RaphanussativusL., a small-sized red radish, is an important root vegetable crop found worldwide and is commonly used in salads. The objective of this study was to measure the totalphenolic and flavonoid content as well as to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of RaphanussativusL. cv. Cherry Belle and RaphanussativusL. cv. Valentine. The totalphenolic content and the flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The totalphenolic content in the ethanol extracts of R. sativusL. cv. Cherry Belle was more (160.38 ± 5.0 mg GA/g) than that in R. sativusL. cv. Valentine (124.46 ± 6.13 mg GA/g), while the concentration of total flavonoids in R. sativusL. cv. Valentine was higher than that in R. sativusL. cv. Cherry Belle (42.93 ± 1.58 mg rutin/g and 16.26 ± 1.84 mg rutin/g, respectively). We also evaluated the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts of the twocultivars using the (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) (DPPH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays; R. sativusL. cv. (Valentine) showed 18.71 ± 0.58% DPPH activity at 800 µg/mL of ethanol extract, and Cherry Belle showed a lower, but significant activity of 15.43 ± 1.25%. No SOD activity was found in either of the cultivars. Our findings indicate that the antioxidantactivities of the phenolic and flavonoidcontents in the ethanol extracts of the twocultivars depend on the concentration of these compounds in the extracts. Moreover, the flavonoids showed higher antioxidant activity than the phenols, suggesting that the Valentine radish cultivar showed higher antioxidant activity than Cherry Belle owing to its high content of flavonoids.
Background: Decoction prepared from leaves of Atalantia ceylanica is used in traditional medicine in Sri Lanka for the treatment of various liver ailments since ancient times. Lyophilized powder of the water extract of A. ceylanica leaves was investigated for its phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity in-vitro. Methods: The totalphenolic and flavonoidcontents were determined using Folin Ciocalteu method and aluminium chloride colorimetric assay respectively. The antioxidantactivities of the decoction were investigated using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide scavenging assays and ferric ion reducing power assay. Hepatotoxicity was induced on porcine liver slices with ethanol to study hepatoprotective activity. Porcine liver slices were incubated at 37°C with different concentrations of the water extract of A. ceylanica in the presence of ethanol for 2 hours. The hepatoprotective effects were quantified by the leakage of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the medium. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was performed to examine the anti-lipid peroxidation activity caused by the plant extract. Results: The mean ± SD (n =9) for the levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were 4.87 ± 0.89 w/w% of gallic acid equivalents and 16.48 ± 0.63 w/w% of ( − )-Epigallocatechin gallate equivalents respectively. The decoction demonstrated high antioxidant activity. The mean ± SD values of EC 50 were 131.2 ± 36.1, 48.4 ± 12.1, 263.5 ± 28.3 and 87.70 ± 6.06 μ g/ml
Many researchers have studied the antioxidant activity of E. odoratum. Afolabi et al. reportec the antioxidant activity of E. odoratum in methanolic extract using DPPH scavenging activity . Alisi and Onyeze showed nitric oxide scavenging ability of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic leaf extracts of E. odoratum . Rao et al. investigated the totalphenolic content and antioxidantactivities of chloroform extracts of Indian E. odoratum leaves through DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, ABTS radical scavenging . Thang et al. studied the antioxidant effects of the extracts from the leaves of E. odoratum on human dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes against hydrogen peroxide and hypoxanthine–xanthine oxidase induced damage .
Lipid oxidation is stabilized with polyphenolic compounds having antioxidant activity . Polyphenolic compounds are also indispensable due to having inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis and mutagenesis in humans. According to Tanaka et al. 1.0 g daily is suggested to ingest from foods . Therefore, the amount of phenolics in the studied extracts was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu method. The concentration of phenolics in the extract was expressed as micrograms of gallic acid equivalents per milligrams of the extract. Table 1 shows Gallic acid equivalents of total phenolics of B. muricata extracts. Content of phenolic compounds in the extracts varied from 18.22 ± 4.44 µg GAE mg -1 in ethyl acetate extract 199.80 ± 0.55 µg GAE mg -1 in butanol extract. As displayed in Table 1, the totalphenolic content (TPC) of the extracts can be ranked as: Butanol extract > Ethanol extract > Ethyl acetate extract. A similar level of diversity in phenoliccontents was seen by Bouaziz et all  who examined hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of B. muricata collected from Douz region of Tunisia.
