mechanical, chemical and thermal properties, has been categorized into mild and sever wear . A lot of research has been made on the wearbehaviour of jutefiberreinforcedpolymercomposites. Dwivedi and Chand  studied the impact of fiber orientation on the friction and sliding wear performance of jutefiberreinforced polyester composites. Different fiber orientation in the composite namely LL, LT and TT with respect to sliding direction were taken for wear study. The maximum wear resistance was observed in case of TT sample and minimum in case of LL sample. The coefficient of friction was highest for TT sample and lowest for LT sample. Micro-cracking, micro-pitting and debonding were responsible wear mechanisms under sliding wear mode in jute-polyester composites. Chand and Dwivedi  investigated two body abrasivewearbehaviour of chopped jute- polypropylene composites to understand the effect of coupling agent i.e. maleic anhydride-grafted-polypropylene (MA-g-PP) on composites during abrasion. It was found that coupling agent results in improved wear resistance compared to untreated composites (UT). The MA-g-PP melt-mixed jutefiberreinforced PP composites offered better wear resistance than the MA-g-PP solution-treated jutefiberreinforced PP composites. From the study it was also observed that wear volume increased with increase in sliding distance for all the composites. Experimental investigation also revealed that wear rate increased with increase of normal load.
Due to environmental pollution and petroleum depletion, development of composites using natural ﬁbers has been given great attention from scientists and researchers globally recently (Faruk et al 2014, Dinesh et al 2019). Natural ﬁbers such as sisal and kenaf have been successfully applied in both thermoplastic and thermosets matrices ( Jeencham et al 2014, Fiore et al 2015 ) . Natural ﬁ bres and particles are used as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites due to their abundant availability, ease of manufacturing and being less aggressive to manufacturing tools, sustainability and biodegradability compared to the synthetic ﬁ bres ( Ahmad et al 2015, Daramola et al 2019). Automobile industries also ﬁnd the need to lower fuel consumption by lowering the weight of automobiles and reducing dependency on non-renewable resources, such as petroleum based polymers and to source for their replacement by using natural materials which has little or no effect in the environment. Also, hybrid composites from synthetic and natural reinforcements have been developed immensely but not much has been done in the area of using the blend of animal waste with vegetable ﬁ bres.
Composites have been widely used as cutting tools and wear resistance coating, because of its high hardness, good strength and toughness, chemical stability and excellent wear resistance –. High mechanical strength and excellent electrical conductivity of copper matrix composites, along with other properties, ensure a wide application range for these materials , . Alumina silicate refractories are used in metallurgical, ceramic and glass industries . Natural fibers are a major renewable resource material throughout the world specifically in the tropics. According to the food and agricultural organization survey, natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, banana, etc. are abundantly available in developing countries , . The
Over the past few decades there is a rapid increase in the demand of the fiberreinforcedpolymer (FRP) composites because of the unique combination of high performance, great versatility and processing advantages at favorable costs by permutation and combination of different fibers and polymers . FRP composites possesses interesting properties like high specific strength and stiffness, good fatigue performance and damage tolerances, low thermal expansion, non-magnetic
Abstract:- Glass Fiberreinforcedcomposites are emerging as a potential material for a wide variety of industrial applications owing to their good combination of physical and mechanical properties. In recent decades, glass fibercomposites parts are widely used as sliding components in different engineering applications. Due to the legitimate theoretical and practical importance, the study of tribological performance of these emerging materials becomes highly decisive. In the present research initiative, two type of reinforcements are selected there are Glass and jute fibers with matrix of epoxy 551 was used for composite specimen preparation. The frictional and wear characteristics of the developed composites have been studied under different sliding conditions. From the results it is conclude that jute is more efficient in improving the tribological Performance of glass-epoxy composites than the raw glass fiberreinforced epoxy composites.
From the last few years, Jute fibers are being looked at as an alternative reinforcement material in the development of composites in a variety of engineering fields. Jutefiber has some exceptional properties such as bio-degradability, low cost, moderate mechanical properties. These properties along with its easy availability have made it suitable to use as a reinforcement material in the ongoing development of composite containing polymer matrix. Hence, Jute fibers can replace commonly used synthetic fiber along the lines of Kevlar, glass fiber etc., in composite material. Also, matrix used here is hybrid polymer matrix which is a mixture of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and General Purpose Resin instead of pure synthetic matrix. This combination of reinforced composite can be utilized in diverse engineering applications. In this work, Jutefiberreinforced Hybrid resin (CNSL and GP) composites are fabricated by using hand lay up technique. Volume percentage of jutefiber in reinforcement (3%, 6%, 9%), specimen thickness (2mm, 3mm, 4mm) and fiber length (30mm, 100mm, 350mm) are the parameters varied in the respective mold dimensions. The experimental plan was developed according to TAGUCHI’s Design of Experiments. The testing is performed using cantilever fixture. By applying impact, the response of the system is analyzed by utilizing “DEWEsoft” software. Using the ANNOVA technique, influence of different vibration frequencies was investigated.
