Predetermined catalyst amount was weighed using an electronic weighting machine. Methanol measured using the measuring jar according to the molar ratio was taken in a conical flask. The weighted catalyst was put in the conical flask containing methanol and was mixed well using, the magnetic stirrer for 5 minutes. The palm oil is taken in conical flaskkept in the heater to heat the oil. Then oil heat is heated to 60°c.The methanol and sodium hydroxide is mixed together and then stirrer well in the flask.The methanol and catalyst (sodium hydroxide) mixed is pour into the preheat palm oil. The reaction flask is then placed in the magnetic stirrer with hot plate and the measurement of time is started at this point. The reaction mixture remained for 30-40 minutes in the water bath at a temperature of 60°c and with a constant stirring. heating and stirring are continued for different reaction time at atmospheric pressure. It is then stirred well for 40 minutes using magnetic stirrer.60°c of the mixture it is then transferred to the separating funnel and kept for some minutes (20minutes) for the separation of glycerol from biodiesel. After the completion of the transesterification reaction, the reaction mixture was filtered for the separation of catalyst and the filtrate was transferred into a separating funnel for phase separation.the ester mixture formed the upper layer and the glycerol form in the lower layer.
Fuel is any material that stores potential energy in a form that can be practicably released and used as heat energy. The concept originally applied solely to those materials storing energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released through combustion. The reduction of particulate emissions due to the introduction of oxygenated compounds depends on the molecular structure, oxygen content of the fuel. And local oxygen in the fuel plume. Due to the increase and fluctuation in prices of diesel fuel and petrol a growing environmental conscience and the shortage of petroleum, an alternative to fossil fuels is needed. Government policies in different countries are motivating the use of substitute fuels for petroleum-based ones.
The consumption of fuels in the world is increasing rapidly and it affects the global economy of all the countries so this factor forced all the countries to find the alternative fuel to reduce and even replace the usage of petroleum fuel. Thus use of biodiesel from non-edible oil sources serves as an alternative fuel to overcome this problem. The present study focuses on impact assessment of rice bran and crude rice bran biodiesel and its blends with diesel on dieselengineperformance and testing. The experimental analysis provides in study detail of the biodiesel production process, fuel properties evaluation and impact on engineperformance testing. The study also investigates the optimization of the Compression ratio (CR) of a compression ignition engine fueled with blends of biodiesel. In order to find out the optimum CR of the engine, experiments were conducted at different CRs ranging from 12 to 18. Then the experiments were conducted using B10, B20 and B30 blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel and diesel at CR of 14 and 16 and these results were compared with the results obtained when the same engine was tested on conventional diesel fuel. Similarly the experimental results of B10, B20 and B30 blends of rice bran bio-diesel at CR 14 were investigated and analyzed. Based on the experimental investigation the blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel can be used as fuel in dieselengine without making any modification to the dieselengine.
ether (DME) and vegetable oils have been used as alternative fuels, however biodiesel has received more attention as substitute fuel for conventional petroleum. Biodiesels are produced from the transesterification of vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can also be used in their pure form. However, the use of vegetable oils for enginefuels has undesirable injection and combustion problems caused by their higher viscosities. This has remained the main obstacle in their use as alternative fuels. This problem has been solved by using some suitable techniques like dilution, pyrolysis, transesterification, preheating and emulsion to get methyl esters of such oils. These methyl esters of animal and vegetable oils are called Abstract: Investigation of the performance of an internal combustion engine fuelled with biodiesel from African Elemi (Canarium schweinfurthii) fruit oil was investigated. The oil was obtained from the fruit by mechanical extraction and analyzed for chemo-physical properties. The oil was converted to biodiesel through transesterification process using ethanol with potassium hydroxide as catalyst. A 3.2 kW Bhojson 165F, single cylinder, four stroke direct injection internal combustion diesel generator was used and alternatively fuelled with conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel and biodiesel blends. The performance parameters investigated were engine torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Engineperformancetest was carried out at 80% load, with variation of speed from 1200 to 3200 rpm at intervals of 200 rpm. The experimental results showed an increase in torque, brake power and specific fuel consumption with speed for all fuel types although conventional diesel had higher values of torque and power but lower values of break specific fuel consumption. Also, decrease in brake thermal efficiency was observed for conventional diesel, biodiesel and biodieselblendedfuels over the speed range with diesel having a slightly higher thermal efficiency than the biodiesel and its blends. Based on the parameters measured and analyzed, it was concluded that blends of B10 to B40 can be used without making any engine modifications.
