Top PDF Perspective taking through reading : Does Perspective Taking influence our thinking and behavior?

Perspective taking through reading :
Does Perspective Taking influence our thinking and behavior?

Perspective taking through reading : Does Perspective Taking influence our thinking and behavior?

Het doel van deze studie is te onderzoeken of er een relatie tussen perspectief innemen,                               empathie, pro­sociaal gedrag en anti­sociaal gedrag bestaat. Het perspectief innemen vergroot                       de kans , dat iemand empathie voelt. Empathie voert wederom naar pro­sociaal gedrag. Het                             volgende experiment wil onderzoeken of perspectief innemen door lezen ons denken en                         gedrag beinvloed. Lezen speelt een grote rol bij het perspectief innemen en het voelen van                               empathie. De participanten worden daarvoor in twee groepen opgesplitst. Ene groep is de                           Perspectief conditie en de andere groep is de Informatie conditie. Er was een vragenlijst                             construeert, waar de participanten een tekst moeten lezen. Daarna worden de constructen                         perspectief innemen, empathie, pro­sociaal gedrag en acceptatie van anti­sociaal gedrag                     gemeten. De twee condities verschillen door de instructie, hoe ze de tekst meoten lezen. De                               participanten in de perspectief conditie kregen de instructie te verzoeken de perspectief van de                             inwoners van het eiland Kiribati intenemen. De Informatie conditie groep kreeg de opgave zo                             veel mogelijk informatie te onthouden. Het wordt verondersteld, dat mensen in de Perspectief                           conditie meer perspectief innemen en empathie en pro­sociaal gedrag vertonen, dan de                         mensen in de Informatie conditie. De manipulatie check toont aan, dat de manipulatie niet                             heel succesvol was, maar het is een licht effect op pro­sociaal gedrag te zien. Het is te                                   verklarren door de manipulatie. Hoewel de meeste resultaten niet significant waren, laat het                           onderzoek wel zien, dat perspective innemen door lezen groot invloed heeft op empathie.                           Verder is het een basis voor verder onderzoek. 
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The effect of reading narratives : how does perspective taking influence prosocial behavior?

The effect of reading narratives : how does perspective taking influence prosocial behavior?

can lead to a decrease of stereotypes and to a positive evaluation of that out group (Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000). There exist two types of perspective taking: one is imaging how others would feel while the other is imaging how you would feel in this situation (Batson, Early & Salvarani, 1997). In their study, they stated that imagining how the other would feel produced empathy whereas that imagining how you would feel can also produce personal distress, which has been found to evoke egoistic motivation. These differences between the two types could explain differences in behavior. Research on perspective taking is consistent with the results of Batson, Early and Salvarani. In a study by Jackson,Brunet, Meltzoff and Decety (2005) participants had to rate pictures of painful situation and the level of pain perceived from different perspectives. Participants in the self perspective condition rated the pain higher than participants who imagined the situation from a different perspective. Similar studies to this one had same results, which confirm the hypothesis about the two different types of perspective taking and the emotional consequences (e.g. Lamm, Batson & Decety, 2007).
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The characteristics of perspective taking tendecny on adolescents and its relation to social interest  and self efficacy

The characteristics of perspective taking tendecny on adolescents and its relation to social interest and self efficacy

Likewise, some studies he studies show that not all PT manipulations carry the same effectiveness. Thus, according to Ku, Wang, & Galinsky, what is more, important in the PT process is that individuals have used their energy and time to think about others' perspectives, and take into account the specific circumstances and associated elements. In this respect Ku, Wang, & Galinsky identify determinants related to cognitive and motivational abilities. Determinants relating to motivational factors are individual differences in the context of interpersonal relationships that include prosocial motives, social interests, interpersonal sensitivity, and emotional intelligence. Other interpersonal factors that influence motivation are familiarity, the frequency of interaction with others, and power dynamics between individuals and others. The various PT models presented, as acknowledged by the authors, are still conceptual and require futher research to confirm the notion suggested. This research is intended to meet those needs. However, this study does not intend to examine all the motivational factors mentioned in the model, but only limits itself to two factors that have not gained much attention in previous studies, namely social interest and self- efficacy. Social interest is interesting to be examined under its role as a motivational factor for PT activities not only because it has not been studied but also due to its role in influencing social behavior. The concept of social interest was initially introduced by Adler in the individual psychology he developed. According to Adler (Corey, 2008), humans have a universal social interest, which manifests in the form of concern for others. Adler defines social interest as an attachment to mankind in general as well as empathy for every member of society. Social interest manifests in the form of cooperation with others for social progress rather than personal gain. It can be said that social interest is an individual's interest and concern for the social environment. Individuals with a high social interest tend to interact more with their social environment in a cooperative, sensitive, and responsible way to benefit the social environment.
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The Importance Of Reading   How Perspective Taking Influences
Our (Prosocial) Behaviour

