In June 2018 the Government published chapter two of its childhood obesity action plan. Among other things, the plan announced that the Government would “review how the least active children are being engaged in physicalactivity in and around the school day.” The review, it added, will also “consider how the Primary and PE and Sport Premium is being used.” The action plan also set out a “national ambition” for every primary school to adopt an active mile initiative, such as the Daily Mile. Such initiatives can, the plan stated, be a simple means of contributing to the recommendation that schools should deliver at least 30 minutes of the total recommended 60 daily minutes of physicalactivity for children. The Government would, it said, review how the PE and Sport Premium could be used to support the ambition. 84
humour about other people inappropriately for the society to fulfill their own needs regarding superiority and pleasure. This humour style contains ridiculing, taking the mickey, criticizing or humiliating other people. People, who perform the aggressive humour method, use it in ridicule, verbal abuse, wipe, humiliation, sex or race-contented style . These behaviors create an environment presenting deficiency and inability feelings for victims. A victim thinks himself as an undesired person. Lecturers' behaviours directly or indirectly affect education when their behaviors change into ridicule, attrition, belittlement or disparagement at Schools of PhysicalEducation and Sport. In terms of in-school communication and interaction, it is important how lecturers say to each other and what they do rather than what to say. In this regard, humour is an instrument . Also, positive humour usage will contribute to healthy communication, work satisfaction and organization culture during interactions between managers-lecturers, managers-employees and
facilities, participating in school programs, and interacting with school personnel. Through patterns of contact, adolescents are generally familiar and comfortable with their own school environments (Wechsler et al., 2000). Schools, therefore, are uniquely situated to provide supportive LTPA environments for a large number and diverse range of adolescents through their use of curricular and extracurricular programming, access to school-owned facilities such as gymnasiums and fields, the employment of trained physicaleducation professionals, and existing transportation systems (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997; Cleland et al., 2008; Cohen, Scott, Zhen Wang, McKenzie, & Porter, 2008; Felton et al., 2002; Floyd, Bocarro et al., 2008; Lobstein et al., 2004; Lounsbery et al., 2007; McNeill et al., 2006; Sallis et al., 2001; Wechsler et al., 2000; World Health Organization, 2003; Young et al., 2007). Public school systems also have opportunities to bridge gaps in the public recreation across communities by partnering with organizations to maximize physical resources such as facilities and offer a broader array of activities (Estabrooks et al., 2008; McKenzie, 2001; Trost et al., 1997). Research has shown that well-designed extracurricular sport and physicalactivity programs in schools can improve the physicalactivity levels and social well-being of adolescents (Cohen, Taylor, Zonta, Vestal, & Schuster, 2007; Wechsler, Devereaux, Davis, & Collins, 2000). Schools may be ideally positioned in rural areas to provide structured environments that promote healthy activities for all children (Felton et al., 2002; Wechsler et al.; Young et al.).
characterized by schools to help them settled in their physicalactivity habits, to develop a healthy lifestyle, and contribute to the development of basic knowledge of children's skills and attitudes about physicalactivity in this context. For this purpose, a physicalactivity project for health has been initiated in the Ministry of National Education and Ministry of Health. Under this project physicalactivity report card application from the year 2016, in general (public-private) secondary and high schools of Turkey in the academic year are held two times a year, in the first and second periods. In the application, physical parameters are assessed by measuring push-in, sit-up flexibility, body weight and height tests of the students (9). The Ministry of National Education has provided "tutorial training" to the heads of physicaleducation teachers at the schools with training videos describing the movement for health and the prejudice of physicalactivity. These activities, which began in Turkey has brought with it the need for scientific research. Due to these reasons, studies investigating the state of physicalactivity are important in terms of emphasizing the importance of physicalactivity in the Ministry of National Education or Ministry of Health institutions, determining the current situation for a healthy, productive and quality future, presenting problems and proposing solution proposals. From this point of view, the aim of this study is to examine the opinions of physicaleducation and sports teachers regarding the practices of physicalactivity report card applications, which are trained in physicalactivity report card application, according to some variables.