The unburnt HC emissions for diesel, WCOME, and WCOME- GRAPHENE blendedfuels are shown in Figure 4.6. The HC emission for WCOME operation is higher compared to neat diesel due to its lower thermal efficiency resulting in abnormal combustion . The HC emissions gradually decreases with the addition of GRAPHENE nanoparticles to WCOME due to catalytic activity and better combustion characteristics of GRAPHENE nanoparticles which leads to enhanced combustion. A GRAPHENE nanoparticle increases the catalytic activity and chemical activity which leads to complete combustion of fuel. WCOME+60ppm gives better performance as compared to WCOME+20ppm due to the increased dosing level of GRAPHENE nanoparticles. That provides higher surface area which leads to greater combustion characteristics . It was observe that 4.47% for (WCOME+20ppm), 7.69% for (WCOME+40ppm) and 9.30% for (WCOME+60ppm) reduction in HC emission as compared to neat WCOME.
 D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinash, “A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil” , Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu, India. Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013 pp.859-870 Journal homepage:  Dharmendra Yadav, Nitin Shrivastava and Vipin Shrivastava, “Experimental investigation of performance parameters of single cylinder four stroke di dieselengine operating on neem oil biodiesel and its  b Dalai A.K, Kulkarni M.G, Meher L.C, "Biodiesel Productions From Vegetable Oils Using Heterogeneous Catalysts And Their Applications As Lubricity Additives" EIC climate change technology, pp1-8(2006).
The variation of carbon monoxide (CO) emission with brake power is shown in Fig. 5. The CO emission is increased marginal up to the brake power of 3 kW and then increases rapidly with higher load. The nonoparticles present in the biodiesel blend fuel promotes complete combustion, as compared to the base fuel (MME20), as metal oxide nanoparticles acts as an oxygen buffer and releasing oxygen depends upon the partial pressure of oxygen. From the graph it is found that the CO emission considerably reduced with the addition of nanoparticles with the MME20. The CO emission decrements are about 17% and 19% of the cases of MME20+IONP40 and MME20+AONP40 fuels, respectively at the full load of the engine. Where CO emission was reduced about 18% and 20% for MME20+IONP80 and MME20+AONP80 respectively. From the results it is clear that the AONP40 is effectively reducing the CO emission compared with IONP40 and there is no major reduction in CO, when the nanoparticles dosage was increased.
Figure 2 illustrates fuel consumption of diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends at di ﬀ erent idling modes. Compared to all the tested fuels, fuel consumption of pure diesel was lowest at all. It can be seen that fuel consumption values are higher when biodieselblended fuel is being used, which is supported by literature . Biodiesel fuel is delivered into the engine on a volumetric basis per stroke; thus larger quantities of biodiesel are fed in to the engine. As a result, more biodiesel fuel is needed to produce same amount of power. For this reason, increase in blend percentages re- sulted in increase in fuel consumption for all the biodiesel- diesel blends. As idling speed increased fuel consumption also increased. This is also supported by other researchers also. When engine is idling at a faster speed, fuel consump- tion will be higher due to increase in fuel injection rate per second .
growing steadily during the past five decades and most experts believe that this trend will continue to rise. The amount of energy consumption and exhaust gas emissions increases day by day. This increase has forced many countries to take various precautions, and various solutions on emitted emissions for better country. The biodiesel is produced from the raw Honne oil by standard Transesterification process and blends are prepared as B10, B20, B30 and B40. Along with this B20 blend sample [80% diesel + 20% biodiesel] copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were added as additive in mass fractions of 25 ppm (CuO 25), 50 ppm (CuO 50) and 75 ppm (CuO 75) with the help of a mechanical Homogenizer and an ultrasonicator. Experiments were conducted to determine engineperformance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of a 3.7 Kw single cylinder, four stroke dieselengine using diesel with 20 percentage of Honne oil methyl ester (HnOME) blended fuel and nano additive blended fuel. The results revealed a considerable enhancement in the brake thermal efficiency and marginal reduction in the harmful emissions for the nanoparticles blendedbiodieselfuels compared to those of neat biodiesel fuel. It was observed that Copper oxide nanoparticles blended fuel exhibits a significant reduction in specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions at all operating loads. And also it shows improvement in peak pressure and heat release rate due to the influence of copper oxide nanoparticles addition in biodiesel–diesel blend. From experimental investigation shown that there is increment in BTE and reduction BSFC, Nox emissions with operation HnOME-B20+CuO +75nano blend.
