Top PDF A Study on the Performance of Manufacturing Employees: Organizational Culture, Compensation, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

A Study on the Performance of Manufacturing Employees: Organizational Culture, Compensation, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

A Study on the Performance of Manufacturing Employees: Organizational Culture, Compensation, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Organizational culture that is able to bring its members to improve performance in the achievement of organizational goals is not easy to build. This is because basically humans have different behavioral characteristics in accordance with the level of their needs. Cultural organization has a goal to change attitudes and behavior of human resources in order to increase labor productivity to face many challenges in the future. The benefits of implementing good organizational culture is that it can improve the spirit of mutual cooperation, increase togetherness and openness, build better communication, improve labor productivity, increase responsiveness to developments of the world, and so forth, most of which are part of OCB (Oemar, 2013:66). Research results by Oemar (2013), Rini et al. (2013), Darsana (2013), and Harwiki (2013) show that organizational culture affects OCB. Compensation is accepted by employees as remuneration for their work. Compensation not only is important as a major impetus but also affects employee morale. Employees can voluntarily perform activities that exceed tasks assigned such as providing extra service to consumers. Additionally, in situations and under certain conditions, employees must change shift work with another fellow employees and even replace colleagues in the line of duty job (Fitrianasari et al., 2012:13). Research results by Fitrianasari et al. (2012) show that compensation affects OCB. Organizational commitment is a psychological condition that characterizes the relationship between employees with the organization. The implication is employees staying as a member of the organization. Commitment can be defined as the willingness of social actors to provide energy and loyalty to the social system as an effective complement to the organization, regardless of the relationship. Employees will remain with the organization in joy or sorrow, attend work on a regular basis, give the whole day (maybe more), protect the company’s assets, share objectives of the company, and others. Having employees that are committed would increase the benefits of an organization (Brahmasari, 2008:277). Results of research by Brahmasari (2008), Soegiono (2010), Sena (2011), Oemar (2013), Prabowo and Setiawan (2013), Rini et al. (2013), William and Setiawan (2013), Gosaria and Setiawan (2014), Foote and Tang (2008), and Khan and Rashid (2012) show that organizational commitment affects Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Based on the description, the hypothesis proposed is as follows:
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The Effect of Organizational Culture, Organizational Commitment on the Employee Performance Trough Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The Effect of Organizational Culture, Organizational Commitment on the Employee Performance Trough Organizational Citizenship Behavior

"Organizational commitment is the degree to which an employee feels confident, trusts, and understands all organizational goals and wishes to remain in an organization" (Sopiah, 2008). Vincent Obedgiu et al. (2017) states that basically employees highly committed to having a strong desire to show organizational citizenship behavior that can improve the image of local government. This is reflected in the attitude of employees who take an extra role in their work, help fellow colleagues, work according to applicable regulations, pay more attention to their work because of emotional ties with the regional government. Otto (2018) states that seen from the elements of affective, rational, and normative, organizational commitment is able to improve organizational citizenship behavior which is reflected in voluntary actions, sportsmanship, conscience, courtesy, and civic virtue. Rony Jaya (2018) states that the higher the commitment will have an impact on the increasing organizational citizenship behavior. From the statistical description shows the contribution of organizational commitment has an effect of 65.2% on the organizational citizenship behavior, while 34.8% is influenced by other factors. This proves that organizational commitment is the initial condition for emergence organizational citizenship behavior. Indicators for measuring organizational commitment in this study are sourced from Vinsent Obedgiu et al. (2017, Otto (2018) and Rony Jaya (2018), namely: (1) Affective commitment, (2) Normative commitment, and (3) Continuance commitment.
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Effect Of Organizational Culture, Rewards, Competence, And Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Effect Of Organizational Culture, Rewards, Competence, And Organizational Citizenship Behavior