Ray et al  and Mishra et al.  performed a alkaline chemical treatment on sisal fibers and jute fibers. Fibers are submerged in aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution (5%) for 2 h up to 72 h at room temperature. They observed that, better mechanical interlocking due to increases surface roughness of natural fibers. Based on the literature very few people worked on the bamboo fibercomposites to this end, an effort has been made to fabricate bamboo-glass fiber laminate hybrid composite and study their tribological behaviour of both bamboo and glass fiberreinforced epoxy based hybrid composites.
The demand for wood increasing steadily from day to day, has led to the development of alternate materials. After various researches in synthetic materials researchers has found out that polymercomposites can be used as an alternate of wood. From the recent past years, there is an increasing interest in using natural fibers (Sisal, Jute, Hemp, Flax, Bamboo etc) for reinforcement with polymercomposites. This is because these natural fibers are available in plenty in many countries. Among these fibers, Sisal fiber has high impact strength, and moderate tensile properties and flexural properties compared to most other fibers. In this paper the mechanical properties of short sisal fiber (5mm) reinforcedpolymercomposites has been investigated.
Polymeric technology is one of the most active and promising fields that covers natural polymers such as cellulose, wool, silk, jute, palm fiber etc which are of outmost importance for living systems. The science of macromolecules is divided into two classes: biological and a non-biological materials. Non-biological are the synthetic materials used for plastics, fibers and elastomers with a few naturally occurring polymers such as rubber, wool, and cellulose . In the present era of polymeric science is the most promising and comprehensive field. Development of new polymer is a continuous process for a specific application under certain environmental conditions. The bombardment of the invention of different polymer field has been found to be increased day by day. Biodegradable polymeric materials are enjoying considerable popularity, especially from the standpoint of environmental protection . Fiberreinforcedcomposites are widely used because of their some extraordinary properties such as good processability, relatively good resistance, high stiffness, ease of installation to environmental agent etc. Synthetic fiberreinforced thermo plastic composites are dominating the composite market due to their better durability and moisture resistance properties. Among all the reinforcement materials, glass fiber attracted much attention owing to their improved physical, elastic and mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance, and sound absorption and insulation properties. A well known glass fiber is E-glass which has good insulation properties. Glass fibers are normally used as mats, insulator, reinforcement, sound absorption, heat resistant fabrics, corrosion resistant fabrics and high strength fabrics [7-8]. In recent
Natural fibres will take a major role in the emerging “green” economy based on energy efficiency, the use of renewable materials in polymer products, industrial processes that reduce carbon emissions and recyclable materials that minimize waste. Natural fibres are a kind of renewable resources, which have been renewed by nature and human ingenuity for thousands of years. They are also carbon neutral; they absorb the equal amount of carbon dioxide they produce. These fi- bers are completely renewable, environmental friendly, high specific strength, non-abrasive, low cost, and bio-degradability. Due to these characteristics, natural fibers have recently become at- tractive to researchers and scientists as an alternative method for fibers reinforcedcomposites. This review paper summarized the history of natural fibers and its applications. Also, this paper focused on different properties of natural fibers (such as hemp, jute, bamboo and sisal) and its ap- plications which were used to substitute glass fiber.