Figure 7 shows the exhaust temperature history against the engine speed at full load conditions. At all ranges of engine speed, the best blended ratio that produces the lowest exhaust temperature is 10% methanol and 90% diesel. The exhaust temperature of the engine using conventional fuel was found to be higher than any blended fuel ratio. High exhaust temperature coupled with lean combustion will lead to the formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx), which is poisonous and harmful to the environment. Consequently, using blended fuel is recommended to reduce the emission percentage of NOx. However, the combustion quality for both types of fuels is lean, the combustion of diesel alone is leaner than blended fuel, and therefore lean combustion produces more heat and thus increases the exhaust temperature. The lower exhaust temperature for blended fuel implies lower production of NOx. The oxygen content of the methanol helps to make the combustion leaner. The greater the amount of methanol fuel injected into the combustion chamber, the more oxygen will be available, and this will lead to complete combustion. The production of NOx is proportional to combustion efficiency. The better the combustion efficiency, the higher the value of the exhaust temperature, which increases the level of NOx production. Methanol-fueled vehicles normally show a lower content of CO and CO 2 in their exhaust. However, attention needs to be paid to NOx
From the graph of BP Vs BTE as shown as fig. 3, it can be seen that as Brake Power increases Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) also increases for all testfuels excluding full load condition. At full load condition for almost testfuels it was found that Brake Thermal Efficiency decreases compared to that at 80% load. It is found that for almost all values of BP, Brake thermal Efficiency (BTE) of B15 during test run is maximum And (B25 + Biogas) is minimum compared to all other testfuels.
Biodiesel is an attractive fuel for diesel engines that it can be made from any vegetable oil (edible or non- edible oils), used cooking oils, animal fats as well as microalgae oils. It is a clean energy, renewable, non- toxic and sustainable alternative to petroleum based fuels, and it is able to reduce toxic emissions when is burned in a dieselengine. The interest of this alternative energy resource is that fatty ester acids, known as biodiesel, have similar characteristics of petro-diesel oil which allows its use in compression motors without any engine modification. The problem is that biodiesel has viscosities approximately twice those of conventional dieselfuels. So biodiesel esters can used directly or blended with diesel.
Syngas from biomass gasification can be a promising alternative engine fuel, because biomass is aiding in meeting the greenhouse gas reduction targets, while at the same time the supplied energy from syngas can be generated with cheaper cost and environmentally sustainable. Furthermore, the cost level of biomass energy is considered acceptable when compared with other renewable energies  because fossil fuels can produce energy with higher cost for the same amount of energy produced from biomass conversion. In addition, biomass gasification is considered an economically viable system because the suitable biomass feedstock is easily available. Biological vegetable oil and animal fats are very important resources for production of biodiesel to replace diesel fuel . Biodiesel is also known as oxygenated ester-based fatty acid fuel chemically categorized in the family of long-chain acids . Because this fuel contains oxygen as part of its chemical structure, very low level of CO 2
Fossil fuels are limited in nature. Fuel consumption rate is increases and there will be the need of alternate fuels in future. Replacing biodiesel as a fuel in the place of standard fuel to study the characteristics of performance, combustion and emissions of the DI-CIdieselengine. DI-CIengine with biodiesel all the characteristics are investigated. The results of engine characteristics with biodiesel were compared with standard baseline petroleum diesel. Fuel in any engine burnt with air. Air is a mixture of gases and it contains approximately 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. Some of the oxygen is used to burn the fuel during the combustion process and the rest is supposed to just pass through unreacted. But when the peak temperatures are high enough for long periods of time, the nitrogen and oxygen combine to form a class of compounds called nitrogen oxides, collectively referred to as NO x . These
An experimental study on preheating raw rapeseed oil shows that the torque was almost not affected with preheating. As expected there is slight increase in torque with the increase in temperature. The average torque differences with preheating were 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.14% for DF, O20 and O50, respectively . The performance of engine is greatly influenced by sources of biodiesel, for example engine fuelled with palm oil bio- diesel is more efficient than biodiesel produced from tallow and canola oil. Blends of biodiesel with petroleum fuel are widely used in dieselengine although the high viscosity of the fuels causes fuel flow and ignition problems in unmodified CI (compression ignition) engines and also decreases in power output. The decrease in output torque at these two modes also affects the power output of the engine, since torque and power are directly proportional when the engine speed is fixed. As a result, the power output also decreases by 4 to 5%. Decrease in power and torque is due to their lower energy content of biodiesel. Lower energy content shows lower energy characteristics 
Abstract: Need for alternate fuel in CIengine for which a lot of experimental research is being done worldwide. Intense research is already done with biodieselblended in diesel. And Dual biodieselblended in diesel research is underway, which gain importance because feasibility to materialize locally available feed stock. In this contest the experimental research is being carried out to examine the performance and combustion of Waste Cooking Oil biodiesel (WCOBD) and Palm Stearin biodiesel (PSBD) blended in diesel. Result shows that B20 mixture stand close to pure diesel without much engine modification. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption differ by 12.99percent and 23.5percent. CO differs by 16.5% and HC differ by 3.09% that of pure diesel mode. Whereas NOx increased by 8.9% for optimal load and blend ratio. Peak in-cylinder pressure and net heat release rate differ by 2.05% and 3.1% respectively. Properties for pure diesel and dual biodiesel blends of diesel are also enclosed.