aggregate can improve the effectiveness of organizational functions [7]. Organizations in general believe that to achieve excellence must seek the highest individual performance, because basically individual performance affects the performance of a team or work group and ultimately affects overall organizational performance. OCB is an individual voluntary behavior that is not directly related to the compensation system but contributes to the effectiveness of the organization. In other words, OCB is the behavior of an employee not because of the demands of his duty but rather based on his volunteerism [8]. OCB indicators are as follows: 1 Altruism 2. Courtesy, 3. Conscientiousness 4. Civic Virtue, 5 Sportsmanship. [9] Some factors that are thought to influence OCB include: Organizational commitment Perceptions of leadership and organizational support, [10] , person organization fit [11] Job satisfaction
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Influence Analysis of Organizational Culture Organizational Commitment Job and Satisfaction Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Toward Improved Organizational Performance Chamdan Purnama

Influence Analysis of Organizational Culture Organizational Commitment Job and Satisfaction Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Toward Improved Organizational Performance Chamdan Purnama

Organization is generally believed that excellence should strive to achieve individual performance as high, because basically individual performance affects the performance of the team or work group and ultimately affect the performance of the organization as a whole. Therefore, to pursue and improve the performance of individuals required culture, job satisfaction, commitment and sportsmanship behavior of the individual. This study examines how much influence organizational culture, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) to organizational performance. The study population was employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in East Java Province shoe-ranking supervisor to manager. The sampling technique used is a collection of sample (stratified cluster sampling) samples totaling 174 respondents. Selection of sample areas is based on the areas that have the potential for industrial development (industrial district). Results of this study indicate that organizational culture and job satisfaction and organizational commitment affect organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Organizational commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) effect on organizational performance. Simultaneously organizational culture, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB affects organizational performance.
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Leadership Style, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Credit Union in Indonesia

Leadership Style, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Credit Union in Indonesia

Ward & Mckillop (2010) sugges that voluntary workers are needed in CU organizations including in Indonesia. Snyder & Omoto (2008) define voluntary work as freely chosen activities and to provide assistance in the long term, without expecting other rewards or compensation through formal organizations, and those carried out on behalf of individuals who want assistance. Transformational leadership is needed to encourage the spirit of volunteerism of their followers to realize and accept group missions and prefer group interests (Bass, 1999). Although this study found that transactional leadership does not significantly influence organizational commitment, CU needs to consider strengthening this leadership style. Referring to Heinecke et al. (2014), transactional leadership plays a role in managerial aspects and organizational effectiveness. In connection with the declining number of CUs in Indonesia, referring to the results of this study, it is possible that CU leaders focus more on bringing employees to care for the common welfare. Whereas CU has two important missions, not only mutual welfare, but also business benefits. In the context of CU in Indonesia, CU leaders need to clarify expectations of business profits and provide feedback in managing CU. However, this possibility needs to be tested empirically. Subsequent studies need to identify the role of transformational and transactional leadership in CU business performance.
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Organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice in employees of a Turkish university hospital

Organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice in employees of a Turkish university hospital

Chen et al. (1998) conceptualized levels of OCB performance as a behavioral predictor of employee turnover and empirically examined the strength of this relationship. Our findings are inconsistent with Chen’s. We found that the highest level of OCB and organizational justice perception was in the workers who were working in this hospital for four years maximum. Sahin and Taskaya (2010) found that procedural and distributional justice levels were lower than the levels of other subdomains of justice in health professionals. They also found that organizational justice perception was significantly related to educational status, duration of work in this institution, number of night shifts per month, having managerial tasks and the number of patients seen per day. Our findings are consistent with this study. The study of Moorman (1991) showed that the workers perceiving fair practices of managers provide more OCB. According to Ortiz (2006), the consciousness of OCB depends primarily on the organizational justice perception. Konovsky and Pugh (1994) conclude that the trust toward managers strengthen the relationship between procedural justice and OCB. The interactional justice perception is an important tool to forecast the practices of citizenship behaviors (2005). Our finding suggests that organizational justice perception has a meaningful correlation with OCB and this agrees with Cropanzano’s study (2007). Williams and others (2002) determined positive and significant relationship between formal procedural justice, distributive justice and interactional justice and OCB intent of workers in various sectors including manufacturing, finance, ICT, banking in a city at the southwest of USA. In another survey, Blakely and others (2005) asserted that there is a positive relationship between organizational justice perception and OCB among full time personnel in different organizations. Chiaburu and Lim (2008) found out that there is a positive relationship between procedural justice and OCB among employees in a firm in USA. Chegini (2009) determined high correlation between
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The Impact of Transformational Leadership Style and Organizational Culure on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Employees’ Performance