The word “composite” means two or more distinct parts physically bounded together. Thus, a material having two or more distinct constituent materials or phases may be considered a composite material. Fiber-reinforced composite materials consist of fiber of high strength and modulus embedded in or bonded to a matrix with distinct interfaces (boundary) between them. In this form, both fiber and matrix retain their physical and chemical identities, yet they produce a combination of properties that cannot be achieved with either of the constituents acting alone. In general, fiber are the principal load-carrying members, while the surrounding matrix keeps them in the desired location and orientation, acts as a load transfer medium between them, and protects them from environmental damages due to elevated temperatures and humidity. Based on paper “Tensile and flexural properties of sisal/jute hybrid natural fiber composite” which defines that hybrid composite is fabricated by using sisal fiber and jutefiber. By fallowing the composition of mixing of fibers (0/40, 10/30, 20/20, 30/10, 40/0 weight fractions by keeping overall weight fraction as 0.4 weight fraction) gives the fallowing results. Ultimate tensile properties of pure sisal and pure jute are 38.93MPa and 36.93MPa respectively. And flexural properties of pure sisal and pure jute are 87.15MPa and 87.05MPa respectively. At 20/20 ratio (equal ratios of sisal/jute) gives the fallowing results tensile stress is 39.93MPa and flexural stress is 88.33MPa. .Also based on paper “Mechanical property evaluation of sisal–jute–glass fiberreinforced polyester composites” which defines that the advantages of mixing glass fiber with sisal and jute natural fiber to develop a new hybrid composite (sisal-jute-glass reinforced polyester composites). And the mechanical
Increasing applications of polymeric composites for various mechanical parts including gears, wheels, clutches, bush bearing, and artificial prosthetic joints require adequate knowledge of their tribological properties, which are different from much better understood tribological properties of metals and ceramics. Natural plant fiberreinforcedpolymer composite components can be applied in many situations for tribological loading conditions. An important part of tribology deals with materials selection and surface processing in as much as they affect wear and tear. A good grasp of interacting surfaces is a must for their optimal functioning, long-term reliability of components and devices, and for economic viability. Work is now in progress to improve the composite’s coefficient of friction and sliding wear, since 90% failure in mechanical parts are as a result of tribological loading [9, 11-15].
used in a variety of application because of their many advantages such as relatively low cost of production, easy to fabricate and superior strength compare to neat polymer resins. Reinforcement in polymer is either synthetic or natural. Synthetic fiber such as glass, carbon etc. has high specific strength but their fields of application are limited due to higher cost of production. Recently there is an increase interest in natural fiber based composites due to their many advantages. In this connection an investigation has been carried out to make better utilization of coconut coir fiber for making value added products. The objective of the present research work is to study the physical and mechanicalbehaviour of coir/glass fiberreinforced epoxy based hybrid composites. The effect of fiber loading and length on mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness of composites is studied. Also, the surface morphology of fractured surfaces after tensile testing is examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Composites materials with light-weight, high strength-to- weight ratio, and stiffness properties are replacing conventional materials like metals, woods, etc. Good Mechanical and Tribological responses of polymer-based composites also support for their application in different areas [1, 2]. The abundant availability of natural fibers such as jute, coir, sisal, pineapple, ramie, bamboo, banana, etc., has given an impetus to the development of natural fibercomposites. Composite boards have been used in the development of panel and doors to fulfill the low-cost housing needs. Recent research [3, 4] indicates that natural fibers can very well be used as reinforcement replacing for expensive glass fibers in polymercomposites. The study of natural fiber reinforcement is due to its abundant availability in a wide variety [5- 12]. The composites can be prepared with desired properties by orienting the fibers according to the application. The composites are comparatively cheaper to manufacture and there are various manufacturing processes available for the composites. The mechanical properties were evaluated such as flexural strength, tensile strength, impact strength, and tensile modulus, elongation at break, flexural modulus, and hardness of the composites .