ABSTRACT: The present investigation revealed the phytochemical constituent, antioxidant potential and correlation between antioxidantactivities with total phenol and flavonoidcontents of fruit extracts of Pyrus pyrifolia and Prunus domestica from local Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The totalphenolic content was estimated by using Folin- Ciocalteu reagent method, whereas, flavonoid content was quantified using aluminium chloride method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using DPPH, FRAP and Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay. The totalphenolic content was found to be 159.86±2.91 and 145.56±2.43 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents. Similarly, flavonoid content was 48.69±1.90 and 284.27±2.16 µg/ml rutin equivalents for P. pyrifolia and P. domestica, respectively. The antioxidant activity values of DPPH scavenging for fruit extract were found to be (IC 50 -17.37 and 9.47 µl/ml), FRAP activity values were (IC 50 - 15.51
The present study reports the spatial trends and intra specific variations in totalphenolic and flavonoidcontents in menthol extracts from different parts of W. somnifera and their antioxidantactivities commonly found in the mid hill region of Himachal Pradesh. The results further showed that totalphenolic and flavonoidcontents and antioxidant properties of W. somnifera varied significantly (p≤0.05) with their location and growing habitat which may be ascribed to variations in microclimatic and soil conditions. The relationship between soil properties and totalphenolic and flavonoidcontents in methanol extracts of W. somnifera was further studied and results showed that soil properties have significant influence on totalphenolic and flavonoidcontents in different parts of W. somnifera . More investigations are still required to strengthen the present findings and to develop a
Phenolic compounds of plants fall into several categor- ies; chief among these are the flavonoids which have po- tent antioxidantactivities . Flavonoids are naturally occurring in plants and are thought to have positive effects on human health. Studies on flavonoidic deriva- tives have shown a wide range of antibacterial, antiviral, anti inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-allergic activities [48,49]. Flavonoids have been shown to be highly effect- ive scavengers of most oxidizing molecules, including singlet oxygen, and various free radicals  implicated in several diseases. So comparable with the findings in the literature for other extracts of plant products  our results suggested that phenolic acids and flavonoids may be the major contributors for the antioxidant activ- ity as the EC 50 values of radical scavenging activity of
Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L.) is considered one of the commonly used edible and medicinal plant. This work was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidantactivities of Rhubarb roots extract. Total tannin, totalphenolic and totalflavonoidcontents of ethanolic and water extracts as well as phenolic and flavonoid compounds were also determined in Rhubarb roots. The highest content of total tannin, phenolic and flavonoid were found in ethanolic extract. The major phenolic acids were benzoic and ferulic acids followed by vanillic acid, while the major flavonoid was narengine. The results indicated that the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found in ethanolic extract and highly correlated with phenolic content. The results of the current work indicated that ethanolic extract has the potential to be used as a natural anti- inflammatory and antioxidant.
Background and Purpose: Hypericum perforatum belonging to the family Hypericaceae is a reputed medicinal plant including a wide ranges of important phytochemical components. Chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, quercetin, pseudohypericin, hypericin and hyperforin are of the major components. Crude extract and individual compounds of H. perforatum have been reported to exert antidepressant, antibiotic, and antitumoral activities. It is worthy to note that the quantity and efficacies of the crude extracts or individual compound are not constant, which are strongly influenced by different climatic conditions, harvesting times, harvested plant organs and post-harvest practices. Hence, numerous studies on H. perforatum collected from different parts of the World are carried out for their desired quality and biological efficacy. Methods: Wild collected plant materials were dried and preserved with a voucher specimen number and were extracted using maceration at room temperature for 24 h in dark. Subsequently, extracts were screened for their phenolic and flavonoidcontents, plausible antioxidantactivities using two methods namely DPPH radical scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and DNA protective activities. Results: The highlights of the study were are listed as 1) the highest totalphenolic content in ethanol extracts of leaf, ii) the highest totalflavonoid content in flower, iii) DPPH scavenging activity in leaf (80.51 %), flower (63.42 %) and stem (48.20 %), iv) highest ferric reduction capacity in ethanol extracts of stem were determined. Also, potent DNA protection activity was observed even at the lowest concentration value (25µg/ml) of the extracts. Conclusion: The phenolic content and strong antioxidantactivities of ethanol extracts of different parts of the plant are reported. All the extracts exhibited strong DNA protective activities in response to the UV radiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.
