life, moreover, innovativeness is also signiﬁcantly associated with satisfaction with life perceptions.
The study examined the inﬂuence of personalitytraits on individualinnovativeness and satisfaction with life perception. Wellbeing and satisfaction of employees is considered to be very important by organizations these days. Organizations are spend- ing generous resources to promote wellbeing among its employees in order to ensure yield more innovation and productivity from employees. Management scholars are also striving to ﬁnd ways to increase employees wellbeing and satisfaction with life. Under- standing employees’ personalitytraits are important in order to increase their innovativeness and wellbeing. Although there is plenty of research available on personalitytraits, this study extends the theory of personalitytraits which propose that human beings have different personalitytraits and that they behave in differ- ent environments in dissimilar ways. The study found positive inﬂuence of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience on individualinnovativeness and satisfac- tion with life perceptions. Neuroticism is found to be negatively related to individualinnovativeness and satisfaction with life per- ceptions. Finally, the study noted a positive association between individualinnovativeness and perception with life.
satisfaction is significantly positive correlated with the extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness personality type in men. The result of the present research is consistent with those of Schimmack et al, (2009) that concluded that lifesatisfaction is positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. According to Boyce, Wood and Powdthavee (2008) lifesatisfaction is positively associated with extraversion and agreeableness personalitytraits. Similarly Bader, Rogers, and Barusch (2002) produced the same result that extraversion personality trait is positively correlated with lifesatisfaction. Thus it supports the hypothesis that there is positive relationship between extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness personality trait with lifesatisfaction. It means that men with extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness personalitytraits are satisfied with their lives. On the other hand there are many researches that hold that there is significant negative relation between conscientiousness personality type and lifesatisfaction in men. This result supported by Adeeb (2012), Wertag and Hanzec (2010), and Johnson and Sustain (2011).
Indeed, both schools and colleges are the educational institutional established with the objective of academic excellence through the trained teaching professional. But still basic differences exist among the functioning of both at various levels which may or may not relate with the personal values. Differences among these values are expected to exit because of permanent traits. Finding for the present study reveals that for school and college teaching professionals personalitytraits are differently associated with work life balance and lifesatisfaction. Where work life balance has strong relation with lifesatisfaction among teaching professionals, they are moderately related among college teaching staff.
The attitudes of neurotic individuals tend to be non-functional in the face of the tasks that they encounter in the developmental process. Neurotic individuals frequently use incompatible coping strategies and find themselves in a cycle of emotional inconsistency (Albuquerque et al.
2013 ). Neurotic individuals may not achieve the gains they desire in life because of these negative emotions and emotional inconsistencies. Lifesatisfaction is conceptualized by the distance between the individual and the hedonic gains (Çikrıkci 2016 ). Although no significant association was found between the other four of the Big Five personalitytraits (i.e., extraver- sion, openness, consciousness, and agreeableness) and lifesatisfaction in the present study, other studies have indicated an association between lifesatisfaction and extraversion, open- ness, consciousness, and agreeableness (DeNeve and Cooper 1998 ; Grevenstein and Bluemke
Adolescence is an important developmental stage for every individual as it is a transition period from childhood to adulthood. Hence, many variables contribute to the feelings of lifesatisfaction among adolescents. It is therefore prudent to investigate what adolescents deem as important in influencing their lifesatisfaction. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between personalitytraits, attachment styles with adolescents’ lifesatisfaction. A total of 315 respondents aged between 18 to 21 years old participated in this study. Three standardized instruments were used and they are: the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) to measure personality, the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Results showed that there were significant relationships between personalitytraits of extraversion, openness and conscientiousness with lifesatisfaction. The findings also indicated significant correlations between attachment styles of confidence and relationship with lifesatisfaction. In addition, results showed that there were significant relationships between most of the personalitytraits with attachment styles. In conclusion, adolescents who were satisfied with their lives were those who have personalitytraits of extraversion, openness and conscientiousness and secure attachment style. These findings give important insights in understanding the well-being of adolescents.
A person’s personalitytraits seem to be effective on his personality perfectionism and well- being and cause person’s satisfaction or dissatisfaction from his life (Besharat, Habibnejad and Geranmayepur, 2009). Diener (2003) believes that individuallifesatisfaction origins from his general assessment and attitudes toward his total life or some aspects of life such as family life, occupation, income, free time and so on. Lifesatisfaction is in fact reflection of the distance between the person ideals and his current situation and whatever the gap between person’s ideals and his current situation is more, his satisfaction will decrease (Zaki, 2007). Considering lifesatisfaction is the reflection of balance between person’s wishes and his current situation (Nasiri Jokar, 2008; quoted by Hosseini et al, 2011) and since perfectionists always look for various goals, lifesatisfaction seems to be less in people with high perfectionism than other people and researches have shown that perfectionists will be more confused by goal setting (Hashemi and Latifian, 2009).
