dipantau oleh sistem kawalan gelung tertutup mikropemproses berasaskan, dan kitar tugas rangsangan penukar berterusan diselaraskan untuk mengeluarkan kuasa maksimum. reka bentuk ini terdiri daripada pelbagai PV, DC - DC penukar Boost (juga dikenali sebagai penukar voltan Tinggi) dan bahagian kawalan yang menggunakan pengawal mikro PIC18F4550 itu. Oleh itu, voltan keluaran dari DC-DC penukar rangsangan akan meningkatkan sehingga kira-kira untuk 60V DC voltan keluaran dari beban dan harus mengurangkan voltan riak dan cenderung untuk mencapai berterusan DC voltan keluaran. Oleh itu, penukaran tenaga lestari daripada sistem Photovoltaic (PV) dan meningkatkan oleh DC-DC litar rangsangan converter akan mampu menggunakan jumlah besar voltan output. Bahagian kawalan mendapatkan maklumat daripada pelbagai PV melalui Analog mikropengawal untuk Digital Converter (ADC) pelabuhan dan dengan itu untuk
As mentioned earlier, using solar energy is an active topic which has been discussed by many researchers throughout the world. In-state of the art, it is agreed upon that the solar cells operate with low efficiency. Therefore, the challenge is to find the best possible technique to improve the efficiency of those cells. A maximumpowerpointtracking (MPPT) is an appreciated development in this field. Many methods have been utilized for MPP tracking. Several methods are discussed in details and benchmarked in this section. For example, perturb and observe method , incremental conductance method , constant voltage method  and short-current pulse method . An alternative method in the extracting of the maximum possible power from the PV panel is through the integration of the MPPT circuit into the system. The concept of the circuit simplicity which integrates the programmable interfacecontroller (PIC) microcontroller is the main sign of this method.
Abstract - In this paper proposed work we design and implementation of Single Ended Primary Inductor Converter (SEPIC) converter and Voltage Source Inverter for an Induction Motor using Photovoltaic energy as a source. Commonly the more number of drives working for industrial and commercial applications are induction motor drives. To run such thoughtful of motor from the PV source, it is proposed to have a DC-DCconverter and an inverter circuit as interface circuits. As the PV cell keep the nonlinear behavior, a DC-DCconverter with MaximumPowerPoint Tracker (MPPT) controller is required to improve its utilization efficiency and for same the load to the photovoltaic modules. In this paper SEPIC converter (DC-DCconverter) with Perturb and Observe MPPT algorithm is used for same the load and to boost the PV module output voltage. To convert the boosted DC output voltage from PV module into AC, a voltage source inverter with sinusoidal pulse width modulation is executed on it to achieve satisfactory voltage to drive single phase induction motor. The simulation work of these SEPIC converter and voltage source inverter fed induction motor circuits have been done using PSIM and Proteous software. The experimental work is accepted out with the SEPIC converter and voltage source inverter to drive the single phase induction motor. An ATmega16 pic microcontroller is used to generate pulses for controlling the SEPIC converter circuit.
This paper proposes a simple, cost effective and efficient brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive for solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system. The importance of using a maximumpowerpointtracking (MPPT) algorithm is demonstrated to ensure that a PV system provides the most energy possible. Two different maximumpowerpointtracking (MPPT) algorithms are introduced. A boostconverter is used in order to extract the maximum available power from the SPV. An appropriate control of boostconverter through the Perturb & Observe maximumpowerpointtracking (PO- MPPT) algorithm offers soft starting of the BLDC motor. Increment conductance is used and compared with the PO - MPPT. The speed control of BLDC motor is performed by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) control of the voltage source inverter (VSI) using DC link voltage regulator. A Matlab/ Simulink models of the solar panel, dc to dcboostconverter, and control algorithms are validated.
Maximumpowerpointtracking is used in solar PV energy conversion system to extract maximumpower from solar PV (Photovoltaic). MPPT algorithm is implemented in the control circuit of Power electronics DC-DC converters. The behavior of MPPT depends upon the type of the type of DC – DCconverter used. The objective of this paper is to analyze the working of MPPT with buck-boostDC – DCconverter. The simulation is study is done by using PSIM simulation software.
gle of ninety degree with the direction incoming ray of sun. This issue is beyond our topic of discussion. The second one is the electrical MPPT where electrical oper- ating point is forced at the peak powerpoint continuously by adjusting the duty cycle of the DC-DCconverter in- serted between PV array and load. However several MPPT methods have been summarized in the literatures [20,21]. The methods vary in complexity, sensors re- quired, tracking efficiency, convergence speed, cost, and in other respects. Some of the well-known techniques are Perturb & Observe (P & O), Incremental Conductance, Fractional Open-Circuit, Fractional Short-Circuit, Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network based algorithms. Among them the Perturb and Observe (P & O) algorithm is most commonly used in practice due to its fast tracking speed, low cost and eases of implementation by the majority of authors [22-27]. It is an iterative method of obtaining MPP. It measures the PV array voltage and current, and then perturbs the operating point of PV generator to en- counter the change direction. The maximumpoint is reached when d d P V 0 . There are many varieties, from simple to complex. But the most basic form ex- plained in Figure 4; that has been adopted in this paper. To seek MPP, the operating voltage of the PV array per- turbed, by a small amount, and the resulting change in power, is measured. If the power increases due to the perturbation then the next perturbation of the operat- ing voltage is continued in the same direction. However, if the power decreases, the subsequent perturbation should be reversed.