The Importance Of Reading How Perspective Taking Influences Our (Prosocial) Behaviour

A further reason for the decrease in violence could be the improving literacy and education (Pinker, 2011; ourworldindata, 2016a). For the last 200 years, the global literacy rate and enrollment in formal education have increased continuously (ourworldindata, 2016b). Furthermore, the estimates of book production during the last 13 centuries show a steady growth (Buringh & Van Zanden, 2009). More and more people have been able to read books, including fiction. Through reading, the people can experience new ways of thinking by “inhabiting” the minds of the characters, and they are also more able to realize that one can question decisions and society’s norms (Pinker, 2011). Furthermore, reading helps to learn and develop social competences by creating a simulative experience of social interactions (Whalen, 1989; Mar & Oatley, 2008). Additionally, libraries contribute to education by providing books and information (Lor & Britz, 2015). Information stimulate knowledge which leads to a greater understanding, e.g. of other people, and this understanding ultimately results in more tolerance and peace.
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Theory of mind in nonhuman primates

Theory of mind in nonhuman primates

Unlike “more is better,” this is a potentially sound conver- gence argument. However, it does not succeed in breaking the current deadlock between the theory of mind hypoth- esis and nonmentalistic accounts of primate behavior be- cause in tests where apes have fared better than monkeys all other things have not been equal. For example, Gallup and his colleagues (e.g., Gallup 1970; Gallup et al. 1971; Suarez & Gallup 1981) have found that chimpanzees and orang- utans pass, but various species of monkey fail, the mark test of mirror self-recognition. This could be owing not to the presence of a self-concept in apes and a lack of the same in monkeys but to the fact that apes spontaneously touch their faces more often than do monkeys (Dimond & Harries 1984; Gallup et al. 1995; Heyes 1994c; 1995b; 1995c; see sect. 2.2 above). Similarly, using the task in which subjects must choose a container indicated by one of two people, the Knower or the Guesser, Povinelli et al. (1990; 1991) found that chimpanzees did – and rhesus monkeys did not – learn to choose reliably the container indicated by the Knower. But this may not reflect a difference between the two groups in the capacity to model the visual perspectives of others, or to appreciate that seeing leads to knowing. Rather, it may have occurred because in the monkey experiment but not in the chimpanzee experiment the Knower moved around the room after baiting and before the subject had its choice. Thus, it would have been more difficult for the monkeys to remember on any given trial which trainer had been present during the baiting.
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Perspective effects during reading: evidence from text change detection

Perspective effects during reading: evidence from text change detection

appeared to aid the recall of long term memories consistent with stereotypical knowledge of burglars, rather than demonstrating that reading perspective guides attention and encoding of text information. Furthermore, as the authors acknowledge, the information classed as burglar-relevant was generally found to be memorable and relatively immune to their perspective manipulation and so their results may be the result of stereotypical knowledge for these scenarios rather than memory for the text itself. What is required, therefore, is a technique which limits the effects of long-term memories interfering with perspective effects of text encoding whilst also illustrating variable depth of processing due to reading perspective. One such technique that would permit this and that we have adopted here is text change-detection (e.g., Sanford & Sturt, 2002).
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Does branch religiosity influence bank risk taking?

Does branch religiosity influence bank risk taking?

compiled every ten years, and we obtain our data from the 2000 and 2010 decennial surveys. For years in which a survey is not available, we follow previous studies (Adhikari and Agrawal, 2016; Dyreng et al., 2012; Hilary and Hui, 2009; Alesina and La Ferrara, 2000) and linearly interpolate the data to obtain the values for religiosity in the missing years. The linear interpolation increases the power of our tests, but as discussed in the following sections, the results also hold when we do not linearly interpolate the religiosity measure. To proxy for banks’ branch religiosity (Branch Religiosity) we employ a two-step procedure. First, using ARDA data, for each county in which the bank has branches we compute the proportion of countywide population that claims affiliation with an organized religion. Specifically, we compute county religiosity as the number of adherents per 1,000 county habitants. Subsequently, we collapse the county-level religiosity measure into a bank-level religiosity metric, by weighting each county- level measure by the amount of deposits the bank has in the county. As Branch Religiosity is highly skewed, we use its logarithmic transformation in the analysis.
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Knowledge sharing in the introduction of a new technology: psychological contracts, subculture interactions and non codified knowledge in CRM systems