Individuals are expected to mature with increasing age, but it is not yet fully understood which factors contribute to this maturation process. Using data of a representative sample of Germans (N = 14,718) who gave information about their Big Five personalitytraits twice over a period of 4 years, we identified satisfaction with life, which was reported yearly, as an important variable for explaining mechanisms and interindividual differences in personality maturation. Dual latent change models suggest that more satisfied (compared to less satisfied) individuals experience more positive changes in Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and that positive changes in lifesatisfaction are associated with positive changes in personality. Furthermore, maturation processes were examined for individuals who faced a social role transition, namely, marriage, birth of a child, or entering the job market. Again, differential effects highlight the importance of lifesatisfaction for personality maturation.
The magnitudes of the effects of personality on household income per year are noticeable: for example in the UK sample the size is around 3, 5K USD for Openness, −8, 5K USD for Neuroticism, and 6K USD for Extraversion. For comparison, the effect of Male is 1.3K USD per year, hence the effects of some personalitytraits are between three and five times larger than the gender gap. These results confirm that personalitytraits are important for predicting life outcomes, income in this case (see Roberts et al. (2007) Burks et al. (2009) for other life outcomes). Consistently with the literature (Cohen et al. (2003), Vit- ters and Nilsen (2002)), the direct effects of Neuroticism on LifeSatisfaction are negative, large and significant; those of Extraversion are positive and significant. As we argued above there is widespread agreement among psychologists that traits are largely exogenous and stable. We address anyway the possibility that traits are endogenous by using the entire panel of data. In this way we are
test the single, as well as the overall effect of demographic variables, personalitytraits, and self-evaluation processes on global lifesatisfaction. These hierarchical regressions identified the variables that had a unique direct effect on global lifesatisfaction that were then included in the overall mediation model. Indeed, a direct association is a prerequisite for standard mediation analyses (Baron & Kenny, 1986). Path analysis using SEM was computed using the AMOS statistical package. The χ 2 per degree of freedom (χ 2 /df), the comparative fit index (CFI), the Tucker–Lewis index (TLI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used to assess the model fit. According to literature, a model is considered to have a satisfactory fit if the χ 2 /df is lower than 3, if the GFI, CFI, and TLI values are about .90 or above (Medsker, Williams, & Holahan, 1994), and if the RMSEA is about .05 or less (RMSEA of about .08 or less being acceptable, Byrne, 2001). Finally, using bootstrapping on 5000 samples we estimated the 95% confidence intervals for the direct, simple indirect, and total indirect mediation effects. Specific indirect effects were computed using the phantom model approach (Macho & Ledermann, 2011).
Also, the results of this study showed that higher levels of religious attitude in retirees lead to greater sense of meaning and satisfaction, which is in line with previous research (36-38). Religion has long been recognized as a central source of meaning in life, providing people with basic beliefs, expectations, and goals, and placing a person's life in a larger and ultimate context (39-42). It is not strange that one special issue of the Journal of Social Issues is devoted to the role of religious faith as a semantic system (43). There are also various aspects of mental well-being, including the meaning of life along with religiosity (44). Steger and Frazier (45) in their studies stated that religious faith has a strong relationship with experiencing meaning in life and also the meaning of life highlights the psychological benefits associated with religiousness. In a study conducted by Dehkordi and colleagues (38) on elderly people under welfare organization support, they found that old people with a religious attitude have a greater sense of meaning in their lives . Sayadi, Jamali, and Mirghafouri (46) stated that religious behaviors and attitudes have a positive effect on making life meaningful. Behaviors such as putting your destiny in the hands of God, worship, pilgrimage could provide hope and inner peace for elderlies. Having meaning and purpose in life, feeling of belonging to a supreme source, hoping for God's help in difficult life situations, enjoying the social and spiritual protection of being religious are all among the ways that could help religious people feel less pressure in facing stressful life events.