The Impact of Transformational Leadership Style and Organizational Culure on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Employees’ Performance

Abstract---This research aims to test and analyze the influence of transformational leadership style and organizational culture organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and employeesperformance it focused on mothers and children hospitals in East Java Province. Indonesia Design/Methodology/Approach – The 89 nurses and midwives in 3 hospitals in East Java. The respondents were selected based on population study technique, while path analysis was used analyze data. Findings from the results, the following conclusions were made: (1) the transformational leadership style significantly influences OCB; (2) the organizational culture significantly influences OCB; (3) the transformational leadership significantly influences employeesperformance; (4) the organizational culture insignificantly influences employeesperformance; and (5) OCB significantly influences nurses’ performance. This is among the few studies that take into account the influence of transformational leadership style and organizational culture on OCB, particularly in nurses working in mother and children hospitals
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Leadership, Citizenship Behavior, Performance and Organizational Commitment: the Mediating Role of Organizational Politics

Leadership, Citizenship Behavior, Performance and Organizational Commitment: the Mediating Role of Organizational Politics

organizational commitment, organizational performance Organizational Politics: An extensive bank of OCB given the disappointed results to the researchers. information is been generated by the researchers in recent However, when the multifactor questionnaire was used by days about organizational politics and its relationship [29], a high correlation was found between with the organizational commitment, OCB and transformational leadership style, organizational performance of an organization. Most of the studies have performance and citizenship behavior. This relationship of focused the employee’s perception about the transformational leadership and performance was much organizational politics, defined by [20, 15] as “behavior higher as the relationship of transactional leadership and intentionally designed to maximize self-interests and performance. Later on researchers found a varied therefore gainsay the collective organizational relationship between transactional leadership, desired outcomes or the interests of other individuals”. organizational commitment and OCB. Furthermore some of [40, 45] discusses the organizational politics as the the researchers have found negative relationship between unconstructive process and argued, “If I told you, transactional leadership style and performance [31-36]. you were a very political person; you would take it According to [29], employees decide to perform tasks either as an insult or at best as a mixed blessing”. out of recognition with the leader or with the organization. When people are asked about the organizational politics, This relationship results in the employee’s basic they start listing those activities, which were not agreement with the norms to which they are mandatory to according to their interest or not perceived positively perform. According to Bass transformational leadership by them [9, 11]. Many other studies that develop the same can create recognition with the internationalization of concept found that the employees perceived workplace pleasing values, as opposed to the imperfect aim of politics as self-serving behavior to achieve benefits, transactional leadership to create an obedient workforce. advantages and self-interests at the expense of others A study was conducted by [36] in the public and sometimes opposing to the interest of the whole organizations about the leadership styles, innovation and organization [8, 17, 46-50]. This behavior was often related efficiency of the organizations and concluded that with exploitation, subversiveness, offense and illegal transformations leadership enable employees of an ways of using power to achieve one’s objectives beyond organization to work with efficiently and it also brings their authorities [18].
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Effect of Organizational Commitment and Integrity to Organizational Performance through Organizational Citizenship Behavior of PT. Olam Indonesia

Effect of Organizational Commitment and Integrity to Organizational Performance through Organizational Citizenship Behavior of PT. Olam Indonesia

Therefore, organizational citizenship behavior can be determined by a positive outlook to the employee culture. Usually, it can be done with the backing given a good example or pattern, through modeling or imitation of employees who have worked previously in an organization. Thus, organizational citizenship behavior can be defined as a. behavior that is voluntary and does not include an element of coercion in the interests of the organization; b. This behavior appears without official orders. c., not of flower directly with the reward system.
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Transformational leadership and organizational commitment as antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior in somalia telecommunication industry