Photovoltaic (PV) panels are made of photosensitive semi- conductors. Their semiconductor cells are hit by solar radiation and produce a difference of potential. The problem is that panels cannot deliver the maximumpower by their own considering the impedance matching principle. That is the main reason for using a power
operating under PSCs and load variations. PSO is an evolutionary computation algorithm and has been applied for MPPT of PV systems in some investigations (Ishaque et al., 2012; Koad et al., 2016; Manickam et al., 2016; Seyedmahmoudian et al., 2015; Sundareswaran et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2012; Babu et al., 2015), but none of these treat the multilevel DC-link PV converter system. In this context the benefit of using the MPSO is clear; it can predict all the PV-Converter voltages at their respective MPPs as defined by their light levels quickly and without disturbing the system. The predicted voltages are applied to control the individual DC-DC converters simultaneously. In this paper a permutation PWM scheme is applied to control the multiple module terminal converters, so that switching utilisation can be balanced. In addition the output of the whole converter chain is connected to a DC-AC voltage source converter, providing a suitable AC output for grid connection.
Nowadays, renewable energy has become one of the important energy resources in our daily lives. One of the important and promising renewable energy resource today is the photovoltaic (PV). However, weather changes contribute to the PV output power fluctuations. Thus, for a PV-related system, a closed-loop control system is necessary for ensuring the system produces a regulated dc output voltage. This paper presents the development of PIC16F877A microcontroller- baseddc to dc buck converter. This converter steps down a dc voltage source to a specific voltage which suitable for other specific applications. For the PV output voltage fluctuating from 18V to 12V, the microcontroller generates a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal accordingly to control the converter switching device MOSFET IRF540, thus regulating the converter output voltage to 12V. The system simulation was carried out in the PROTEUS ISIS Professional software tool. Due to the unavailability of the PV device in this simulation software, a dc voltage source is utilized. This voltage source is varied to emulate the PV output variations. The simulation results show that the controller managed to step-down the voltage source and regulated at 11.98Vdc. The prototype was built and tested in a laboratory for validation. Due to the constrains and limitations of the PV module, an adjustable power supply was used to provide variation of input voltage levels for the buck converter. The experiment results also show that the output voltage is managed to be regulated at 12V. The results signify the efficacy of developed converter control system algorithm.
This study has successfully developed a high-efficiency isolated single-input multiple-output buck converter with step- down operational states, and this coupled-inductor-basedconverter was applied well to a single input power source plus two output terminals composed of an auxiliary battery module and a high-voltage dc bus. The experimental results reveal that the maximum efficiencies at the step-up state and the step-down state were measured to be 94% and 97%, respectively. The major contributions of the proposed converter are recited as follows:This topology adopts eight power switches to achieve the objectives of high-efficiency power conversion, electric isolation, bi-directional energy transmission, and various output voltage with different levels.The stray energy can be recycled by a clamped capacitor into the auxiliary battery module or high-voltage dc bus to ensure the property of voltage clamping. An auxiliary inductor is designed for providing the charge power to the auxiliary battery module and assisting the switch turned on under the condition of zero-voltage-switching (ZVS). The switch voltage stress at the step-up state is not related to the input voltage so that it is more suitable for a dcpower conversion mechanism with different input voltage levels. The copper loss in the magnetic core can be greatly reduced as a full copper film with lower turns. This high-efficiency converter topology provides designers with alternative electric isolation choices for boosting a low-voltage power source to multiple outputs with different voltage levels, or reversely transmitting the energy of high-voltage dc bus efficiently. The auxiliary battery module used in this study also can be extended easily to other dc loads, even for different voltage demands, via the manipulation of circuit components design. The project can be extended into still more E-vehice devices to be connected. (at present we have connected 10 vehicles per phase). The control algorithms can be implemented as a micro controllerbased or DSP based systems. A hardware implementation of the full system may be worked out in future tenure of the project. The system may be implemented as a single chip system with SOC (system on chip) technology.
PV cells are the basic element of solar PV system. Modules are formed using these modules. It is further expanded in the form of arrays as per the power requirements. These PV cells exhibit nonlinear characteristics. The output of the PV cell varies with solar irradiation and with ambient temperature. The equivalent circuit model of PV cell given in Fig (1). The characteristic equation of PV cell based on this model is given by equation 1, 2 and 3 .