Knowledge sharing in the introduction of a new technology: psychological contracts, subculture interactions and non codified knowledge in CRM systems

This research aims to fill this knowledge gap, by investigating the micro elements including in our study the psychological contracts that lead to 'mutual perspective taking', enabling t[r]

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Socio-Affective versus Socio-Cognitive Mental Trainings Differentially Affect Emotion Regulation Strategies

Socio-Affective versus Socio-Cognitive Mental Trainings Differentially Affect Emotion Regulation Strategies

consequently, be related to existing and future research on emotion regulation. Moreover, the specific subscales distinguish between avoidant strategies (distraction and positive refocusing subscales), acceptance (acceptance subscales), and more cognitively-transforming strategies (positive reappraisal/reinterpretation, perspective, and planning strategies). Based on the proposed mechanisms and effects reported in the existing literature, we did not predict substantial changes after the Presence module. In particular, we expected that cultivating present-moment awareness and focused attention would not be sufficient to foster change in the targeted specific emotion regulation strategies. In contrast, we expected the Perspective module to specifically increase the use of cognitively-transforming strategies. We reasoned that it would do so by providing a detached perspective from which one could appraise a difficult situation and envision alternative viewpoints. Finally, we expected the Affect module to specifically decrease avoidance and increase acceptance as it explicitly trains the ability to directly face difficult emotions though a loving and accepting attitude.
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Taking the other perspective : the influence of a fear and self efficacy on victims’ participation in victim offender mediation

Taking the other perspective : the influence of a fear and self efficacy on victims’ participation in victim offender mediation

complete a task (Omrod, 2006). Moreover, it can influence a number of things, like a person’s motivation and persistence against stress or difficulties, emotional well-being or sensitivity to stress (Bandura & Locke, 2003). Until now, only little research has been done regarding the relationship between self-efficacy and VOM. Gröbe (2013) approached the subject referring to the Theory of Planned Behavior, a model which is used to describe and predict human behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Crime severity and the point of time of the VOM happening were added to the original model. Gröbes study (2013) had two important outcomes. First, being victim of an offence with a high crime severity decreases the perceived self-efficacy (in reference to VOM) in victims, the same self-efficacy that directly increases the willingness to participate in VOM. Second, an increase in self-efficacy also reduces the perceived amount of fear in a victim (Gröbe, 2013). These findings give reason to assume that self-efficacy
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Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Modulates Behavioral and Brain Responses to Social Stress

Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Modulates Behavioral and Brain Responses to Social Stress

emotional consequences (e.g., empathy and distress). These changes in emotional state that are caused by perspective taking can eventually lead to changes in attitudes (e.g., more favorable attitude towards others (Batson et al. 1997b; Vescio et al. 2003)) or even behaviors (e.g., altruistic helping (Coke et al. 1978)). Based on these studies, we suggest that emotions must be considered in order to develop a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between perspective taking and de-escalation. Specifically, we focus on a particular type of emotion, namely anticipated guilt. Anticipated guilt is an important emotion experienced in the workplace that can produce constructive behavior (i.e., behaviors that correct wrongdoings), but its effect has not been examined in the context of de-escalation. In this study, we investigate its mediating effect on the relationship between perspective taking and de-escalation. Additionally, we investigate two understudied factors in the de-escalation literature that may amplify either the effect of perspective taking on anticipated guilt or anticipated guilt on de-escalation. Specifically, we suggest that associating a self-centered motivation with a de-escalation decision (e.g., when delaying a product launch may cost you personally) may strengthen the effect that perspective taking has on anticipated guilt, while having greater customer orientation (e.g., being guided by the beliefs that emphasize the importance of customers) may strengthen the effect that anticipated guilt has on de-escalation of commitment.
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Prerequisites for prevention of aggressive parental behaviour with their children

Prerequisites for prevention of aggressive parental behaviour with their children