Marine algae are well-known to contain a wide diversity of bioactive compounds, many of which have profitable applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries.Accepted antioxidants, existing in several group of algae, which are important bioactive compounds that play a vital role counter to various diseases and including anti-ageing processes and protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this high opinion, reasonably little is known about the bioactivity of Indian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The ethyl acetate extract of Enteromorpha intestinalis was evaluated for totalphenolic, flavonoidcontents, antibacterial and antioxidant (ABTS assay, lipid peroxidation, superoxide radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power) activities. The results indicated that ethyl acetate extract of E. intestinalis was effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram positive viz; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, gram negative viz; Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and compared to antibiotic streptomycin. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be rich in totalphenolic content, and high antioxidant activity as compared to Ascorbic acid. The presence of functional groups of active compounds was confirmed by Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GSMS) analysis of ethyl acetate extract. It was concluded that all tested ethyl acetate extract of E. intestinalis had antibacterial and antioxidantactivities. These properties might be due to the presence of high totalphenolic content or flavonoids. Hence the ethyl acetate extract of thallus of E. intestinalis represent a potential source of antibacterial and antioxidant compounds that may be used in food or pharmaceutical products.
Abstract Tea is commonly served in Malaysian dining culture. Most of commercialized tea is made of Camellia sinensis that produces sweet aromatic smell. However, there are plenty of herb species in Malaysia that remain unknown to be used as tea while possess therapeutic effects. Acalypha indica is one of the herb species with sweet aromatic smell that has been traditionally consumed as healthy drink. In this study, the antioxidantactivities of all plant parts of Acalypha indica was determined in terms of totalphenolic, tannin and flavonoidcontents, 1,1-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and total cyanogenic glycoside content by comparing the measurements with two commercialized tea made of Camellia sinensis (P1 and P2). The phenolic content, tannin content and the FRAP values of Acalypha indica was lower than the P1 and P2. While, higher flavonoid content (24.33±2.96 mgQE/g) and DPPH value (0.089±0.003 mg/mL, IC 50 ) were recorded on
Launea taraxacifolia and Crassocephalum rubens are among many wild, underutilized and under cultivated vegetables in Nigeria that are at risk of extinction. Totalflavonoidcontents (TFC), totalphenoliccontents (TPC), and antioxidantactivities of different concentrations (1-5 mg ml −1 ) were evaluated; using in vitro assays to assess the scavenging properties of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPHRSP), nitric oxide (NORSP) and hydroxyl (OHRSP). Phenolic profiles of the alcoholic extracts were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. The results revealed higher TFC (mg/100g RE) in aqueous (6.06±0.02-78.79±0.01) than alcohol extracts (with methanol 0.93 ± 0.01—12.73 ± 0.04, and with ethanol -0.85 ± 0.01–7.70 ± 0.03). In a similar trend, OHRSP (%) was higher in aqueous extracts (40.83±0.10–91.74±0.19) than alcoholic extracts (with methanol - 11.67 ± 0.3–30.83 ± 0.06; and with ethanol -14.42 ± 0.06-40.27 ± 0.05). TPC (mg/100g GAE) which was higher in alcoholic extracts (with methanol -21.48 ± 0.01–133.20 ± 0.16 and with ethanol -9.45 ± 0.01– 59.73±0.02) than aqueous extracts (14.83±0.01–52.64±0.03) was in agreement with the trend observed for NORSP (28.24 ± 0.05-151.76 ± 0.08 for methanolic extracts, 21.99 ± 0.13–49.93 ± 0.04 for ethanolic extracts and 38.47±0.11–86.15±0.05 for aqueous extracts). DPPHRSP was also higher in alcoholic extracts (methanolic -22.81 ± 0.01-48.41 ± 0.05 and ethanolic–14.53 ± 0.01-62.68 ± 0.07) than aqueous ex- tracts (13.66±0.13–42.86±0.03). TFC, TPC and antioxidantactivities showed concentration dependent increase and strong positive correlation with TFC (r= 0.926 – 0.997and r= 0.432 – 1.000) and TPC (r= 0.825 – 0.999 and r= 0.473 - 0.994) for L. taraxacifolia and C. rubens respectively. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified as major phenolic components in the extracts. The vegetables have high antioxidant potential for promoting good health; which could be attributed to the identified phytochemicals in them.