size should increase; this is demonstrated by the superior reverse prediction of personality from polygenic wellbeing (Okbay et al., 2016). However, given the low estimated SNP- based heritabilities for neuroticism and wellbeing ( < 0.15 in our study), the limit for variance explained by a polygenic measure will necessarily be small. Twin and family stud- ies show that heritabilities for personality and wellbeing are at least double that of the SNP-based estimates, which only consider the genetic variation due to common variants. Therefore, further gains in prediction might be achieved by investigating rare and/or structural genetic variants. There are no rare variant studies on personality, but in the only study (Power & Pluess, 2015) to estimate the heritabil- ity of all the Five-Factor Model domains using genome- wide SNP data (N = 5,011), only neuroticism and open- ness showed significant genetic influences, suggesting that rare variants might be important. With regard to struc- tural variants, preliminary investigations do not show an effect of large copy number variants on personality (Lu- ciano, MacLeod et al., 2012). Additionally, by using an ad- ditive composite of personality SNP effects we may have re- stricted the prediction of wellbeing. Extended twin studies show non-additive genetic effects for extraversion, neuroti- cism, and conscientiousness (Hahn et al., 2013; Keller et al., 2005), and measures of wellbeing (Bartels & Boomsma, 2009; Hahn et al., 2016). Further studies are therefore needed to confirm whether different personalitytraits share greater additive or non-additive genetic variance with wellbeing.
After focusing on demographic factors such as health, income, educational context and marital status, which were showed to explain only a weak amount of the variance of lifesatisfaction (Campbell, Converse, & Rodgers, 1976) other works have demonstrated that levels of lifesatisfaction are stable over time and are often correlated with stable personality features (Diener, Oishi, & Lucas, 2003). While the first approach (situational) attempted to identify the external factors influencing lifesatisfaction including environmental or demographic factors, the second (personalitytraits) focused on the internal processes of the individual. This distinction gave rise to two hierarchical models of lifesatisfaction: the bottom-up and top-down models (Diener, 1984).
The means comparison of the socio-demographic variables also brought about some intriguing and unexpected results. Where differences were expected, the findings turned out to be insignificant, like for example teachers’ years of experiences, where authors like Zembylas and Papanastasiou (2004) clearly argued that the level of teachers’ satisfaction tend to decrease as they progress in their career. This study could not find any justification for such an argument. However, differences were encountered when comparing the marital status of the respondents. It appears that married teachers deal better with the factor distribution of justice and seem to be satisfied teachers when compared to those who are not married. Although no literature was found to assess and justify marital status, within the context of women teachers, it can be argued that married respondents managed to strike a balance between family and professional life, and perhaps are less judgmental about how things could be done and/or should be done, and, therefore, are easier to satisfy. Nationality was another demographic factor where differences emerged. This is not a surprising result when one sees how the population of Kuwait is structured - more than two-third are none-Kuwaitis. The differences emerged with the variable “workload.” and where non- Kuwaitis seem to perceive it more. This can be explained by the fact that that it is easier to demand, even expect more from non-Kuwaitis than Kuwaitis, this is a fact that can be seen in other sectors and not only education.
Locus of control was measured with items adapted from Spector . The scale assesses the generalized expectancy that rewords, reinforcements or outcomes in life are controlled by one’s own actions (internality) or by other forces (externality). Participants were asked to respond to statements such as “Getting the job you want is mostly a matter of luck”, “People who perform their jobs well generally get rewarded for it.” Cronbach’s alpha for locus of control was 0.766.
Also, considering the descriptiveness of the method of the present research, the researcher may not have been able to provide a complete picture of how the patterns of communication, personalitytraits, and positive and negative affects influence marital satisfaction. Other factors affecting marital satisfaction, including their physical condition and spouse, socioeconomic status, of- ficial and informal social support, and family status, are variables that the researcher could not fully control. On this basis, it is suggested that the relationship between the social and economic bases and marital satisfaction should be explored in future research, as these chal- lenges provide grounds for dissatisfaction with marital life in married women and can be linked to the prob- lems of marital satisfaction.
In a simple structural model, we take the aspiration determined by personalitytraits and income to be a monotonic function of aspiration, and assume that the responsiveness of lifesatisfaction to the gap between aspired and realized income is proportional to neuroticism. Estimation of the model shows that the elasticity between income and lifesatisfaction increases with neuroticism for lower incomes and declines with neuroticism at higher incomes. Thus, aspirations are on average fulfilled for low income and on average un-fulfilled for high income. We therefore estimate the elasticity of lifesatisfaction on income as a variable dependent on an individual’s personality. Kahneman et al. (2006) and Akin et al. (2009) show that individ- uals tend to underestimate the lifesatisfaction of the poor. Their conclusion is that individuals work to become richer because of the illusion that wealth brings happiness. The present paper brings personality theory into the analysis and suggests a different reading of these empirical findings. Richer people, having a different personality to poorer people, estimate correctly how bad they would feel if they themselves were poorer, and it is also for this reason that they are not poorer.