Aggressive parental behaviour with their child is a complex issue that combines both psychological and educational and legal and medical aspects. From a legal perspective aggressive parental behaviour is identified as an infringement of child’s rights or a criminal deed, from a psychosocial perspective it is evaluated by taking into account the consequences of the expression of the phenomenon on the child development, from a medical perspective it is evaluated by taking into account injuries incurred by the child, from an educational perspective it is evaluated by taking into account the destructiveness of educative intercourse when functioning of the family broke. One aspect of phenomenon is underlined more often in scientific literature: aggressive parental behaviour with their children as infringements of the rights of the child (Sagatys, 2008; Freeman, 2010), psychological characteristics of the members of intercourse, factors that influence the phenomenon and consequences (Gershoff, 2002; Annerbäck et al., 2012), more rarely educational problem of the phenomenon is emphasized (Simons, Wurtele, 2010), but systematic point of view that covers various aspects of the expression of the phenomenon and prevention is lacking. The complexity of the problem of aggressive parental behaviour with their children requires systematic interdisciplinary point of view when looking for possibilities of preventive solution of the phenomenon.
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Social Comparison Orientation and Perspective Taking as Related to Responses to a Victim

Social Comparison Orientation and Perspective Taking as Related to Responses to a Victim

Nonetheless, the effect of SCO on helping behavior should be viewed as very preliminary for two reasons. First, this effect was only found for signing up to collect money for an organization devoted to helping victims, and not for actually donating money or signing up to do volunteer work. Second, the total number of people who signed up was very low. Our findings nevertheless seem interesting given the ongoing debate whether helping is always motivated by an altruistic tendency or may also be instigated by egocentric motives (Batson, 1991). The present research suggests that what might seem a rather ego-focused characteristic, that is, the dispositional ten- dency to compare oneself with others, may result in actual altruistic behavior. Our finding fits with the notion that although motivations for helping might appear altruistic, those motivations may be ultimately egoistic in nature, as they are mainly directed at close others (Maner et al., 2002; Cialdini et al., 1997). That is, if indeed individuals high in SCO define “close others” more broadly than others do, their helping behavior with regard to unfamiliar people makes perfect sense: these unfamiliar people are not really unfamiliar and are probably not too different from those in the category “close others”. While we did not intend with the current research to tap into the debate over the existence of “true” altruism, we have found some preliminary evidence that individuals high in SCO have, more than individuals low in SCO, a “natural” inclination to feel psychologically close to victims they do not know personally and even to provide some type of help to such others.
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An Edit centric Approach for Wikipedia Article Quality Assessment

An Edit centric Approach for Wikipedia Article Quality Assessment

As seen on Table 1, when compared against the regular encoder, utilizing our edit-sentence ap- proach with token-level labels leads to a higher F1-Score and accuracy, showing the effectiveness of our proposed edit encoder. These results also shed some light on the trade-off between tasks for different values of λ. We see that although a higher value tends to give better classification performance both in terms of F1-Score and ac- curacy, it is also possible to see that there is a sweet-spot that allows the classification to bene- fit from learning an edit-message mapping, sup-

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Teenagers' motorcycle gang community aggression from the Personal Fable and risk-taking behavior perspective

Teenagers' motorcycle gang community aggression from the Personal Fable and risk-taking behavior perspective

Some of the research limitations, such as data collection tools in the form of questionnaires, are predicted to be less able to reveal the contents of a concept or variable measured in depth. This research could not explain in detail about the internal motivation of teenagers to join a community of motorcycle gangs who are at risk of negative behavior. In addition, there is a tendency to choose an alternative answer with a positive assessment, as expected by the community, so that the data do not match the self-image and self-experience with the actual condition. The limited number of samples is due to the difficulty of finding participants that fit the characteristics because not all members of the community motorcycle gangs are willing to be research participants.
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The effect of outgroup status and perspective-taking on empathy and outgroup helping

The effect of outgroup status and perspective-taking on empathy and outgroup helping

In the next part of the questionnaire, participants were asked to answer some items to measure empathy invented by Batson et al. (1997). In this scale, participants were provided with a series of 6 emotion labels (sympathy, soft-heartedness, warmth, compassion, tenderness, and moving; α = .83; M = 3.428; SD = .634) and were asked to indicate to what extent they experience each emotion after reading the text or transcript about the flood tragedy in Vietnam. Participants then were asked to answer some items adapted from the study by Levine and Thompson (2004). These items was to measure outgroup helping [10 items, e.g., “I support the plan of Indonesian government to provide financial support for Vietnamese government to recover its people misery from the flood; “I support the plan of Indonesian government to give financial aid to Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Vietnam that aim to assist the Vietnamese people to recover from the flood”; α = .84; M = 3.728; SD = .588]. On the last part of the questionnaire, participants were asked to indicate their age and gender. Upon finishing, participants were thanked and debriefed.
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Taking Digital Media to School: A Sociosemiotic Perspective on Educational Portals

