The findings of this study have also highlighted challenges for the future of PE and sport in primary schools. To sustain the impact of the premium, schools have used it to invest in training for existing staff. However, a question remains over how to maintain this investment in CPD for new teachers entering the profession, once premium funding ends. Schools also raised issues related to sourcing good quality provision in their local area, and may need further support to robustly assess the quality of the provision available. The survey also found that monitoring and evaluation of the premium was not consistent and schools may require further advice and guidance to support them to first assess impacts and then put in place strategies for continuing quality improvement. 28
Changing boys’ attitudes to girls in PE and sport; and,
Increasing girls’ confidence in PE and sport.
Change4Life School Sport Clubs programmes aim to encourage inactive and at risk pupils to participate in sporting activities in school, either immediately after school and/or at lunchtime. SportPhysicalEducation and Activity Research (SPEAR, 2011) conducted an evaluation of the programme, and concluded that the average Change4Life School Sport Club ran for two or three terms, was supported by one or two new coaches, had 22 members of whom six were previously ‘non-sporty’ and three were young leaders, and they generated 1.3 new relationships with community clubs. However, half of the clubs were not targeted at any particular groups within schools, with less than a half targeted at
This study is of great importance since it creates awareness about the topic in the lecturers at each level and shows negative effects of the lecturers’ mobbing actions via humour on teaching and training quality as well as their academic careers. In this context, it is necessary to determine the humorous behaviors that can contribute to the elimination or control of psychological violence, even if the expected result is not fully achieved. Moreover, when the acute and long-term effects of psychological violence are taken into consideration, the research that has been done in this sense is the foreground. Hereby, this research aimed to investigate whether the lecturers working at schools of physicaleducation and sport were exposed to mobbing via humour.
Between 2003/04 and 2007/08 TNS-BMRB (formerly TNS), conducted five annual
surveys of schools to measure progress towards increasing participation in PE and sport by 5–16 year olds. In 2008/09 and 2009/10, TNS-BMRB was commissioned to conduct two further surveys of schools which measured take-up of PE and sport by young people in schools and colleges. At this point the survey was also extended to cover Years 12 and 13, and collected data by gender for the first time. The 2009/10 survey was the final PE and Sport survey, and it collected information from all partnership schools in the maintained sector in England (a total of 21,486 schools) and from all FE colleges (a total of 357).
Noting the benefits of sport and physical activity in improving children’s physical and mental wellbeing, and helping them develop teamwork and leadership skills, the Plan sets out a joint commitment from the DfE, the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport, and the Department for Health and Social Care to collaborate at a national level to ensure that sport and physical activity are an integral part of both the school day and after-school activities, so that all children have the opportunity to take part in at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day. 87 It adds that at least 30 minutes should take place in schools, and the remaining 30 minutes outside the school day, as set out in the Childhood Obesity Action Plan. The Plan acknowledges the ambition of this goal given that 32.9% of children and young people currently do less than an average of 30 minutes of activity per day. 88
Today, the way of looking to physicaleducation in developed countries is having a healthy society with the good harmony of education. Constantly changing and developing events and technology have begun to have an impact on individuals. The function of education here is to provide qualified manpower in the society against this effect. As it is known, qualified manpower requires being physically, mentally and spiritually healthy. This can be done by multi-faceted motion and physical training, which forms basis and principles of physicaleducation. With this regard, physicaleducation takes its own place in the integrity of education (M. Yalçıner, 1992, 65). To complete the education in the contemporary sense can only be done by providing physicaleducation besides student's mental training. In this respect, physicaleducation is a part of general education. Mental and physical training has a parallel correlation in terms of their purposes. One fulfills the other (K. Tamer, 1987, 2). Education is the art of raising a human being and physicaleducation has enormous contribution to public education in the manner of raising human being, so physicaleducation and sports is an inseparable whole with general education (O. Özmen, 1999, 27).
curriculum games and sport teaching. Research would suggest that, internationally, this is not unusual for physicaleducation (MacPhail et al., 2008).