Hitherto there have been relatively few large scale qualitative studies using young people-centred methods to develop a nuanced understanding of their leisure lifestyles and participation in extracurricular sport and physicalactivity. The purpose of this paperis therefore to present the findings from a large-scale empirical programme of research based in secondary schools in Wales. Its aim was to explore young people’s participation and non- participation in extracurricular sport and physicalactivity, and their relationship to leisure lifestyles. Importantly, the research placed young people at the heart of analysis (MacPhail&Kinchin, 2004).The focus of the research was a pan-Wales initiative that targeted extracurricular sport and physicalactivity in all secondary schools known as the ‘5x60’ initiative its aim was to raise physicalactivity levels to meet the Welsh Government’s target of young people engaging in sport and physicalactivity for one hour (60 minutes), five times a week. Introduced as a pilot in 2004, (Bolton et al 2007), its main objective was to locate a sports development officer (SDO) to stimulate and provide additional extracurricular sport and physicalactivity opportunities, especially targeting those currently not involved in school sport, school team sport and / or PhysicalEducation (Sports Council for Wales, 2006).
In terms of barriers, the only consistent difference was in terms of teacher training. Not surprisingly, respondents in schools in which generalist teachers taught PE perceived teacher training as a greater barrier than respondents in schools in which specialist teachers were responsible for teaching PE. How- ever, the reduced salience of this barrier for specialist teachers did not appear noticeably to convey any advantage in alleviating the other barriers that were assessed. That is, regardless of teacher training, all teachers may be facing more subtle yet pernicious barriers to effective delivery. For example, physical edu- cation may still be perceived as a lower priority, particularly in relation to other subjects that have clear performance measures such as reading, writing, and mathematics as assessed by the Education Quality and Accountability Office (Barroso, McCullum-Gomez, Hoelscher, Kelder, & Murray, 2005; Dwyer et al.). In addition, insufficient infrastructure and timetabling challenges amid educa- tion budget constraints and labor unrest may continue to challenge even the best-prepared teacher to deliver physicaleducation in the elementary setting (Dwyer et al., 2003). Teacher education needs to move beyond equipping teachers with the knowledge, confidence, and skills to deliver physicalactivity opportunities to demonstrating how this can be done in the larger context influencing curriculum requirements and implementation in elementary schools (Faulkner, Reeves, & Chedzoy, 2004). School immersion experiences and school integrated teacher education (SITE) courses may be particularly well suited in assisting generalist student teachers prepare for these challenges (Clarke & Hubball, 2001; Hopper, Brown, & Rhodes, 2005). We speculate that such training is just as important for specialist physicaleducation teachers.
In June 2018 the Government published chapter two of its childhood obesity action plan. Among other things, the plan announced that the Government would “review how the least active children are being engaged in physicalactivity in and around the school day.” The review, it added, will also “consider how the Primary and PE and Sport Premium is being used.” The action plan also set out a “national ambition” for every primary school to adopt an active mile initiative, such as the Daily Mile. Such initiatives can, the plan states, be a simple means of contributing to the recommendation that schools should deliver at least 30 minutes of the total recommended 60 daily minutes of physicalactivity for children. The Government will review how the PE and Sport Premium can be used to support the ambition. 90
Hastie, 1998; Wright, 1996). Some of this research identifies the curriculum and the pedagogy of the enacted curriculum as the problem (Ennis, 1999; Flintoff & Scratton, 2006, Humberstone, 2002). For example, Ennis (1999) had previously noted that no matter how well the traditional physicaleducation teaching approach is enacted it fails to meet the needs of many female students and less athletic males. Ennis (1999) and Hastie (1998) both reported that student participation can be enhanced if students perceive they have meaningful engagement in an activity. Respondents in Survey 2 recognised that the sport literacy approach provided feelings of enhanced equity between genders and that it was therefore potentially more socially inclusive. For example, [Sport literacy is] A lot more inclusive and fair between the genders (PETE-PS teacher comment, Survey 2), and, It‘s really inclusive of all involved and provides students with a greater knowledge base (PETE-PS teacher comment, Survey 2). These are comments that indicate the potential for sport literacy as a more equitable framework for sport learning. This is a relevant consideration for the physicaleducation curriculum in South Australian schools as the curriculum
the few physicalactivity programs for youths that reach almost all school-age youths; thus, they have tremendous potential to affect healthy behavior (i.e., physically active lifestyles) on a massive scale. This potential could be maximized with scientific evidence of school physical education’s relationship to lifelong participation in physi- cal activity. Data-based findings would be the needed catalyst to increase the availability of daily physical edu- cation for all students. The research agenda below identi- fies key research questions whose answers could convince legislators and education policymakers to more fully sup- port and use physicaleducation programs as a strategy for reversing the obesity epidemic.