Transformational leadership and organizational commitment as antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior in somalia telecommunication industry

In the view o f employees’ attitudinal behaviours, organizational commitment initially replicates the combination o f desired (affective), perceived cost (continuance) and obligation (normative) (Meyer and Allen, 1991). In Somalia, the telecommunication companies are challenging to maintain employees’ desire/loyalty, recognition the cost associated upon leaving, and sense o f moral obligation toward the organizational goals and values (Osman, 2011; Warsame 2015). For example, initiatives that determine the organization’s operations or violate the employee- employer attachments are often associated with lower levels o f commitment among the employees (Allen et al., 2011; Yang, 2012; Top et al., 2015). More precisely, employees’ attachment along with desire and loyalty toward organizational goals and values, seem to result poor organizational outcome, performance, productivity, and breakdown to achieve competitive advantages (Top et al., 2015). This due to the fact that organizations often increase high levels o f uncertainty and threats to pose sense job o f insecurity and often can result in withdrawal behaviours’ , increase turnover, absenteeism, apathy, cynicism, and intention to quit therefore tend to affect employeescommitment toward the organization (Ismail et al., 2011; Top et al., 2015; Bashir and Long, 2015; Islam et al., 2016). Therefore, since the employees’ attitudinal behaviours tend to affect the level o f organizational commitment, it can be surmised as it’s due to the lack o f (OCB) among the employees’ (Allen et al., 2011; CH Chan and Mak, 2014; Kuok and Taormina, 2015; Chan and Mak, 2014; Islam et al., 2016), and hence forms the main focus o f the present study.
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Cross-culture Study on the Motivational Mechanism of Hotel Employees' Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Cross-culture Study on the Motivational Mechanism of Hotel Employees' Organizational Citizenship Behavior

19 The Concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Definition It has been almost three decades since the term Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) was introduced by Organ and Organ’s colleagues (Bateman & Organ, 1983; Smith, Organ & Near, 1983). Similar concepts of OCB, however, can be traced back to Barnard (1938)’s “willingness to cooperate” and Katz (1964)’s “innovative and spontaneous behaviors” that go beyond role prescription. Organ (1988) defined OCB as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization” (p.4). This definition implies that OCBs have three characteristics: 1) discretionary in nature, which means that the behavior is not an enforceable requirement, but rather, a personal choice; 2) not directly or explicitly rewarded within the context of the organization’s formal reward structure, which means that the potential rewards of performing OCB is not guaranteed; and 3) important for the effective and successful functioning of an organization, which means that OCBs could influence organizational performance in a positive manner.
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The Effect of Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitments and the Implementation on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Employees of Pt. Bali Towerindo Sentra Tbk

The Effect of Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitments and the Implementation on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Employees of Pt. Bali Towerindo Sentra Tbk

Based on the writter's data and observations, one of the problems that appears to Balitower employees is Organizational Citizenship Behavior, which relates to employee compliance with regulations, procedures and regulations. Based on the employee attendance data in 2017 that the average number of late Balitower employees is 12%. In addition there are several employees who do some activities during work hours for activities which has no relation to the main work, such as smoking, drinking coffee outside the office. This shows that there are employees who still do not use work time effectively. Further, the survey was conducted on 20 employees to find out the factors that triggered the low figures of OCB. The result is 60% are unwilling to be asked to replace the work of friends who are unable to attend, related to organizational culture as much as 65% do not know the company's Vision and Mission, related to the job satisfaction, 60% of employees are not satisfied with their compensation received. Furthermore, related to organizational commitment, the 2017 turnover data obtained is an average of 13.29%.
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The effect of organizational citizenship behavior as moderating on the effect of job satisfaction and organizational commitment to  performance of teachers

The effect of organizational citizenship behavior as moderating on the effect of job satisfaction and organizational commitment to performance of teachers