6. It is found that CO2 emissions are more for simarouba biodiesel than that of diesel. Higher CO2 emissions reduce harmful CO emissions. The percentage reduction in HC emissions for simarouba and waste cooking biodiesel is about 60% as compared to that of Diesel. Due to higher NOx emissions with pure Simarouba biodiesel, suitable blends can become a striking balance between NOx emissions on one end and all other emissions along with performance on the other hand.
Vegetable oils have a promising future as diesel substitute. The lot of work is going on in different countries on different types of vegetable oils, which can be used in those countries as per availabilities. Vegetable oils have better ignition qualities than light alcohols, their cetane number over 30. Vegetable oil is mainly of two types edible and mom-edible oils. Edible oils are those, which are used for cooking purpose some of them are sunflower oils, palm oils, peanut oil, linseed oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil etc. non-edible oils, which are used for some specific purposes, like medicine, dyes etc. Some of these are neem oil, honge oil, jatropha oil etc. The vegetable oils can be either blended directly with diesel or esterified oil can be used. The difference in properties of vegetable oils with diesel leads to the following problems on long-term usage of vegetable oils in CIengine causes:
Biodiesel is a renewable and eco-friendly alternative diesel fuel for dieselengine. Biodiesel has higher viscosity, density, pour point, flash point and cetane number than diesel fuel. Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel which contains 10-15% oxygen by weight. Also it can be said sulphur free fuel. These facts lead biodiesel to total combustion and less exhaust emissions than diesel fuel. Furthermore also the energy content or net calorific value of biodiesel is about 12% less than that of diesel fuel on the mass basis. Using optimized blend of biodiesel and diesel can help reduce some significant percentage of the world’s dependence on fossil fuels without modification of CIengine, and it also has important environmental benefits. For example using optimized blend of biodiesel and diesel instead of conventional diesel fuel significantly reduces the exhaust emissions particulate matter (PM), Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur oxides(SO x ) and unburned hydrocarbons(HC).
identified. S. D. Sekar et al.  conducted tests on the dieselengine which runs with the Nerium seed biodiesel with a range of proportions B5, B10 and B15. This work states that, the performance of the Nerium seed oil methyl esters is slightly higher than base fuel. Mohd Hafizil M. Yasin et al.  evaluates the commercial four stroke, four cylinder, Indirect Direction Injrction diesel engine’s performance and combustion using pure PME as fuel. The results revealed that higher BSFC is observed for Palm methyl ester as compared with the diesel. It is also observed that, for diesel and PME the peak cylinder pressures are 56.6 bar and 61.6 bar at 14°CA respectively. V. Narasiman et al.  performed the experiments on a dieselengine to study the outcome of sardine oil and its methyl ester on combustion. They observed that, at full load, for Sardine biodiesel there is increase in peak cylinder pressure, peak heat re-lease rate during the premixed combustion phase, ignition temperature and Ignition delay when compared with diesel. In the current work, to identify the best biodiesel and diesel blend, the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of B20TME, B40TME, B60TME, B80TME, neat TME and dieselfuels were studied in a single cylinder four stroke constant speed dieselengine at 1500 rpm with variable loads.