiasm and commitment. This will definitely help the employee to display Citizenshipbehavior. Moreover, these extra role behaviors are required in above said conditions and will be instrumental in the performance of the Organization. Considering the research findings, it can be emphasized that the commitment of workers especially ‘Normative Commitment’ should be increased so that there frequency of performing extra role behavior will be increased.
From the results of the study, it was found that the mediating effect played a very good role. To make the OCBs need to form a good culture and be adapted to the local culture, so that it will bring out a commitment to each employee in the organization. By completing all the elements in organizationalculture will form a good organization and can maximize organizational goals. If this happens, then the commitment will appear to every employee that exists. When this commitment arises thus the employees will naturally OCB. The research conducted by Aldrin & Yunanto (2019), found that even though employees might feel positively about the organizationalculture, it does not automatically encourage them to conduct organizationalcitizenshipbehavior
Table-3 depicts the Durbin-Watson value is 1.426 which fall within the limit revealing the independence of errors in the model. From the Table-3, it is illustrated that Leadership Style is the determinant factor which significantly impacts the variation in Organizational Effectiveness of telecommunication organizations and 8.1% of variance in the Organizational Effectiveness is explained by Leadership Style of Telecommunication organizations. This is in contrast with the findings of Danish, Munir, Butt (2012) who revealed that organizationalculture was the significant predictor of organizational effectiveness and 55% of the total variation in organizational effectiveness is explained with the variation in organizationalculture. Further, it is found that Leadership Style and OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior together contributed to 8.2 % of variation in Organizational Effectiveness of telecommunication organizations. Moreover, it can be analyzed that three independent variables i.e. Leadership Style, OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior and OrganizationalCulture altogether explained 8.1 % of variance in Organizational Effectiveness of Telecommunication organizations. The present findings are in agreement with the findings of Nielsen, Hrivnak & Shew (2009) & Ashraf, Kadir, Pihie & Rashid (2003).
Reliability analysis was conducted for organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, passion for teach- ing, and the subscales of teacher empowerment, and organizationalcommitment. The purpose of the reliability analysis was to maximize the internal consistency of the measures by identifying those items that are internally consistent (i.e., reliable), and to discard those items that are not. Scale items together with their corrected item-total correlations >0.33 were retained and the fac- tors were computed based on the retained items. The computed Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for all 11 scales were above 0.7. After discarding items identified as unreliable (i.e., those with cor- rected item total correlation <0.33), each of the 11 factors of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior, passion, status, professional growth, self-efficacy, decision making, impact, autonomy, affective commitment, continuous commitment, and normative commitment was then computed by sum- ming across the (internally consistent) items that make up that factor and their means calculated. The following table represents the means and standard deviations for all the computed factors.