In order to optimize the application of the expectancy-value model, it is important to consider how children’s expectancy-related beliefs and subjective task values evolve as they progress through school. According to the expectancy-value model, children’s expectancy-related beliefs and subjective task values together enable them to differentiate and evaluate their ability and activity values. If children can identify what they are good at and what they value, the expectancy value information is more likely to be used in decision making. In considering the development of children’s expectancy-related beliefs and subjective task values, one main approach has been used to explore changes in mean levels of expectancies and values over time in school. Most studies have re- ported that children’s expectancy-related beliefs decline across school years in sport and physicaleducation (Caspersen, Pereira, & Curran, 2000; Gao, Lee, & Harrison, 2008; Jacobs, Lanza, Osgood, Eccles, & Wigfield, 2002; Xiang et al., 2006; Xiang, McBride, Guan, & Solmon, 2003). For example, Jacobs and her colleagues in their longitudinal study found children’s expectancy-related beliefs in sport declined over the course of school- ing and that this decline accelerated over time from 1 st through 12 th grade (Jacobs et al., 2002). Xiang and her colleagues reported there was a decline occurring in the transition from primary to intermediate grades in child- ren’s expectancy-related beliefs in physicaleducation (Xiang et al., 2003). These results demonstrate that the decline of physicaleducation-related motivation and competence beliefs in physicalactivity evident in school- aged children begins in elementary school (Jacobs et al., 2002; Xiang et al., 2003).
The need for schools to provide and pro- mote youth physicalactivity is now far greater than during previous centuries when children accrued substantial amounts of physicalactivity in daily living. Children do not engage in compensatory physical ac- tivity at home or in the community after ex- periencing a sedentary school day (Dale, Corbin, & Dale, 2000), and objective data supporting the elimination of physical edu- cation and recess time to achieve increases in achievement on “core” subjects do not ex- ist. Indeed, children’s physical ﬁtness scores are related to academic achievement, and al- though the mechanism is unclear, increased physicalactivity may enhance classroom performances. Van der Mars (2006) recently reviewed studies of the relation between physicaleducation and academic achieve- ment and concluded that (a) increased time in physicaleducation does not impede stu- dents’ classroom academic performance, (b) increased time in physicaleducation may contribute slightly to better academic performance, and (c) decreased time for physicaleducation in favor of academic work does not necessarily result in im- proved academic performance.
University time is considered a critical period in an individual’s lifetime. The leisure activities in which university students participate, the lifestyle habits they have, and the exercise habits they form all have significant impacts on their health, university life and on their work life after graduation (Cheng et al., 2011). University life usually only gives an opportunity to attend several sport classes (aerobics, swimming etc.) using university’s sport facilities, but as research data show not all students uses this opportunity or have additional sport activities apart studies. Research data of Latvian researchers with J. Porozovs (2012) in lead has showed that only 15% of students have do regular sport exercises comparing with 42% or students who didn’t do any sport at all.
From the presented ﬁ ndings it is somewhat unclear as to what recommendations we can make to the coor- dinators of sport and physicaleducation programs, in response to the inclusion or exclusion of competition or even what level of competition is appropriate in the goal of increasing self-perception in individuals with physical disabilities. It is very clear that physical activ- ity and sport has a strong correlation to increased self- perception, and the more qualitative studies included in this review (Sousa, Correderia, & Pereira, 2009; Sporner et al., 2009); suggest that there is a strong argument for causation as well. Despite this, no studies could give a clear answer through their results on the eﬀ ect compe- tition has on this trend. We know that elite athletes, in both populations with and without physical disabilities have signiﬁ cantly higher degree of self-perception, but why does this trend not occur in the transition from recreational to lower level competitive athletes? Perhaps the explanation is not in the results but rather in the question. The results as seen across studies (Campbell & Jones, 1996; Groff, Lundberg, & Zabriske, 2009; Sporner et al., 2009; Super & Block, 1992; Yagmurlu, M. F., Yagmurlu, B., & Yilmaz, 2009) are consistent, despite not being able to give a great deal of insight into the future planning of sport and physicaleducation pro- grams. Instead of looking at competition objectively (fo- cusing on success or failure in winning or losing) maybe a more subjective approach (an individual’s personal views and perceptions) would give us more applicable information for utilization in the ﬁ eld.
overweight children and adolescents in the United States have more than tripled since 1980, and over two-thirds of adults are considered overweight or obese. Preidt (2011, para. 2) reports that the total cost of obesity in the United States is approaching $300 billion yearly. These expenses include medical treatment, decreased worker production associated with higher rates of death, and a loss of productivity due to total disability. These staggering figures clearly demonstrate that obesity is both a serious health and fiscal concern. High profile organizations are becoming involved and targeting youth in hopes of popularizing an active lifestyle and reversing this trend. Programs such as the National Football League’s “Play 60” movement, which encourages kids to be active for 60 minutes a day, and First Lady Michelle Obama’s “Let’s Move” initiative, are examples of campaigns encouraging an abundance of physicalactivity on a daily basis.