Reacting active species induced oxidative damage of cellular tissue cause to many human diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, nephropathy and aging. Naturally occurring antioxidant supplements from plants are vital to counter the oxidative damage in cells. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the in-vivo antioxidant potential methanolic extraction of Ficus benghalensis L latex. The extract was used study their phytochemical composition, totalPhenolic content , flavonoidcontents, and in vitro antioxidantactivities including 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric chloride scavenging, and phosphor-molybdenum scavenging activity. Finally percentage of inhibition of free radical and IC 50 were calculated the by the help Statistical
Recently, in vitro studies have been undertaken for scientific and precise determination of its medicinal value, active principles and antioxidant properties. However, the information regarding effect of variable factors such as geographical location, plant part, solvents used and method of extraction on phytochemical content and related antioxidant activity in H. isora is very limited. Therefore, in the present study, the different plant parts of H. isora were analyzed for their phytoconstituents and antioxidant potential using different in vitro models including RP-HPLC profiling of phenols. The results thus obtained were further compared using correlation analysis. The plant parts were used in fresh as well as dry state, in different solvents to find out which plant part contains maximum antioxidant potential and the solvent for it. The phenolic content of extracts and its relationship with antioxidantactivities were also investigated, so as to find the effect of the variable factors on the presence and amount of phytochemicals if any.
and activities. In the present study, three extraction methods, namely maceration (M), percolation (P) and Sohxlet (S) along with three drug/solvent ratios (1:8, 1:10 and 1:12) have been used to see their efficacy on extraction of chemical constituents and antioxidantactivities in P. edulis. Among the different extraction and solvent methods, M in 1:8 drug/solvent ratio provided the best results as compared to P or S (in all the drug/solvent ratios) (Table 1). The results of the P. edulis extracts obtained by analysis of totalphenolic (TPC), and totalflavonoidcontents (TFC) as well as antioxidant capacity as estimated by the radical-scavenging activities in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and by the ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) using the ferric-tripyridyltriazine (Fe 3+ -TPTZ) complex are presented in Table 1.
In this direction, natural antioxidants received a promin- ence as they are often free from side effects, less expensive and abundant in many plant sources . Large number of medicinal plants has been investigated for their antioxidant properties. Natural antioxidants either in the form of raw extracts or their chemical constituents are very effective to prevent the destructive processes caused by oxidative stress [3,4]. More recently, it has become evident that phenolic natural products may reduce oxidative stress by indirect antioxidant action [5-7]. Human body has an inherent anti- oxidative mechanism and many of the biological functions such as the antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and antiaging responses originate from this property [8,9]. Antioxidants stabilize or deactivate free radicals, often before they attack targets in biological cells . Over 50% of the drugs in clinical trials for anticancer activity were isolated from nat- ural sources or related to them  also been reported with antioxidant property. Luteolin, kaempferol, quercitrin, rutin, myricetin, and vitamin C are powerful antioxidants that inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a major factor in the promotion of atherosclerosis that can lead to heart attack or stroke. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and lignans are the most abundantly occurring polyphenols in plants that reduce the risk of cancer, act against allergies, ulcers, tumors, platelet aggregation and are also effective in controlling hypertension [12-14]. Li- monoids, the second major subclass of terpenoids, are the biologically active phytochemicals present in citrus which act as antioxidant and protect lung tissues from free oxy- gen radicals. In vitro studies show that antioxidant nomilin and limonoid glycosides have significant ability to inhibit proliferation of human breast cancer [15,16]. Hence, in- vestigations in naturally occurring antioxidants has con- siderably increased and natural products have regained prominence in the recent past with increasing understand- ing of their biological significance such as antioxidant, rad- ical scavenging activities and increasing recognition of the origin and function of their structural diversity [17-20]. It then becomes necessary to search new source for noble an- tioxidants, especially those that would be safe and cheap and thus easily affordable by all population. The present study was designed to investigate the totalphenolic con- tents (TPC) and totalflavonoidcontents (TFC) to evaluate the antioxidantactivities of the various fractions of ethanol extract of leaves and stem bark of Crescentia cujete.