From their PTP placement experiences the PETE-PS teachers perceived physicaleducation teachers as habituated curriculum and pedagogical actors. In contrast to the normative technical model of sport teaching experienced, observed and encouraged during PTP, sports literacy informed sport teaching required practice that moved the PETE-PS teachers beyond generic notions of sport teaching. As a prospective model to inform quality sport curriculum design and enactment it required an emphasis on learners, learning and subject content that matters (Darling-Hammond, 2006). The results of this research indicated that at most schools the teachers considered that the emphasis of the schools PE curriculum was on encouraging engagement and getting students active. It was not indicated, or communicated to the PETE-PS teachers, that deep learning grounded on substantial concepts was an expectation of the student curriculum experience.
The PhysicalEducation and School Sport (PESS) initiative
77 The PhysicalEducation and School Sport (PESS) initiative has had a significant impact on improving the quality of teaching and raising standards, particularly in stimulating creative and adventurous activities in many primary schools. However, there has been less impact on standards in key stage 3, other than on improving learning resources in some aspects such as creative, adventurous, and health, fitness and wellbeing activities. In a minority of schools, the PESS initiative has led to clear improvements in pupils’ standards in creative activities. Pupils in these schools show well-co-ordinated, controlled and precise movements, use subject vocabulary consistently and have a secure grasp of key terminology. Pupils in these schools are more knowledgeable about body systems and the short-term and
Obesity Prevention—North Carolina drafted SB 977, “Obesity Prevention in the Public Schools.” This legisla- tion requires that each school adopt a comprehensive and coordinated approach to obesity prevention in grades K-12, including the following components: health and nutrition education; disease prevention for higher level students; physicaleducation; and a requirement that each student engage in at least 30 minutes of mod- erate to vigorous daily physical activity with exceptions for medical reasons. Among the specific mandates, this obesity prevention program must include a “television viewing component” designed to reduce the amount of time children spend watching television, playing video games, or playing on a computer.
4 Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan
Schools are an excellent setting for health promotion in children and adoles- cents. In particular the school subject physicaleducation (PE) offers high po- tential in this regard. The following paper applies the salutogenic model of Aaron Antonovsky to PE in schools. This approach focuses on strengthening the sense of coherence with its central factors: comprehensibility, managea- bility and meaningfulness. A high sense of coherence mobilizes generalized resistance resources, results in positive coping strategies and contributes to well-being and health. The presented modified and adapted salutogenic mod- el of health for PE may serve as one element of a schools’ general concept for health promotion.
The ‘reality check’ indicates that positive developments and policy rhetoric are juxtaposed with adverse practice shortcomings. Thus, the overall scenario is one of ‘mixed messages’ with evidence that national and/or regional governments have committed themselves through legislation to making provision for PE but some have been either slow or reticent in translating this into action through actual implementation and as- surance of quality of delivery. Essentially, the situation especially in economically under-developed and de- veloping regions has changed little since the 1999 Berlin PhysicalEducation Summit. Continuing concerns embrace: insufficient curriculum time allocation, perceived inferior subject status, insufficient competent qualified and/or inadequately trained teachers (particularly in primary schools), inadequate provision of fa- cilities and equipment and teaching materials frequently associated with under-funding, large class sizes and funding cuts and, in some countries, inadequate provision or awareness of pathway links to wider commu- nity programmes and facilities outside of schools. More generally, there is disquiet over the falling fitness standards of young people, rising levels of obesity amongst children of school age and high youth dropout rates from physical/sporting activity engagement. Whilst some improvements in inclusion (related to gender and disability) policy and practice can be identified since the Berlin PhysicalEducation Summit, barriers to equal provision and access opportunities for all still remain. However, current intergovernmental initiatives (European Parliament’s 2007 Resolution on the Role of Sport in Education and UNESCO advocacy action) place PE on the political agenda. With such inter-governmental commitments to policy principles and ac- tion advocacy, a secure and sustainable future for PE appears to be realizable.
= 12,65; SD = 0,98) who studied at two public secondary schools. In order to gather information, Short Test Krece Plus and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale questionnaires were administered. Results showed greater levels of amusement than boredom in PhysicalEducation lessons and similar amusement levels between boys and girls while the students perceive that lessons are more boring as they are enrolled in superior grades. On the other hand, data showed that students spend more than three hours each week practicing physical or sporting exercises and more than one hour daily in sedentary activities as well as more prevalence of physical inactivity in girls with regard to boys. Finally, less boredom in PhysicalEducation lessons was associated with more weekly physical or sporting exercises.