This study was designed to identify the major traits of personality towards lifesatisfaction among married students in Malaysia. Regression analysis showed that self-confidence, extrovert, and resiliency were highly predicting lifesatisfaction. Based on Tajma personalitytraits, self-confident individuals are self-control, calm, and confident. Moreover, according to (Fritz Strack, 1991) life satisfied individuals have more self-confidence. Extroversion is found as another major trait of lifesatisfaction. According to ( McCrae, & Costa, 2003) an extravert person is a gregarious one full of positive emotions and activity. In line with previous studies (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999; Diener, 2003; Extremera, 2005) extraversion has important role in lifesatisfaction. This study also shows the same results. So, extrovert people have more lifesatisfaction. Resiliency is a major personality trait highly correlated with lifesatisfaction. According to previous researches, resilience was positively correlated with lifesatisfaction (Abolghasemia, 2010; Cohn, 2009; Extremera, Durán, Rey, 2009; Lent, 2009; Roeser, 1999; Rubin, 2006).
to be responsible for that individual’s observable behavior (Whitbourne, 2005). Personality has a nature (as a structure) and nurture (as experience); it is also affected by past memories, plus present and future concerns (Pervin, 1996). Researchers (McCrae, & John, 1992) defined personalitytraits as a set of characteristic dispositions that determine emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles.
Trust in politics is different from generalized or interpersonal trust, given the fact that a political system is quite an abstract system. Furthermore the working of the system is complex and therefore difficult to understand for layman. This abstractness of the political system makes it necessary for citizens to put trust in it, as they are not capable of fully fathoming the working of the system. Nevertheless, when citizens believe that it is too risky to put trust in the system, the legitimacy of the system will be threatened, because a system needs backing from citizens to be legitimate (Beetham & Lord, 1998). A lack of trust can, for instance, cause free-ridership or non-compliance to the law by citizens (Newton, 2001; Dalton, 2004). This threatens the democracy; as democratic polities are build on the presumption that citizens will voluntary comply with the law (Dalton, 2004). Legitimacy of the political system and voluntary compliance with the law enables a democracy to function. In order to permit democratic governments to function trust in the political system is required. But what is exactly meant with political trust? Newton (2001) summarizes political trust as the trust people have in public institutions, governors, executives and politicians. Ruscio states that “political trust is always conditional” (1999: 65). This means that political trust is changing during the course of life, because e.g. politicians also change relatively often. This makes political trust different from the unconditional trust that we put in friends and family. People sometimes say in ordinary language that they trust the government, yet they do not mean anything closely analogues to utterance of trust to another person (Hardin, 1996). Political trust is therefore a one-part relation. We depend heavily on the favor of politics, but politics does not depend that heavily on ours. So, that we might not trust those who have power over us, in particular when they have not much reason to care about us, is not a surprise (Hardin, 2002).
Concept of L-O-C is first introduced by Rotter (1966) and Rotter (1966) expand this concept further. Internality and Externality are two dimensions of L-O-C (Rotter, 1975). Internality refers to believe about outcome is due to one's own actions, whereas externality is view that outcome is due to luck, chance, fate etc. (Fagbohungbe & Jayeoba, 2012). defined L-O-C as perception of individual about punishment and reward in his/her life. It is perceived control over life events (Rotter, 1966). David C McClelland (1961) define entrepreneur as individual taking responsibility by himself and not depending upon others. L-O-C is another concept which grabs wide attention of scholarly research. It is a belief that individual's actions lead to outcome. Individuals with external L-O-C have belief that outcome of any action is not in control of their own, but there are some external forces which governs these outcomes. Contrary to this individuals with internal L-O-C are in belief that outcome of any action is due to personal efforts and capabilities (Rotter, 1966). As David C McClelland (1961) already point out that high N-Ach individual like to work in situation, where they have control over the outcome directly or they are able to see their efforts as predictor of outcome of event. Rotter (1966) extends this point and argue that individual with internal L-O-C are more likely to proffered entrepreneurship as in entrepreneurial setup they can see outcome as the consequence of their abilities and efforts.