In many work buck converter controlled by the MPPT is used to control the photovoltaic systems to adapt the panels output voltage to the input voltage of the converter which is lower , , . Sometimes the boostconverter controlled by the MPPT ,  is used to adapt the output voltage of the panels to the input voltage of the converters which is higher.
ABSTRACT: In recent years, power generation utilizing solar power or wind power has been being great attractive for effective utilization of electrical energy. In Order to protect the natural environment on the earth, the development of clean energy without pollution has the major representative role in the last decade. By dealing with the issue of global warming, clean energies, such as fuel cell (FC), photovoltaic, and wind energy, etc., have been rapidly promoted.Standalone photovoltaic (SAPV) systems are widely used in remote areas after development of photovoltaic cell industry in recent years. A PV cell has an exponential relationship between current and voltage, and the maximumpowerpoint (MPP) occurs at the knee of the curve. In this paper a photovoltaic array is used to run a DC motor using a dc-dcconverter. The gating signal to the dc-dcconverter is giving using soft switching technique. The simulink model of the PV array connected to dc motor using a dc –dcconverter is developed in MATLAB and the outputs are observed.
proposed converter, the conventional switched capacitor technique makes the switch suffer high transient current and large conduction losses. Yang et al.  defines a high step-up ratio converter to achieve higher voltage conversion ratio and further reduce voltage stress on the switch and diode. This converter can provide large step-up voltage conversion ratios. But again, the voltage stress of diodes in those converters remains rather high. In this paper, ref. [5,6 and 7] were taken into consideration while analysing the existing converter, whichdescribes about how the fuzzy logic can be applied to the converter and improve the system responses.
Figure 2.1 shows the basic circuit configuration used in the buck converter. There are only four main components namely switching power MOSFET Q1, flywheel diode D1, inductor L and output filter capacitor C1. In this circuit the transistor that is switched ON will put voltage on one end of the inductor. This voltage causes the current of the inductor to rise. When the transistor is switched OFF, the current continue to flow through the inductor. At the same time, it flows through the diode. Initially it is assumed that the current flowing through the inductor does not reach zero; thus the voltage will only go across the conducting diode during the full OFF time. The average voltage depends on the average ON time of the transistor on the condition that the current of the inductor is continuous.
On this earth almost every source of energy is because of the SUN directly or indirectly. On this earth India is richest in terms of solar radiation where almost India receives 250 to 300 days per year solar radiations. This is enough to provide 6000 Trillion Kwh per year. Now to extract this much power from the sun solar cells plays an important role. But since the output of solar cells is adversely affected by the atmospheric condition, there should be a technique which is used to get maximum amount of power from these solar cells. There are broadly two types of solar cells amorphous silicon cell and crystalline silicon cell. In this paper amorphous silicon cell is used. To extract maximumpower from the solar cell irrespective of the atmospheric condition dc to dcconverter can be used which convert variable dc output into fixed dc output. There are various types of converters out of witch specific type should be applicable to appropriate one.
Recently artiﬁcial intelligence methods which include Fuzzy and Neural Network have been applied to track. The fuzzy logic controllers have the advantages of robustness, simplicity in design and it does not need accurate mathematical model. The selection of parameters and membership function in fuzzy logic is not easy as it needs expert knowledge and experimentation as discussed in [12-14]. The calculations are based on practical PV module data is explained in . From all the above analysis, conclude that the new Genetic Algorithm (GA) to track MPP for Photovoltaic System under Uniform and Non-Uniform irradiances.
For PV module converter, the high efficiency over a wide load range and input voltage range is extremely important. In this paper, a high boost ratio dc-dcconverter with hybrid transformer is presented to achieve high system level efficiency over wide input voltage and output power ranges. By adding a small resonant inductor and reducing the capacitance of the switched-capacitor in the energy transfer path, a hybrid operation mode can be achieved. The inductive and capacitive energy can be transferred simultaneously to the high voltage dc bus increasing the total power delivered decreasing the losses in the circuit. Output voltage is compared with a reference voltage to turn on the switch so as to keep the output voltage constant.
Nowadays the use of power is increased because of the increased population and use of more number of electronic equipments among which some will be high power rated devices. So there is a demand for large amount of power generation in these days and even it will keep increasing in the future generation. So technologies are developed to generate the large amount of power using the available sources of energy in the nature, which is cost efficient and environmental friendly. The renewable energy sources are available in the form of sun, wind, tidal, biomass and others. Using sun as the source of energy photovoltaic systems are developed. But the output obtained from the photovoltaic panels is of low value, so there is a need of step up of the output voltage from the PV panels. Because the low value voltage cannot be provided to the inverters. Hence the design oh step up dc-dc converters is most. important in PV systems. Till now, many voltage-boost topologies have been explored, namely voltage multiplier, switched-inductor, switched.