Abstract Antioxidants and secondary metabolites have attracted a great deal of attention for their effect in preventing disease due to oxidative stress. In this study, twocultivars of Basella alba were evaluated for the ascorbic acid, totalphenolic, flavonoid and totalantioxidantactivities by standard methods. Ascorbic acid of green cultivar was 19.38 mg/100g and red cultivar was 25.85 mg/100g fresh weight, highly significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in ascorbic acid. Totalphenoliccontents were 61.00 and 90.52 mg/g fresh weight for the green and red cultivar respectively, flavonoid content of the green cultivar was 13.37 mg/g while red cultivar was 17.7mg/g significant difference was observed in the ferric reducing power of the twocultivars. DPPH of green cultivar was 78.85% while for red cultivar was 79.81%, no significant difference was observed between the cultivars. Totalantioxidant activity for green cultivar was 60.86 mg/g while for red cultivar was 70.38 mg/g fresh weight, no significant difference was observed in the totalantioxidant activity. Both cultivars were excellent sources of ascorbic acid, totalphenolic compound, flavonoid and totalantioxidant properties although red cultivar had higher values.
Zinc (Zn (II) HEDTA) was used to determine their effect on salt-induced damages in maize plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and the levels of enhanced totalphenolic (TPC), totalflavonoid (TFC) contents and their antioxidant activity in leaves of two maize cultivars Single cross 10 (SC10) and Single cross 162 (SC162) grown in two levels of salinity 0.00 and 100 mmol in response to 20 µmol Zn (II) HEDTA foliar spray treatments. Significant differ- ences (P ≤ 0.05) in amounts of TPC ranged from (2.55 to 4.62 mg/gdw as Gallic) in Single cross 10 (SC10) and from (2.53 to 4.38 mg/gdw as Gallic) in Single cross 162 (SC162), TFC (ranged 1.53 to 2.41 mg/gdw as qurestien) in Single cross 10 (SC10) and from (1.28 to 2.41 mg/gdw as qurestien) in Single cross 162 (SC162) among all treated plants were observed. The levels of their compounds increase related to foliar spraying of Zn (II) HEDTA. A significant positive correlation between TPC, TFC and DPPH scavenging activity and iron chelating activity was observed which shows that phenolic compounds were involved in the mechanism of salt tolerance of the twocultivars by showing enhanced antioxidant activity which resulted in reduced membrane damage and hence improved growth. According to the results obtained, the adverse effects of salt stress on maize plants can partly be alleviated with application of Zn (II)-HEDTA chelates. It is concluded that the application of Zn (II) HEDTA to maize plants grown in salt conditions leads to the increase of anti- oxidant compounds and maize tolerance.
GC-MS analysis of each essential oil of leaves and flowers of L. camara was carried out and the results are represented in the Table (4). The identification of the components of each essential oil was performed by their retention time (RT), molecular formula (MF), molecular weight (MW), concentration (%) and mass fragmentation pattern. These compounds are listed according to their retention times. The present data showed that the identified compounds in the essential oil of the leaves are 47 compounds whereas in flowers are 40 compounds. The percent of total identified compounds in leaves and flowers of L. camara are 98.37 % and 90.35%, respectively. The identified compounds in both leaves and flowers can be classified into major nature groups such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and fatty acids. The major compounds detected in essential oil of leaves L. camara were 7(11)-selinen-4α- ol (14.5%), cedrenol (6.5%), 4a,7-methano-4a H-naphth [1,8a-b]oxirene, octahydro-4,4,8,8- tetramethyl (6.5%), linoleic acid (6.3%), δ-cadinene (5.8%), spathulenol (5%) and guaiol (5%). On another hand, the total identified compounds in the essential oil of plant flowers were cedrenol (10.71%), farnesyl acetone (7.15%), germacron (5.21%), clovane (5.08%) and methoxyeugenol (5.06 %) fig(1). The results of GC-MS analysis revealed that the chemical constituents of the essential oil of the leaves of L. camara are almost matched with the chemical constituents of the essential oil of the flowers but they significantly differed with the percentage of their chemical composition. These results are in agreement with previous studies reported by. [45, 46, 47]
The domesticated saffron crocus (Crocus sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. Its major growing region is East and South East of Iran and our country is one of the few countries producing saffron. It is often mistaken for the more plentiful common autumn crocus, which is also known as meadow saffron or naked ladies (Colchicum autumnale) and has been the cause of deaths due to mistaken identity. Saffron, this most expensive spice, is the stigma of Crocus sativus flower, or saffron crocus (family Iridaceae) (10, 11). Each of the large blooms of the saffron crocus offers three stigmas inside the flower that must be picked by hand and then dried. The flower itself is discarded after isolation of its valuable stigma.