Based on the hypothesis test in this study it was found that organizational citizenship behavior does not moderate the relationship of organizational commitment with teacher performance. This finding is in line with Otto's research (2018) where organizational citizenship behavior does not moderate the influence of organizational commitment on performance. This can be interpreted by employees who have strong OCB that does not affect their commitment to the organization. The findings obtained in the testing phase of the fourth hypothesis are also in line with the theory described by Gibson et al (2014) which states that organizational commitment does not always affect OCB in employees in an organizational environment, intellectual intelligence and emotional intelligence influence the occurrence of these conditions. The same is explained by Shopiah (2012) in the organizational concept that the difference in experience and working age of each employee affects the way a person works, when the work environment is not conducive, the tendency of employees to work individually is far from the OCB value so it does not affect performance generated by employees. The results obtained are not in line with the research of Hakim (2013) where in his research the Judge found that organizational citizenship behavior moderate the influence of organizational commitment on performance.
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The Effect of Organizational Commitment and Organizational Culture to Employee Performance through ......

The Effect of Organizational Commitment and Organizational Culture to Employee Performance through ......

says that the concept of organizational citizenship behavior originally developed by Barnard in 1938 as "the desire to work together", then there is the concept of organizational citizenship behavior, the behavior shown by employees in formal organizations. Usually, it is indicated through the job description that it is responsible so that the good and bad staff can be determined thoroughly by the job description. This is called role- behavior. However, to support the success of tasks within the organization, employees are expected to work not in their respective tasks, but they are required to work extra roles over their formal job description (extra-role behaviors). This is called organizational citizenship behavior.
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The Effects of Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Turnover Intentions

The Effects of Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Turnover Intentions

Finally, the effect of organizational citizenship behavior on turnover intentions was found to be significant. This finding also supports previous work of Cropanzano and Byrne (2000) and a recent study of Du Plooy and Roodt (2010). The findings of the current study confirm and add to the existing knowledge base by providing evidence of confirming hypothesized relationships among study constructs. Among others, satisfying employees by using motivational techniques, providing flexible times, and fostering work- family programs may help employees be committed to the organization. These resources may also positively influence employees to have citizenship behaviors that will help better functioning of organizations (cf. Robbins, 2001). In addition, employees with these resources who are satisfied, committed, and show extra-role performance (organizational citizenship behavior) are likely to stay in their current organizations.
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The relationship between the occupational stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction with organizational citizenship behavior

The relationship between the occupational stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction with organizational citizenship behavior

the Organizational Citizenship Behavior can be apply by all the Bernama TV employees within the organization and how it can give an impact to the Bernama TV’s employees in terms of their behavior and attitude. The aim is also to see which affective commitment should the organization and the employees in Bernama TV focus more or change. A comparison between Bernama TV Management Team and Bernama TV Production Team will be done in order to observe the similarities as well as the differences in terms of their behavior and attitude towards to achieve good Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). As ground work of this thesis theories regarding the behavior and attitude will be used and which dimension (occupational stress, organizational commitment – affective and job satisfaction) that the employees Bernama TV always used within the organization. The research question is based on the purpose with this study and is stated as follows: “. Is dimension of Occupational Stress, organizational commitment (affective), job satisfaction effect the dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)”. In order to conduct this study, the researcher have observe all the possibility dimension that may give big impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) towards Bernama TV employees behavior. Although Bernama TV is a well-known company that have emerged since 2 years ago, but still lack of the employees performance because of thei employees behavior and attitude rather than to have spirit of self belonging. The researcher really want to know which dimension (base on occupational stress, organizational commitment – affective, and job satisfaction) may build the organizational citizenship behavior and which one they should focus more or change. Besides of observing the Bernama TV employees behavior and their attitude, the researcher have come out those theories based on the previous researcher that have been done by other researcher. Lots of searching of journals, articles, books also from the internet, lots of reading in order to understand the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior, behavior, commitment related behavior and commitment related attitude so that the researcher theory cannot be misinterpreted and also the study are reliable and valid.
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Organizational Commitment as predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Organizational Commitment as predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