DOI: 10.4236/ape.2019.93013 192 Advances in PhysicalEducation in PE lessons as well as in extra-curricular sport activities. In practice, the last-mentioned perspective gets applied less often than others, maybe because health is commonly not the main motivation for children and adolescents to be physically active. Nevertheless, the health perspective offers excellent start- ing points for a salutogenic approach. Students shall develop individual health-related competencies and learn how to be physically active in a health-promoting manner (MSW NRW, 2014). Health promotion in this sense may be understood as “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health” and health be seen as “a positive concept empha- sizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities”, like stated in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, 1986). This implies to see health as a dynamic process without reducing it to not being diseased or over- weight (Quennerstedt, 2008). Therefore, the focus should be on potentially posi- tive effects of PE regarding the sense of coherence.
Technologies have intrinsically an inactive and sedentary component in their usage, although there are "active video games" known as Exergames that allow you to practice motor activity at the same time (Manuela, 2013). In addition to the fun, technological tools can lead to unproductive psychological consequences for children and teenagers such as sleep problems, mental health, emotional rushes, aggressivity, intolerance, and selfish behaviour towards parents or friends (Sivertsen, 2015). From a quantitative point of view, the child cannot easily disengage from the game and distinguish the real from the virtual until it produces uncontrolled behaviours. Time spent playing leads to isolation and individualism, reduces social relationships but above all sports and physicalactivity. This obsession for gambling can also lead to pathologies such as epilepsy and the increasing of sedentary could increases the risk of physical problems, such as overweight and obesity (Cerizza et al., 2008). However, there are researches in favour of technology that state that it favours a brain stimulation of the players, causing them to act differently than normal conditions due to the upcoming of the visual messages provided by the images. Particularly, video games, as sensory motor, play and enhance some manual and precision skills, can lead to greater concentration, facilitate self-control, and manage emotions related to carry out a task. They can develop different aspects of personality, such as take initiatives and decisions in a short time and address the difficulties (Scala et al., 2017).
Interdisciplinary research requires ‘touchstones’ (Walker, 1985), spaces of common ground or interest, where groups from different disciplines identify the interests they share rather than what makes them different. For instance, other practice-referenced fields such as law and medicine can be consulted for examples because they also build on the study of cases to generate new ideas about practice (see Stenhouse, 1980). A recent initiative by AIESEP in March 2012 (http://www.aiesep.ulg.ac.be/pages/sport_pedagogy.php) focused on the research-practice nexus in physicaleducation and sport pedagogy. An outcome of this seminar has been a programme of work centred on the use of interdisciplinary case studies to underpin and inform teacher and coach professional development (Armour, in press). There are also clear connections with the research domains of public health, motor learning and motivational psychology in which many researchers are interested in the promotion of lifelong engagement in physicalactivity. A future task for interdisciplinary research in sport pedagogy is then to search for and discover the touchstones within related fields, generated by relational, practice-referenced and programmatic research.
greater proportion (Crawford 2001). For most people, and for most of the time, ‘sport’ is what they see on television, read about in newspapers and magazines and talk about with friends. More than ever, women and young girls can be seen in streets all over Britain wearing the shirts of the football and rugby clubs that they follow. Moreover, as cited earlier, Coddington (1997) suggests that many women are extremely dedicated in their patterns of support. However, too frequently in schools girls are denied participation in the very sports (such as football and rugby) that they follow in their everyday lives. It is these fan interests (be they in masculine sports or not) which may prove useful, if drawn on by PE teaching, in encouraging girls to participate in sport.
The Bachelor of Health Sciences offers core health sciences topics and a choice from one of two specialist streams. The health education stream explores the relationship between health, education and population capacity building. The physicaleducation stream combines human movement studies with the theory and practice of promoting healthy living across the lifespan. You may choose a second teaching area when specialising in either health or physicaleducation.