Taking Digital Media to School: A Sociosemiotic Perspective on Educational Portals

Throughout this paper, we tried to describe the discursive function of Educ.ar educational portal in order to shed some light on its rhetorical, thematic and enunciative strategies. Additionally, there were two reasons for our in- terest in carrying out this study: on the one hand, we wanted to identify the discursive procedures through which the structure of that digital platform was “organised”; on the other hand, we aimed to make some suggestions for optimising uses of educational portals and, therefore, contributing to its improvement. At this point we should ask whether this digital device has been being used in significant ways, that is, if we have been taking full ad- vantage of its hypertext, multimedia, and interactive features. Based on these questions, we will now outline the limitations of Educ.ar portal in order to draw out some potential solutions to mitigate them.
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Perspective taking across cultures:shared biases in Taiwanese and British adults

Perspective taking across cultures:shared biases in Taiwanese and British adults

The level-1 visual perspective-taking task [2] and the modified director task [4] employed in the current study both pointed towards remarkable similarities between the Taiwanese group and the British group. Both cultural groups were influenced by their own perspective when making simple level-1 visual perspective judgements and when using others’ perspective in referential communications. Both cultural groups also showed spontaneous calculation of others’ perspectives in both contexts. Interestingly, there was no significant correlation between the degrees of egocentric interference or altercentric interference on the two tasks. This finding supports the notion that perspective-calculation and the use of the calculated information are distinct processes [32]. Although effects of egocentric and altercentric interference were observed on both tasks, they probably reflect the respective demands and features occurring at an early calculation stage versus a later use stage of perspective- taking. The finding also suggests that egocentric and altercentric tendencies, although consistently observed across different contexts, are unlikely to operate in a trait-like fashion. Instead, they are likely to incur due to situational processing demands, such as having to make use of both one’s own and others’ perspectives within a task. Therefore, given appropriate contexts, individuals from interdependent cultures could be egocentric, and for those from independent cultures could be altercentric, as demonstrated in the current study.
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About taking the perspective of an offender : how self reflection and group membership influence people's perspective taking of an offender

About taking the perspective of an offender : how self reflection and group membership influence people's perspective taking of an offender

There are two different groups of which one can take the perspective of the offender and one which cannot take his perspective and hence, evaluates the crime very differently. The group to which one belongs plays an important role when evaluating other people’s actions and taking their perspective. This is for example explained by the Social identity theory where it is focused on the relationship between groups and individual members (Trepte, 2006). But there are other factors, too, which have to be considered. It has been shown that people who have to think about own “good” actions and then read about an offence, tend to take the perspective of an in-group member but not of an out-group member. The reverse is the case when they have to think about own “bad” actions. In this case, they take the perspective of an out-group member and not of an in-group member. Hence, they value the offence or the offender differently and this depends on the kind of self-relevant actions which they have to think about before (Zwicker, 2014).
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Perspective taking in a criminal context : the effect of self reflection & group membership of the offender on perspective taking

Perspective taking in a criminal context : the effect of self reflection & group membership of the offender on perspective taking

In this study the effects of self-reflection and the offender´s group membership on participant´s willingness to take the perspective of the offender were investigated. Furthermore, it was examined to what extent participants´ motivation to control prejudiced reactions towards an out-group member influenced their willingness to take the offender´s perspective. It was expected that the degree of perspective taking would be higher for the out-group offender than for the in-group offender when reflecting on own criminal deeds. In contrast, the degree of perspective taking should be higher for the in-group offender when reflecting on own good deeds. The current study uses a 2 (self-reflection: ‘criminal deeds’ vs. ‘good deeds’) x 2 (‘in-group’ vs. ‘out-group’) between-subjects design. This study is a replication of Brouwer´s study (2014) with an additional implicit measure to enable a comparison in explicitly (survey) and implicitly measured willingness (essay) to take the perspective of an offender. Little support was found for the hypotheses, mainly because of the unexpected effect of the order in which participants of filling in the survey first and then the essay or vice versa. Hence, implications for further research are provided in the limitation and implication section of the study.
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