One of the limitations of this research is the sample size which was quite small. The larger sample size will provide more confidence in the results and thereof, reliable generalization. The mediating role of organizational variables such as organizational culture, politics, and climate will be helpful in understanding the relation of Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship behavior especially in rural and tough settings. The individual who is committed towards his organization often displays organizational citizenship behavior. These positive behaviors are essential for the success of an organization. Therefore, it is obvious for an organization to be aware of the factors affecting the commitment of employees. This issue is more important for Corporations working in far flung hilly areas, where the environmental conditions are also a matter of concern and a challenge for the employees. Raising the commitment of employees under such conditions is a serious concern for the organizations. Organizations have to take care of all the needs of its employee so as the employee feel secure and not lose his enthusiasm and commitment. This will definitely help the employee to display Citizenship behavior. Moreover, these extra role behaviors are required in above said conditions and will be instrumental in the performance of the Organization. Considering the research findings, it can be emphasized that the commitment of workers especially ‘Normative Commitment’ should be increased so that there frequency of performing extra role behavior will be increased.
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Effect of Organizational Culture on Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Organizational Commitment as a Mediator

Effect of Organizational Culture on Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Organizational Commitment as a Mediator

Discussion From the results of the study, it was found that the mediating effect played a very good role. To make the OCBs need to form a good culture and be adapted to the local culture, so that it will bring out a commitment to each employee in the organization. By completing all the elements in organizational culture will form a good organization and can maximize organizational goals. If this happens, then the commitment will appear to every employee that exists. When this commitment arises thus the employees will naturally OCB. The research conducted by Aldrin & Yunanto (2019), found that even though employees might feel positively about the organizational culture, it does not automatically encourage them to conduct organizational citizenship behavior
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Organizational Effectiveness in relation to Leadership Style, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Culture of Telecommunication Organizations

Organizational Effectiveness in relation to Leadership Style, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Culture of Telecommunication Organizations

Table-3 depicts the Durbin-Watson value is 1.426 which fall within the limit revealing the independence of errors in the model. From the Table-3, it is illustrated that Leadership Style is the determinant factor which significantly impacts the variation in Organizational Effectiveness of telecommunication organizations and 8.1% of variance in the Organizational Effectiveness is explained by Leadership Style of Telecommunication organizations. This is in contrast with the findings of Danish, Munir, Butt (2012) who revealed that organizational culture was the significant predictor of organizational effectiveness and 55% of the total variation in organizational effectiveness is explained with the variation in organizational culture. Further, it is found that Leadership Style and Organizational Citizenship Behavior together contributed to 8.2 % of variation in Organizational Effectiveness of telecommunication organizations. Moreover, it can be analyzed that three independent variables i.e. Leadership Style, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Culture altogether explained 8.1 % of variance in Organizational Effectiveness of Telecommunication organizations. The present findings are in agreement with the findings of Nielsen, Hrivnak & Shew (2009) & Ashraf, Kadir, Pihie & Rashid (2003).
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The influence of passion and empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior of teachers mediated by organizational commitment

The influence of passion and empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior of teachers mediated by organizational commitment

Reliability analysis was conducted for organizational citizenship behavior, passion for teach- ing, and the subscales of teacher empowerment, and organizational commitment. The purpose of the reliability analysis was to maximize the internal consistency of the measures by identifying those items that are internally consistent (i.e., reliable), and to discard those items that are not. Scale items together with their corrected item-total correlations >0.33 were retained and the fac- tors were computed based on the retained items. The computed Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for all 11 scales were above 0.7. After discarding items identified as unreliable (i.e., those with cor- rected item total correlation <0.33), each of the 11 factors of organizational citizenship behavior, passion, status, professional growth, self-efficacy, decision making, impact, autonomy, affective commitment, continuous commitment, and normative commitment was then computed by sum- ming across the (internally consistent) items that make up that factor and their means calculated. The following table represents the means and standard deviations for all the computed factors.
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