According to literature, it is possible to identify a dual attitude towards technology: on the one hand, technology is considered an indispensable educational tool for individual; on the other hand, it could lead to the development of different forms of addictions, and it overlaps with the other already-known forms of behavioural addictions (Young, 1999). Therefore, the need arises to construct a complex epistemology of digital culture, which responds to the modern dynamics emerging from the virtual, that sometimes degenerates towards an unprecedented phenomenology of intolerance. For this reason it is necessary also to be able to master the mechanisms to preserve one's health considering the peculiarities of the growth phase that affects the adolescent. Physicaleducation in schools has a practical approach, in which the most important goal is the improvement of students' physical properties only. Teaching focused on the direct impact on students with respect to their ability to interact with the environment without any damage to health.
Kľúčové slová: postoje, telesná a športová výchova, základná škola.
Keywords: attitudes, physical and sporteducation, primary school.
Telesná a športová výchova je svojim zameraním špecifický vyučovací predmet, pretože sa orientuje nielen na telesné, funkčné, pohybové, ale aj na psychické a rozumové zdokonaľovanie žiakov a jedným z jeho hlavných cieľov je okrem iného aj formovať u žiakov pozitívny postoj nielen k tomuto vyučovaciemu predmetu, ale aj k pohybovej aktivite a športu vôbec. Najúčinnejším prostriedkom formovania a upevňovania pozitívneho postoja k telesnej a športovej výchove je kvalitne vedený telovýchovný proces vyznačujúci sa všestrannosťou, primeranou intenzitou, originálnosťou a náležitou emocionálnosťou.
During the last decade, Dr Rookwood has travelled to 120 countries, in 30 of which he supported as well as led projects within a developmental and charitable capacity. This has incorporated sport, aid and education-based programmes aimed at engaging with, empowering and enhancing the lives of the underprivileged, and those who have been the victim of racism, terrorism, disaster, warfare, crime, poverty, famine and persecution. Dr Rookwood’s research interests include: Christianity and Peace Promotion through his experience of working on related projects in Liberia, Azerbaijan, Russia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is also interested in the Christian response to conflict and the socio-political mechanisms associated with preventative diplomacy as well as peace- making. Other interests include International Development with a particular interest in aid distribution, sustainable development and social involvement; Social Development and Integration. He has conducted research and welcomes investigative projects relating to the promotion of co-existence
When you graduate, you want options to work in different areas across your career.
During this degree, you’ll learn leadership, teaching and people skills and put these into practice in a variety of settings.
Your subjects are a blend of hands-on and theoretical work, and include outdoor leadership, community and bush environments, and coastal environments. Your studies will focus on blending hands-on experiences, such as camps, and ﬁeldwork, with the theory learned. Your future may see you teaching in Australia or overseas, or running outdoor education centres. Perhaps you’ll work in resorts, councils or community organisations. And maybe you’ll start your own ecotourism company.
undergraduate level in the PhysicalEducation and Sport Department. The sport management major will take on a student-centered approach with a curriculum based on the North American Society of Sport Management’s curricular standards.
Sport management students will learn sport management principles through energetic classroom experiences followed by experiential learning in the form of practica and internships that take place at actual sport organizations. The faculty of the sport management major will draw from personal research and past professional experiences as they incorporate “cutting edge” sport management knowledge and teaching methods into the classroom. Past employment experiences in such areas as directing athletics, managing sport businesses, and coaching, enable faculty to provide the sport management student with practical knowledge and the skills necessary to realize their goals as professionals in the sport world.
In the third study, the authors measured muscle activation during sport gaming. Surface electro- myography electrodes were placed over Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Upper Trapezius, and Erector Spinae muscles. These muscles were chosen as they are frequently acti- vated during swimming or were relevant because of the game itself. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of each of the muscle was also measured to normalize the activation in percent- ages. Our results showed that muscle activation ranged from 5 to 95% MVIC, and differed between normal and fast swimming for all techniques.
(f) To gain graduate entry, a candidate must have completed the requirements for a degree at a level to be determined by the PhysicalEducation Admissions Committee from year to year.
(g) Notwithstanding any of the above provisions, the PhysicalEducation Admissions Committee shall have discretion to consider any applicant who, not having satisfied these regulations in a particular aspect, warrants admission to the Bachelor of PhysicalEducation degree programme for exceptional reasons.
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