studied. None of the mechanical properties, excluding the fracture energies show signs of a positive hybrid effect (Marom et al., 1978). Manders and Bader (1981) reported hybrid effect and failure strain enhancement of up to 50% for the glass fiber/carbon fiber/epoxy composite. The failure strain of the carbon phase increased as the relative proportion of carbon fiber was decreases and as the carbon fibers were more finely dispersed. Yerramalli and Waas (2003) have considered carbon/ glass hybrid composite with an overall fiber volume fraction of 30%. Splitting and kinking failures were noted while loading the hybrid laminates under static and dynamic loading rates. Zhang et al. (2012) studied the mechanical behavior of hybrid composites made of carbon/glass reinforcements and the processing method used is ‘wet lay-up’ which is not a best practice for obtaining high quality laminates. An addition of hard reinforcements such as silicon carbide, alumina and titanium carbide improves hardness, strength and wear resistance of the composites (Amar Patnaik et al., 2009; and Chauhan et al., 2009). The introduction of a glass fiber into a polymer matrix produces a composite material that results in an attractive combination of physical and mechanical properties which cannot be obtained with monolithic alloys (Schwartz, 1984). Among the various useful polymer matrices, vinyl ester is typically characterized by properties such as fluidity, corrosion resistance and high strength-weight ratio (Suresha et al., 2007). The advantages of Fiber-reinforced PMCs over traditional materials include greater mechanical strength, lighter weight, better dimensional stability, higher dielectric strength and corrosion resistance and flexibility to improve the
The Chand and Dwivedi, 2007 investigated the wearbehaviour of jutefiber-reinforced polypropylene composites. Maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene was added as a coupling agent and found that it gave better wear resistance when compared to the composite without coupling agent. The wearbehaviour of kenaf fiber– reinforced polyurethane composites was investigated under wet contact conditions by Singh et al, 2011. Better wear performance was recorded when the fiber mat was oriented perpendicular to the sliding direction. The SEM image was used to analyze the wear failure mechanism. Wearbehaviour of Bamboo against the free abrasive containing of quartz sand and bentonite was studied on a rotary-disc type wear tester by Tong et al, 1995. It was concluded that the normally oriented fiber composite specimens gave higher wear resistance than the parallel-oriented ones. Mishra and Acharya, 2010 have studied the abrasivewear behavior of bagasse fiberreinforced epoxy composite in three different directions such as parallel orientation (PO) , anti-parallel orientation(APO) and normal orientation(NO) by using a two body abrasion wear tester. They have concluded that the abrasion takes place due microploughing in PO type samples and micro cutting in APO and NO type samples during the wear process.
Irrespective of nature of material, whether it is a metal or non-metal, it will fail if the conditions are severe-it may be high pressure or high temperature or adverse chemical environment or fields (electric or magnetic) which may cause damage to the material. This phenomenon is common in everyday life, since human beings always drive for weight reduction. They are led to explore light weight structures. As we know generally metals are heavier, there has been an intensive research to find alternative materials such as ceramics and polymers. Even in these two materials, polymers (plastics) are tough competitors to the ceramics as the former is lighter and could easily be fabricated into any kind of complicated shapes at very low temperatures, whereas ceramics need high temperature facilities to manufacture into products. An extensive research on different materials has clearly shown that it is an advantage to have composite materials consisting of two or more constituents (phases) with distinct physical and chemical properties. Therefore we have undertaken to study composite materials based on fiberreinforcedcomposites- Jutefiberreinforced by E-glass fiber. With this background, it is supposed to study involving the composites consisting of FRC’s. Effects of temperature and moisture on Jute/E-glass fibers are studied and micro structural correlation is also formulated.
Lately, common fiberreinforced with polymer matrix have gotten the consideration worldwide because of their low cost, minimal effort, lightweight, renewability, combustibility ,low density and biodegradability. Very large numbers of natural elements are available which can be used as reinforcement, for example, jute, and banana, rice husk which have turned out to be great and proficient fortifications. FiberReinforcedPolymer (FRP) composites are known as the most advanced kind of composites. They are exceptionally efficient in terms of their minimal cost, high quality, strength and mechanical properties. Despite of the fact that FRP composites have particular disadvantages like low working temperature, high coefficient of thermal and moisture expansion, low elastic properties, still they are very helpful.
atmosphere, hence provide an advantageous contribution to the global carbon budget. The easy disposal of natural fibercomposites is also important, since they can be easily combusted or composted at the end of their product life cycle. Next to the cost benefits compared to synthetic fibers, natural fibers comparably offer high security if used for automotive applications as an example . Additionally, natural fibres have low density and high specific properties. The specific mechanical properties of natural fibres are comparable to those of traditional reinforcements [2-4]. Thus, the intrinsic properties of natural fibres can satisfy the requests of the global market  especially for those industries concerned in weight reduction . That is why they can be potential substitute for non-renewable synthetic fibres . However, high moisture absorption, poor wettability and insufficient adhesion between untreated fiber and polymer matrix lead to debonding at fibre-matrix interface . Again, biodegradable fibres need to be reinforced to improve their properties [9-11]. In present study, epoxy, the most common thermoset resin material was used as a polymer for jute and bamboo fibers. The objectives of this study are to determine the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of unidirectional jute and bamboo fiberreinforced epoxy composites.
As far we concerned about the reinforcement, there are wide variety of it, like natural fibre (e.g. hemp, kenaf, sisal, coir, jute etc.), synthetic fibre (e.g. glass fibres, ceramic etc.) and organic fibre (e.g. aramid). Natural fibres are cheap, easily available, and biodegradable but these advantages are not sufficient to overcome their major drawbacks like moisture absorption, It can be easily attacked by chemicals and has low strength compared to synthetic fibres.